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Date: 2024
Editor(s): Hartman, Harriet
Date: 2024
Abstract: There are less than 1300 Jews living in Finland who are members in the two officially Orthodox Jewish communities in Helsinki and in Turku. After the Civil Marriage Act was put in effect by the Finnish Parliament in 1917 the number of intermarriages between Jews and non-Jews started rising in the communities. Most of these marriages were officiated between Jewish men and non-Jewish women. In the beginning, the non-Jewish spouses kept their respective religious affiliations, but in many cases, their halachically non-Jewish children converted to Judaism. In the 1970s, adulthood conversions to Judaism became far more frequent in the communities—especially in the Jewish Community of Helsinki. Today, most of these individuals and their families concerned are still active members of the Jewish congregation. The high number of intermarriages and the conversions to Judaism have had a crucial impact on the development of the religious customs of local Jewry. Through the analysis of archival sources and new ethnographic material derived from semi-structured qualitative interviews, this case study investigates how intermarriages formed the traditions and habits in the families and in the communities. By relating the topic of intermarriage to the question of conversion, the study sheds light on institutional changes within the Jewish Community of Helsinki, and analyzes how women, who converted to Judaism in 1977, articulate and perform their religious practices, identities, and agencies when consciously aiming at building Jewish families.
Author(s): Kranz, Dani
Editor(s): Hartman, Harriet
Date: 2024
Abstract: The anthropologist Robert H. Lowie (Towards understanding Germany. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1954) offers a historically informed ethnography of Jewish/non-Jewish relations in German speaking lands. Jewish families in Germany, Jews in families, and Jews and their families in post-1945 need to be seen in the context of these historically informed structures that shaped family histories: Interfamilial transmissions of identities and praxes that impacted on family, marriage, and partnership patterns. Issues of family structures including endogamy and exogamy cannot solely be explained by drawing on the religious (halachic) prohibition of exogamy, they need to be understood as a means of boundary management of a specific ethnic group (Rapaport, Jews and Germans after the holocaust. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997), to forestall assimilation (Kauders, Unmögliche Heimat. dtv, Munich, 2007), and within a specifically fraught context (Czollek, Desintegriert Euch! Hanser, Munich, 2018; Ginsburg, I’m a German Jew, and I’d Love to Be Normal, In HaAretz, May 19, 2020. https://www.haaretz.com/world-news/.premium-i-m-a-german-jew-and-i-d-love-to-be-normal-1.8856650. Accessed May 19 2022, 2020; Kranz, Shades of Jewishness: the creation and maintenance of a Jewish community in post-Shoah Germany, University of St Andrews: St Andrews. Open Access: https://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/handle/10023/872. Last accessed 19 May 2022, 2018) that drives the creation of transnational family networks (Bodemann, A Jewish family in Germany today: an intimate portrait. Duke University Press, Durham, 2005)—and neither can proximity, intimacy and love across the ethnic – and religious – divide be phased out because a very significant number of Jews marry and partner up with non-Jews (Kauders, 2007; Kessler, Jüdische Migration aus der ehemaligen Sowjetunion seit 1990. Beispiel Berlin. Magisterabschlußarbeit Sozialwissenschaften. Unpublished Master’s thesis, Fern-Universität Hagen, Hagen, 1996; Umfrage 2002: Mitgliederbefragung der Jüdischen Gemeinde zu Berlin. Unpublished research report, 2002; Körber, Zäsur, Wandel oder Neubeginn: Russischsprachige Juden in Deutschland zwischen Recht, Repräsentation und Neubeginn. In: Körber K (ed) Russisch-jüdische Gegenwart in Deutschland, Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, Göttingen, pp 13–36, 2015; Osteuropa 69:83–92, 2019; Kranz, Notes on embodiment and narratives beyond words. In: Hoffmann B, Reuter U (ed) Translated memories, Rowman, Farnham, pp 347–369, 2020a; Landesbetrieb Information und Technik Nordrhein-Westfalen 2019; Rapaport 1997), and cross an ethno-sexual boundary (Bodemann, 2005; Nagel, Race, ethnicity, and sexuality: intimate intersections, forbidden frontiers. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003; Schaum, Being Jewish (and) in love. Hentrich & Hentrich, Berlin, 2020; Schaum, Love will bring us together (again)? Nachwirkungen der Shoah in Liebesbeziehungen. In Chernivsky M, Lorenz F (eds) Weitergaben und Wirkungen der Shoah in Erziehungs- und Bildungsverhältnissen der Gegenwartsgesellschaft, Verlag BarbaraBudrich, Leverkusen, pp 159–174, 2022). This chapter offers a comprehensive overview of Jewish families, Jews and their families and Jews in families in Germany after 1945 by drawing on qualitative and quantitative data, and by way of contextualizing individual and collective Jewish praxes.
Date: 2023
Abstract: W niniejszym artykule prezentujemy macierzyńskie doświadczenia trzech kobiet żydowskiego pochodzenia. Dane zebrane zostały za po-mocą wywiadu swobodnego z elementami narracji, a analizowane za pomocą językowo-narracyjnej metody analizy tekstu. Głównym pyta-niem, na które staramy się znaleźć odpowiedź, jest: Jakie typy macie-rzyństwa prezentują matki Żydówki? I czym charakteryzuje się każdy z nich? Cele artykułu to: (1) Zestawienie trzech stylów macierzyństwa i charakterystyka każdego z nich, (2) Ukazanie znaczenia transfe-ru kultury pochodzenia i wychowania dla pełnienia roli rodzicielskiej przez kobiety pochodzenia żydowskiego. W artykule przedstawiamy kulturowy wzór macierzyństwa, zestawiamy figurę matki-Polki z Jidy-sze Mame. Następnie prezentujemy szczegółowe założenia metodolo-giczne. W kolejnej części charakteryzujemy trzy typy macierzyństwa: jednokulturowe, dwukulturowe i wielokulturowe. Nasze analizy prowa-dzą do wniosków końcowych, wskazujących na to, że pomimo współ-czesnych przemian społecznych nadal za religijne wychowanie dzieci odpowiadają matki. Jednocześnie wskazujemy na podobieństwa po-między matką-Polką a Jidysze Mame.WprowadzenieMacierzyństwo to z jednej strony bardzo zindywidualizowane doświadczenie wielu kobiet, z drugiej – zjawisko niezwykle złożone, wieloaspektowe, dające asumpt do naukowych dociekań w obrębie wielu dyscyplin naukowych, w tym także pedagogiki. W literaturze znaleźć można rozważania na temat biologicznych aspektów stawa-nia się matką (np. Lichtenberg-Kokoszka 2008; Nowakowska 2014), analizy dotyczące społeczno-kulturowych uwarunkowań macierzyń-stwa (np. Budrowska 2000; Grzelińska 2012; Maciarz 2004; Sikor-ska 2012) czy też zmagania z rolą matki w kontekście innych ról życiowych (np. Pryszmont-Ciesielska 2011; Sokołowska 2013). Co ważne, wiele badań z tego obszaru prowadzonych jest w oparciu o narracje samych matek, zapisy doświadczeń konkretnych kobiet, funkcjonujących w różnych warunkach społecznych, ekonomicznych
Date: 2023
Date: 2020
Date: 2018
Abstract: Проблема межнациональной брачности активно обсуждается в научном сообществе в силу самого разного рода причин и в ее рассмотрении существуют самые разнообразные точки зрения. Одна часть исследователей склонна считать, что межнациональный брак разрушает этническую общность, другая придерживается позиции, что смешанный брак способствует знакомству с инонациональной культурой, позволяет формировать принципы толерантности в массовом сознании и поведении людей. В данной статье рассматривается семейно-брачное поведение горских евреев и по результатам эмпирического исследования
установлено, что им характерен консерватизм в данной сфере: большая часть опрошенных подчеркивает значимость этнической принадлежности будущего брачного партнера, при этом, по сравнению с респондентами мужчинами, более традиционны опрошенные женщины. Однако существующие в семейно-брачной сфере установки не свидетельствуют об ориентированности горских евреев на этноизоляционизм, несмотря на усиление ассимиляционных процессов.
Date: 2020
Abstract: Формирование этнической идентичности у современных еврейских детей в России связано с рядом различных факторов. Считается, что религиозное воспитание, исполнение религиозных практик, следование законам иудаизма не являются значительными факторами при формировании этнической идентичности большинства взрослых евреев, выросших в СССР и живущих сегодня в Российской Федерации. Однако в конфессиональном воспитании детей семья играет важнейшую роль, а соблюдение еврейских религиозных обрядов становится базой для их самоидентификации. Если проанализировать, каких именно еврейских обычаев придерживаются дети российских евреев, можно понять принципы формирования их еврейской идентичности. Следует также отметить связь между степенью религиозности родителей и их стремлением
воспитывать детей в русле иудейской традиции
Abstract: When older people move from where they live to go elsewhere, if the distances are short it is called relocation, or if the move is over state or national borders, migration. Push factors are dissatisfaction with the present residence, or incapacities; leading to short-distance moves to be near, or to cohabit with, adult children, in order to receive support. These individuals are the ‘old-old’ and ‘oldest-old’, mostly single, poorer, and less healthy. A pull factor is when people want to access a better lifestyle and an increased standard of living. These long-distance migrants tend to be ‘young-old’, healthier, financially secure, newly retired, and married. This thesis explores the migration and relocation of older Orthodox Jews from Gateshead, and studies the priorities and criteria that influence the decision-making process, as well as triggers and barriers to leaving. Being a member of this community, I conducted this research as an insider using constructivist grounded methodology. I conducted 33 in-depth interviews with older people who have migrated or not, including nine with adult children. The migrants ranged from ‘young-old’ to ‘oldest-old’, were married, generally in good health and well-rooted in their community, with extensive social and work attachments in Gateshead. This represents a unique migration in that they are not moving for care, or out of necessity or dissatisfaction, nor are they aiming to increase their standard of living, but to live near and help their children. The decision-making process is both complex and multi-layered. The older people ordered their priorities and considered how their decisions would affect them and their wider network, and taking into account all their resources, select the option that best met everyone’s needs. Decisions were influenced by interdependency with children, neighbours, friends and work colleagues. This interdependency, in which work and volunteering played significant roles, was mediated by reciprocity, the desire not to be a burden, and to remain independent and autonomous. The children facilitated anything that aided these priorities. It was also clear that the demarcation of 65 years as the beginning of an ‘old age’ marked by dependency and infirmity is both arbitrary and inaccurate. Policy makers should recognise the contributions older people can and do make to families and communities. Facilitating and supporting these contributions would improve the health and well-being of older people.
Date: 2020
Abstract: Objectives

We investigated possible COVID-19 epidemic clusters and their common sources of exposure that led to a sudden increase in the incidence of COVID-19 in the Jewish community of Marseille between March 15 and March 20, 2020.

Methods

All data were generated as part of routine work at Marseille university hospitals. Biological diagnoses were made by RT-PCR testing. A telephone survey of families in which a laboratory confirmed case was diagnosed was conducted to determine possible exposure events.

Results

As of March 30, 2020, 63 patients were linked to 6 epidemic clusters. The 6 clusters were linked to religious and social activities: a ski trip, organized meals for the Purim Jewish celebration in community and family settings on March 10, a religious service and a charity gala. Notably, 40% of the patients were infected by index patients during the presymptomatic period, which was 2.5 days before symptom onset. When considering household members, all 12 patients who tested negative and who did not develop any relevant clinical symptoms compatible with COVID-19 were 1–16 years of age. The clinical attack rate (symptoms compatible with COVID-19, and biologically confirmed by PCR) in adults was 85% compared to 26% in children.

Conclusions

Family and community gatherings for the Purim Jewish celebration probably accelerated the spread of COVID-19 in the Marseille Jewish community, leading to multiple epidemic clusters. This investigation of family clusters suggested that all close contacts of patients with confirmed COVID-19 who were not infected were children.
Date: 2021
Abstract: This article presents research notes on an oral history project on the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on Jews over the age of 65 years. During the first stage of the project, we conducted nearly 80 interviews in eight cities worldwide: Amsterdam, Berlin, London, Milan, New York, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, and St. Petersburg, and in Israel. The interviews were conducted in the spring of 2020 and reflect the atmosphere and perception of interviewees at the end of the first lockdown.

Based on an analysis of the interviews, the findings are divided into three spheres: (1) the personal experience during the pandemic, including personal difficulties and the impact of the lockdown on family and social contacts; (2) Jewish communal life, manifested in changed functions and emergence of new needs, as well as religious rituals during the pandemic; and (3) perceived relations between the Jewish community and wider society, including relations with state authorities and civil society, attitudes of and towards official media, and the possible impact of COVID-19 on antisemitism. Together, these spheres shed light on how elderly Jews experience their current situation under COVID-19—as individuals and as part of a community.

COVID-19 taught interviewees to reappraise what was important to them. They felt their family relations became stronger under the pandemic, and that their Jewish community was more meaningful than they had thought. They understood that online communication will continue to be present in all three spheres, but concluded that human contact cannot be substituted by technical devices.
Date: 2019
Abstract: This study investigates the ethnic identity of the 1.5 and second-generation of Russian-speaking Jewish immigrants to Germany and the U.S. in the most recent wave of immigration. Between 1989 and the mid-2000s, approximately 320,000 Russian-speaking Jewish immigrants departed the (former) Soviet Union for the U.S. and an additional 220,000 moved to Germany. The 1.5 and second-generations have successfully integrated into mainstream institutions, like schools and the workforce, but not the co-ethnic Jewish community in each country. Moreover, Russian-speaking Jewish immigrants are subject to a number of critiques, most prominently, of having a ‘thin culture’ that relies on abstract forms of ethnic expression and lacks in frequent and concrete forms of identification (Gitelman 1998).

The study asks several questions: how the 1.5 and second-generation see themselves as a distinctive social group? Where do they locate social boundaries between themselves and others? How do they maintain them? Close family ties lie at the center of the group’s ethnic identity. Russian-speaking cultures offer an alternative, and in the mind of the 1.5 and second-generation, superior approach to relating to family and friends, where, for example, being an unmarried adult does not contradict living at home or where youths and adults can socialize in the same setting. Their understandings and practices of family often run counter to the expectations of the mainstream in both Germany and the U.S. of what it means to be an independent adult. The organization and expectation of social relations among these immigrants reflect not only their different national origins, but their constitution as a distinctive moral community. Different foods and language use support these immigrants’ sense of group distinctiveness and reinforce the centrality of family as a shared ethnic practice.

Immigration has endowed family practices with the capacity to impart a sense of distinctiveness to the 1.5 and second-generation by changing the context in which close family ties are practiced. Transported across national borders these practices now contrast with prevailing understandings of family and serve as a cultural resource. Moreover, Russian-speaking Jewish immigrants have benefited, both culturally and economically, from state policies that granted them refugee status and enabled them to cross national borders as families and avoid years of separation other immigrants often must endure. The distinctiveness of Russian-speaking Jewish immigrants’ family practices is relative to those of the receiving country’s mainstream, but not those of other immigrant groups. As a result, a sense of group difference and belonging anchored in these practices may be challenging to impart to the third generation, who are removed from the immigration experience. Nevertheless, the 1.5 and second-generation experience their family relationships, obligations and expectations as anything but ‘thin’. They inform consequential decisions, are encountered regularly, and offer meaning to their lives as individuals, children and members of an immigrant and ethnic group.

This study draws on in-depth interviews in New York City and multiple locations in Germany with 93 Russian-speaking Jewish immigrants who arrived at the age of 13 or younger or were born in the U.S. or Germany. Despite the different history and structure of Jewish communities in the U.S. and Germany, 1.5 and second-generation Russian-speaking Jewish immigrants’ experience in each country have much in common with one another, a finding that emerged as a result of the study’s comparative design.
Date: 2020
Abstract: Статья посвящена проблеме межэтнических брачных союзов, в основу исследования легли экспедиционные материалы, собранные в Приднестровье в 2017-2019 гг. В еврейской среде в советский период традиция смешанных браков получает широкое распространение, такие союзы приводят к трансформации классического определения еврейства, что в свою очередь оказывает влияние на представления партнеров о собственной идентичности. Авторами было собрано и проанализировано 29 интервью с информантами (евреями и неевреями), состоявшими в смешанных браках, и их детьми; были выделены три основных зоны напряжения в межэтнических семьях (восприятие данного союза окружающими, имянаречение ребенка и похороны) и три стратегии преодоления напряжения: выбор нейтральной и светской традиции; компромисс (сочетание двух традиций) и интеграция одного из партнеров в культуру другого. В качестве зоны кросс-культурного взаимодействия информанты выделяли праздники; связанные с ними традиции, как правило, были смешанными (например, Песах и Пасха). Авторы приходят к выводу, что описываемый синтез культур приводит к дрейфу идентичности информантов и трансформации представлений о «настоящем еврее», согласно которым знания о традиции или практические навыки становятся важнее принципов галахи.
Editor(s): Leiße, Olaf
Date: 2019
Author(s): Bronec, Jakub
Date: 2019
Date: 2020
Date: 2020