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Date: 2024
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to compare two groups of Jewish women, native-born and migrants, who reside in Brussels regarding their social integration into native-born Jewish and non-Jewish communities and the acculturation strategies they employ. It seems that Brussels is not as socially and culturally open, as perceived by the interviewees. Hence, the social networks of women in our study, as well as their acculturation patterns, differ in degree of separation between native-born Jewish women, non-Israeli immigrants and Israeli immigrants. The former maintain social networks characterized by fluid boundaries between them and the majority society, whereas non-Israeli immigrants are characterized by shared, not very dense networks with the native-born Jewish community and diasporic networks. Finally, Israeli women are characterized by almost completely closed social networks, which can be defined as a distinct “Israeli bubble.” As for their acculturation strategies, native-born women are those who are more integrated among non-Jews and native-born Jews, as expected from their familiarity with the culture and their long-term interactions, despite being partially marginalized as minority. Migrant women are less integrated and more separated from both native-born Jews and – to a larger extent – from non-Jews; so are Israelis. Social networks which gradually become communities are mainly created by women and maintained by them over the years. Therefore, the study of social networks, their structure and construction through daily interactions, and their contribution to the ethnic-diasporic community building have become the source of women’s strength in the host country – as immigrants and as a native-born minority group.
Author(s): Glöckner, Olaf
Date: 2023
Abstract: Our narrative and expert interviews with Jewish and non-Jewish key figures in public and political life mainly focussed on the question of to what extent have Jewish-non Jewish relations changed, compared to the discord prior to 1933, and the general reservation and uncertainty after 1945? We also raised other key questions like: to what extent do Jews in Germany feel integrated into today’s non-Jewish majority society? What do they consider core elements of their Jewish identities? What is the meaning of Israel in their lives as Jews? How do they cope with new trends of antisemitism in Germany? As a complementary question, we wanted to know from our non-Jewish interviewees how different they consider Jewish/non-Jewish relations today? To what extent does Shoah memory (still) affect these relations? How do Jews and non-Jews cooperate in social activities, and are there new, joint strategies to combat antisemitism?

Our interviews revealed that Jews in present-day Germany do not romanticize their lives in the country of the former Nazi regime. However, they appreciate efforts by the state to promote future Jewish life, to carry out dignified politics of commemoration, and to ensure security. Antisemitism is perceived as a societal problem but not as an existential threat. None of the Jewish interview partners considered Germany as a place that is too dangerous for Jews. Memory of the Shoah is considered important, but building a Jewish future, especially for one’s
own children, is the more relevant issue.

A key finding of our interviews in Germany is that a new generation of young Jews has grown up neither justifying living in the “country of the offenders” nor considering themselves representatives of the State of Israel. Young Jews in Germany run their own multifaceted networks, understanding themselves as Jews but to a similar extent also as Germans. Some of them enjoy participation in public and political life, deliberately acting in both roles
Date: 2022
Abstract: Cette recherche envisage la tension entre une conception englobante de la religion portée par les juifs orthodoxes et une conception privatisée et plurielle en vigueur dans la société française, une société laïque et sécularisée, des années 1980 à nos jours. Cette tension est explorée depuis ces deux points de vue. D’une part, elle interroge comment les juifs orthodoxes s’organisent pour ménager l’espace jugé nécessaire à leur pratique religieuse. Pour ce faire, elle explore leurs besoins, leurs demandes, ainsi que les stratégies qu’ils mettent en œuvre pour les porter. D’autre part, elle soulève la question de la gouvernance publique du religieux. Pour ce faire, elle étudie la manière dont l’État laïc appréhende une minorité religieuse, qui semble aller à contre-courant du mouvement de fond de la sécularisation. A partir d’un protocole de recherche mixte, et en mobilisant la sociologie électorale, la sociologie de l’action collective, l’analyse des politiques publiques, et des outils de sociologie de la religion, elle teste la consistance de l’intégralisme des juifs orthodoxes dans la société française. Elle réfléchit ainsi à la gouvernance de minorités religieuses intégralistes, à partir d’un autre cas que l’islam, et distingue ce qui relève d’une religion en particulier ou de l’orthodoxie. Elle montre une érosion de l’intégralisme religieux, du fait de réponses défavorables des institutions publiques et de la sécularisation qu’il ne parvient pas à enrayer.
Date: 2023
Abstract: In this paper, we argue that proximity to primordial(ized) Danish civil values has generally saved the Jews in Denmark from violent antisemitism. Combining Alexander’s (The civil sphere. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006) account of an assimilatory mode of civil incorporation with his concept of “societalization” (Alexander in Am Sociol Rev 83(6):1049–1078, 2018; What makes a social crisis? The societalization of social problems. Wiley, Hobroken, 2019), we discuss how “re-societalizing” antisemitism led to strong enactment of anti-antisemitism and increased Jewish sub-group anxiety in the civil sphere. Anti-antisemitism in Denmark has historically been integrated into cultural codes and historical narratives in the civil sphere. We analyze how the 2015 terror attack in Copenhagen and a public debate about male circumcision caused a wave of reassurance of one of the core values in the Danish civil sphere, namely Jewish safety. Speeches from consecutive prime ministers and an ensuing “action plan against antisemitism” presented by the government in early 2022 demonstrate how contemporary antisemitism becomes integrated into a historical narrative of mutually ensured Danish civility between the majority and the Jewish minority. We conclude that despite its precarious character and the social anxiety provoked by societalization of antisemitism over the last seven years, civil solidarity within an assimilation mode of incorporation has proven to be surprisingly empowering and attractive for the Jewish minority in the Danish case.
Date: 2023
Abstract: How attached do European Jews feel to the countries in which they live? Or to the European Union? And are their loyalties ‘divided’ in some way – between their home country and Israel? Answering these types of questions helps us to see how integrated European Jews feel today, and brings some empiricism to the antisemitic claim that Jews don’t fully ‘belong.’

This mini-report, based on JPR's groundbreaking report ‘The Jewish identities of European Jews’, explores European Jews’ levels of attachment to the countries in which they live, to Israel, and to the European Union, and compares them with those of wider society and other minority groups across Europe. Some of the key findings in this study written by Professor Sergio DellaPergola and Dr Daniel Staetsky of JPR’s European Jewish Demography Unit include:

European Jews tend to feel somewhat less strongly attached to the countries in which they live than the general population of those countries, but more strongly attached than other minority groups and people of no religion.
That said, levels of strong attachment to country vary significantly from one country to another, both among Jews and others.
European Jews tend to feel somewhat more strongly attached to the European Union than the general populations of their countries, although in many cases, the distinctions are small.
Some European Jewish populations feel more strongly attached to Israel than to the countries in which they live, and some do not. The Jewish populations that tend to feel more attached to Israel than the countries in which they live often have high proportions of recent Jewish immigrants.
Having a strong attachment to Israel has no bearing on Jewish people's attachments to the EU or the countries in which they live, and vice versa: one attachment does not come at the expense of another. They are neither competitive nor complementary; they are rather completely unrelated.
Jews of different denominations show very similar levels of attachment to the countries in which they live, but rather different levels of attachment to Israel and the EU.
Date: 2023
Author(s): Kiesche, Veronika
Date: 2022
Abstract: Das Working Paper setzt sich mit Verschränkungen von Migrationserfahrung, Antisemitismus und antislawischem Rassismus auseinander und ergänzt damit die Publikationen des Projekts zu Russland und postsowjetischer Migration. Grundlage des Texts sind vier Interviews, die die Autorin Veronika Kiesche mit Angehörigen der zweiten Generation jüdischer Kontingentflüchtlinge durchgeführt hat.

Themen, die sich durch die Interviews ziehen, sind Fragen nach Zugehörigkeit und Identität, aber auch die Erfahrung von Fremdzuschreibung, Antisemitismus, antislawischem Rassismus und Diskriminierung.

Mit den jüdischen Zuwanderer*innen, die als sog. Kontingentflüchtlinge nach Deutschland kamen, waren bestimmte Vorstellungen, Erwartungen und Fantasien verbunden; die großzügige Einwanderungspolitik geschah nicht zuletzt auch vor dem Hintergrund der immer kleiner werdenden jüdischen Gemeinden in Deutschland. Die Menschen, die kamen, entsprachen allerdings nicht unbedingt diesen Vorstellungen. Wie die Autorin am Beispiel von Artikeln aus dem Spiegel zeigt, machten sich zunehmend Ressentiments breit und die Wahrnehmung der Zugewanderten verschob sich von Jüdinnen*Juden zu »Russen«. Verbunden damit waren alte, wiederkehrende antislawische Ressentiments – was nicht heißt, dass die jüdischen Immigrant*innen nicht auch Antisemitismus erlebten.

Der einführende Text von Prof. Dr. Hans-Christian Petersen zeigt die Ursprünge und Kontinuitäten des antiosteuropäischen und antislawischen Rassismus auf und macht deutlich: Postsowjetische Jüdinnen*Juden kommen in Migrationsdebatten noch zu wenig vor. Ihre Erfahrungen mit antislawischen Ressentiments bleiben eher unsichtbar, denn als weiße Migrant*innen werden sie nicht als von Rassismus Betroffene wahrgenommen.
Date: 2018
Date: 2019
Abstract: This edited collection seeks to present a valuable guide to the Jewish contribution to the European integration process, and to enable readers to obtain a better understanding of the unknown Jewish involvement in the European integration project. Adopting both a national and a pan-European approaches, this volume brings together the work of leading international researchers and senior practitioners to cover a wide range of topics with an interdisciplinary approach under three different parts: present challenges, Jews and pan-European identity, and unsung heroes.

1.Jews as the Principal Cosmopolitan, Integrating Element in European Integration

Sharon Pardo and Hila Zahavi

2.Jews in Europe, 2019: Demographic Trends, Contexts and Outlooks

Sergio DellaPergola

3.European Populism and Minorities

Dani Filc

4.Anti-Semitism from a European Union Institutional Perspective

Andras Baneth

5.The Cultural Dimension of Jewish European Identity

Dov Maimon

6.A Union of Minorities

Romano Prodi

7.Contributions of ‘Sefarad’ to Europe

Alvaro Albacete

8.The Trajectory of Jewish Assimilation in Hungary

Janet Kerekes

9.Rising from the Ashes: The Holocaust and the European Integration Project

Michael Mertes

10.The Jewish World’s Ambiguous Attitude toward European Integration

Diana Pinto

11.Walther Rathenau, Foreign Minister of Germany during the Weimar Republic, and the Promotion of European Integration

Hubertus von Morr

12.Fritz Bauer- a German-Jewish Immigrant at Home and the Rule of Law

Franco Burgio

13.Tribute to Simone Veil

Emmanuel Macron
Author(s): Elman, R Amy
Date: 2015
Date: 2019
Abstract: Катастрофа европейского еврейства привела к почти полному исчезновению еврейской общины Германии. Чудо случилось в 1990-х годах, когда русскоязычные евреи стали тысячами прибывать в эту страну. Для местных евреев неожиданная иммиграция казалась удачным шансом, выпавшим еврейским сообществам и обществу в целом. Однако первое поколение русско-еврейских иммигрантов столкнулось с большим числом социальных проблем и трудностей интеграции на рынок труда. К этому следует добавить культурное отчуждение от немецкого общества и серьезные различия в культуре, ментальности и идентичности с местными еврейскими общинами. А также конфликты между старожилами и новоприбывшими относительно желаемых моделей организации еврейской жизни – в силу чего и через тридцать лет после начала иммиграции русские евреи все еще мало представлены в общенациональном еврейском руководстве. И все же, впервые после окончания Второй мировой войны у еврейских общин Германии появился шанс построить плюралистическую модель религиозных, культурных, образовательных и политических проектов. Второе поколение русских евреев Германии не сталкивается с проблемами интеграции, подобные проблемам родителей, и большинство из этого поколения вольется в немецкий средний класс и профессиональную элиту страны – или уже находятся там. Но при этом совершенно непонятно пока, до какой степени второе поколение русских евреев будет искать собственные корни, интересоваться еврейским наследием и участвовать в жизни еврейских общин.
Author(s): Remennick, Larissa
Date: 2007
Author(s): Longman, Chia
Date: 2010
Abstract: In deze bijdrage wordt een synthese gebracht van de resultaten van twee socioculturele
antropologische onderzoeksprojecten in de Antwerpse joodsorthodoxe
gemeenschap die betrekking hebben op de ‘eigenheid’, ‘emancipatie’ en ‘integratie’
van vrouwen. Eerst wordt de betekenis van vrouwelijke religiositeit vanuit het
standpunt van strikt Orthodoxe, waaronder chassidische, vrouwen belicht. Terwijl in
het publieke en institutionele religieus domein mannen de paradigmatische ‘orthodoxe
jood’ zijn, is door de sacralisatie van het dagelijkse leven, de religieuze rol voor
vrouwen niet minder omvattend of belangrijk, maar vooral gesitueerd in de private en
huiselijke sfeer. Ik beargumenteer dat deze vorm van religieuze en gegenderde
eigenheid vanuit een antropologisch en gender-kritisch perspectief niet eenduidig
geïnterpreteerd kan worden in termen van ‘onderdrukking’ dan wel ‘emancipatie’. Het
tweede onderzoeksproject behandelt de problematiek van joodsorthodoxe vrouwen
(gaande van strikt tot modern orthodox) in Antwerpen die religieuze gendernormen
overschrijden door te studeren of werken in de omliggende seculiere maatschappij. De
levensverhalen onthullen zeer verschillende trajecten van vrouwen die de ontmoeting
met de ‘buitenwereld’ dikwijls verrijkend vonden maar ook wel interculturele
conflicten ervoeren. Er wordt besloten dat behoud van culturele eigenheid, naast
emancipatie en integratie van binnen uit de joodsorthodoxe gemeenschap niet
onmogelijk is, maar dat dit minimaal wederzijds dialoog en begrip vereist.

Author(s): Irwin, Vera
Date: 2017
Author(s): Remennick, Larissa
Date: 2017
Abstract: This chapter offers a comparative overview of immigrant trajectories and inte-gration outcomes of Russian-Jewish youths (the so-called 1.5 generation) who immigrated to Israel and Germany with their families over the last 25 years. At the outset, I compare Israeli and German reception contexts and policies and present the generic features of the 1.5 immigrant generation. Next I overview the Israeli research findings on Russian Israeli 1.5ers – their schooling, social mobility, cultural and linguistic practices, parents’ role in their integration, and juxtapose them with (still limited) German data. 󰀀e final section presents two recent German studies of young Russian-Jewish adults and the initial findings from my own study among these immigrants living in four German cities. My interviews with 20 men and women, mostly successful professionals or entrepreneurs, indicate that their upward social mobility was facilitated by the continuous welfare support of their families, school integration programs, and low financial barriers to higher education. Despite common occupation-al and social downgrading of the parental generation in both countries, the 1.5-ers in Israel had to struggle harder to overcome their inherent immigrant disadvantage vs. native peers to access good schools and professional careers. Most young immigrants deem full assimilation in the host country’s main-stream unattainable and opt instead for a bilingual and/or bicultural strategy of integration
Author(s): Cohen, Martine
Date: 2000
Author(s): Bogen, Marthe
Date: 2015
Date: 2011
Author(s): Markens, Henri
Date: 2009
Date: 2007
Abstract: Key Points:

• Faith communities tend to be heterogeneous rather than homogenous and the diversity of all faith communities must be recognised.
• Public policymakers need to be aware of cultural sensitivities in devel-oping policies that promote cohesion and integration. This can only be achieved through promoting shared values whilst acknowledging the positive contribution that the diverse minority make to Britain.
• Government must be sensitive, astute and acknowledge that integra-tion takes time. The Home Office has acknowledged in the past, one size does not fit all and a tailor-made approach to cohesion is needed. Inequality and poverty need to be tackled to achieve social cohesion.
• The Government has provided welcomed support for voluntary sector initiatives and worked in partnership with them in building cohesion through a variety of programmes. However, the public sector needs to encourage the sustainability of these projects and good practice by fo-cussing on both a long term strategic framework and longer term fund-ing cycles for these projects.
• There is a need to understand the complexity of religious belief and faith communities and their different needs. In addition, there needs to be an acknowledgement by policymakers that communities have a wide range of views on many issues.
• There are many instances where ethnic and faith minority communi-ties work together on issues where we are all affected. However, while sometimes communities and individuals within them agree on issues, sometimes they disagree. The essential thing is to build a framework for open and respectful dialogue where good relationships are main-tained through better communication.
• It is evident that British citizens increasingly have multi-dimensional identities. In particular more work needs to be done to explore the rela-tionship between faith and ethnicity.

• The Jewish community is diverse.
• The Jewish community sees itself as simultaneously a people, faith and ethnic group. It is not useful to compartmentalise these identities.
• British Jewry has developed over several centuries a notion of ‘inte-gration without assimilation’.
• Jewish experience of immigration shows that integration can happen but takes time, in particular in terms of institutional development.
• The Jewish community promotes inter and intra communal initiatives on a number of levels in the areas of social cohesion, education, community development, interfaith relations, social action and welfare. Strategic national, regional and grassroots projects exist that are sup-ported by the public, private and voluntary sectors
• Rising numbers of antisemitic attacks is a concern that needs to be tackled.
• The Jewish community is keen to promote good community relations.
• Jewish schools can be agents of social cohesion and promoters of ac-tive citizenship.
Date: 2000