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Date: 2018
Author(s): Kovács, András
Date: 2006
Abstract: [From the introduction to the article]
Between March and November 1999, under the auspices of the Minority Research Institute of the Department of Sociology, Eötvös Loránd University, I conducted a sociological survey of the current situation of the Jewish community in Hungary. In the course of the survey, 2015 respondents were interviewed. The most important demographic and social data were collected for four generations – from respondents’ grandparents to their children. Participants in the survey were asked to respond to questions concerning their relationship towards Jewish traditions and their acceptance or rejection of various forms of Jewish identity. They were also asked for their opinions on assimilation, integration and dissimilation, on Israel, and on the current significance of the Holocaust. Finally, an attempt was made to gauge the opinions of Hungarian Jews on the state of their own community, on their relationships with non-Jews, and on antisemitism in postcommunist Hungary.
My purpose in this article shall be to analyse the data that we collected in this latter area. Firstly, I shall reveal how Jews living in Hungary define antisemitism, and whether – when it comes to classifying particular statements as antisemitic – there are any significant differences between younger and older groups of Jews, between those who are better educated and those with less education, and between those with a stronger and those with a weaker sense of Jewish identity. I shall then explore how the various respondent groups judge the extent, intensity and gravity of anti-Jewish sentiment in the country, examining in particular whether respondents themselves have experienced such sentiment or have been subjected to discrimination. I shall reveal whether respondents think that antisemitism will increase or decrease in the coming years. Finally, I shall touch upon the policies that respondents consider desirable when it comes to tackling antisemitic phenomena. Evidently, the images formed by Jews and non-Jews shall determine in large part the relations between the two groups of one other.
Author(s): Kovács, András
Date: 2012
Abstract: The article analyzes the newest survey results on antisemitic prejudices, antisemitic political discourses, and political antisemitism in present-day Hungary. According to the research findings, during the first decade and a half after the fall of communism, 10%-15% of the Hungarian adult population held a strong antisemitic prejudice. Surveys conducted after 2006 show not only an increase in the absolute percentage of antisemites, but also an increase in the proportion of antisemites who embed their antisemitism in the political context. This phenomenon is linked with the appearance on the political scene of Jobbik, a more or less openly antisemitic party. When examining the causes of antisemitism, the most interesting finding was that the strength of antisemitic feelings is regionally different and that these differences correlate with the strength of Jobbik’s support in the various regions. Accordingly, we hypothesized that support for a far-right party is not a consequence of antisemitism, but conversely should be regarded as a factor that mobilizes attitudes leading to antisemitism. Thus, antisemitism is—at least in large part—a consequence of an attraction to the far right rather than an explanation for it. While analyzing antisemitic discourse, we found that the primary function of the discourse is not to formulate anti-Jewish political demands but
to establish a common identity for groups that, for various reasons and motives, have turned against the liberal parliamentary system that replaced communism.
Date: 2018
Date: 2011
Abstract: Democratic polities continue to be faced with politics of resentment. Along with resurgent counter-cosmopolitanism and anti-immigrant prejudice, various political agents have mobilized old and modernized antisemitism in European democracies. The first comparative study of its kind, this book rigorously examines the contemporary relevance of antisemitism and other politicized resentments in the context of the European Union and beyond. Presenting new approaches and state-of-the-art research by leading authorities in the field, the volume combines comparative work and political theorizing with ten single country studies using qualitative and quantitative data from Eastern and Western Europe. The result is a new and sober set of arguments and findings, demonstrating that antisemitism and counter-cosmopolitan resentment are still all too present human rights challenges in today’s cosmopolitan Europe.


I. Foundations
Politics and Resentment: Examining Antisemitism and Counter-Cosmopolitanism in the European Union and Beyond
Lars Rensmann & Julius H. Schoeps
II. European Comparisons
Is There a New “European Antisemitism”? Public Opinion and Comparative Empirical Research in Europe
Werner Bergmann
“Against Globalism”: Counter-Cosmopolitan Discontent and Antisemitism in Mobilizations of European Extreme Right Parties
Lars Rensmann
Antisemitism and Anti-Americanism: Comparative European Perspectives
Andrei S. Markovits
Playing the Nazi-Card: Israel, Jews, and Antisemitism
Paul Iganski & Abe Sweiry
III. Eastern Europe
The Empire Strikes Back: Antisemitism in Russia
Stella Rock & Alexander Verkhovsky
Hatred Towards Jews as a Political Code? Antisemitism in Hungary
András Kovács
The Resilience of Legacies: Antisemitism in Poland and the Ukraine
Ireneusz Krzemiński
IV. Western Europe
Beyond the Republican Model: Antisemitism in France
Jean-Yves Camus
The Liberal Tradition and Unholy Alliances of the Present: Antisemitism in the United Kingdom
Michael Whine
Political Cultures of Denial? Antisemitism in Sweden and Scandinavia
Henrik Bachner
Erosion of a Taboo: Antisemitism in Switzerland
Christina Späti
Anti-Jewish Guilt Deflection and National Self-Victimization: Antisemitism in Germany
Samuel Salzborn
V. Epilogue
Theorizing Antisemitism and Counter-Cosmopolitanism in the Global Age: A Political Crisis of Postmodernity?
Lars Rensmann
Date: 2007
Abstract: With contributions from a dozen American and European scholars, this volume presents an overview of Jewish writing in post–World War II Europe. Striking a balance between close readings of individual texts and general surveys of larger movements and underlying themes, the essays portray Jewish authors across Europe as writers and intellectuals of multiple affiliations and hybrid identities. Aimed at a general readership and guided by the idea of constructing bridges across national cultures, this book maps for English-speaking readers the productivity and diversity of Jewish writers and writing that has marked a revitalization of Jewish culture in France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Hungary, Poland, and Russia.

Introduction Thomas Nolden and Vivian Liska
1. Secret Affinities: Contemporary Jewish Writing in Austria Vivian Liska
2. Writing against Reconciliation: Contemporary Jewish Writing in Germany Stephan Braese
3. Remembering or Inventing the Past: Second-Generation Jewish Writers in the Netherlands Elrud Ibsch
4. Bonds with a Vanished Past: Contemporary Jewish Writing in Scandinavia Eva Ekselius
5. Imagined Communities: Contemporary Jewish Writing in Great Britain Bryan Cheyette
6. A la recherche du Judaïsme perdu: Contemporary Jewish Writing in France Thomas Nolden
7. Ital'Yah Letteraria: Contemporary Jewish Writing in Italy Christoph Miething
8. Writing along Borders: Contemporary Jewish Writing in Hungary Péter Varga with Thomas Nolden
9. Making Up for Lost Time: Contemporary Jewish Writing in Poland Monika Adamczyk-Garbowska
10. De-Centered Writing: Aspects of Contemporary Jewish Writing in Russia Rainer Grübel and Vladimir Novikov
Author(s): Echikson, William
Date: 2019
Author(s): Kosmin, Barry A.
Date: 2018
Abstract: The Fourth Survey of European Jewish Community Leaders and Professionals, 2018 presents the results of an online survey offered in 10 languages and administered to 893 respondents in 29 countries. Conducted every three years using the same format, the survey seeks to identify trends and their evolution in time.

The survey asked Jewish lay leaders and community professionals questions regarding future community priorities, identifying the main threats to Jewish life, views on the safety and security situation in their cities, including emergency preparedness, and opinions on an array of internal community issues. Examples include conversions, membership criteria policies on intermarriage, and their vision of Europe and Israel.

The respondents were comprised of presidents and chairpersons of nationwide “umbrella organizations” or Federations; presidents and executive directors of private Jewish foundations, charities, and other privately funded initiatives; presidents and main representatives of Jewish communities that are organized at a city level; executive directors and programme coordinators, as well as current and former board members of Jewish organizations; among others.

The JDC International Centre for Community Development established the survey as a means to identify the priorities, sensibilities and concerns of Europe’s top Jewish leaders and professionals working in Jewish institutions, taking into account the changes that European Jewry has gone through since 1989, and the current political challenges and uncertainties in the continent. In a landscape with few mechanisms that can truly gauge these phenomena, the European Jewish Community Leaders Survey is an essential tool for analysis and applied research in the field of community development.

The Survey team was directed by Dr. Barry Kosmin (Trinity College), who has conducted several large national social surveys and opinion polls in Europe, Africa and the U.S., including the CJF 1990 US National Jewish Population Survey.
Date: 2015
Date: 2007
Abstract: The robbery and restitution of Jewish property are two inextricably linked social processes. It is not possible to understand the lawsuits and international agreements on the restoration of Jewish property of the late 1990s without examining what was robbed and by whom. In this volume distinguished historians first outline the mechanisms and scope of the European-wide program of plunder and then assess the effectiveness and historical implications of post-war restitution efforts. Everywhere the solution of legal and material problems was intertwined with changing national myths about the war and conflicting interpretations of justice. Even those countries that pursued extensive restitution programs using rigorous legal means were unable to compensate or fully comprehend the scale of Jewish loss. Especially in Eastern Europe, it was not until the collapse of communism that the concept of restoring some Jewish property rights even became a viable option. Integrating the abundance of new research on the material effects of the Holocaust and its aftermath, this comparative perspective examines the developments in Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Belgium, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

List of Abbreviations

Part I: Introduction

Introduction: A History without Boundaries: The Robbery and Restitution of Jewish Property in Europe
Constantin Goschler and Philipp Ther

Part II: The Robbery of Jewish Property in Comparative Perspective

Chapter 1. The Seizure of Jewish Property in Europe: Comparative Aspects of Nazi Methods and Local Responses
Martin Dean

Chapter 2. Aryanization and Restitution in Germany
Frank Bajohr

Chapter 3. The Looting of Jewish Property in Occupied Western Europe: A Comparative Study of Belgium, France, and the Netherlands
Jean-Marc Dreyfus

Chapter 4. The Robbery of Jewish Property in Eastern Europe under German Occupation, 1939–1942
Dieter Pohl

Chapter 5. The Robbery of Jewish Property in Eastern European States Allied with Nazi Germany
Tatjana Tönsmeyer

Part III: The Restitution of Jewish Property in Comparative Perspective

Chapter 6. West Germany and the Restitution of Jewish Property in Europe
Jürgen Lillteicher

Chapter 7. Jewish Property and the Politics of Restitution in Germany after 1945
Constantin Goschler

Chapter 8. Two Approaches to Compensation in France: Restitution and Reparation
Claire Andrieu

Chapter 9. The Expropriation of Jewish Property and Restitution in Belgium
Rudi van Doorslaer

Chapter 10. Indifference and Forgetting: Italy and its Jewish Community, 1938–1970
Ilaria Pavan

Chapter 11. “Why Switzerland?” – Remarks on a Neutral’s Role in the Nazi Program of Robbery and Allied Postwar Restitution Policy
Regula Ludi

Chapter 12. The Hungarian Gold Train: Fantasies of Wealth and the Madness of Genocide
Ronald W. Zweig

Chapter 13. Reluctant Restitution: The Restitution of Jewish Property in the Bohemian Lands after the Second World War
Eduard Kubu and Jan Kuklík Jr.

Chapter 14. The Polish Debate on the Holocaust and the Restitution of Property
Dariusz Stola

Part IV: Concluding Remarks

Conclusion: Reflections on the Restitution and Compensation of Holocaust Theft: Past, Present, and Future
Gerald D. Feldman

Notes on Contributors
Select Bibliography
Author(s): Kahn-Harris, Keith
Date: 2018
Abstract: The Limmud Impact Study looks at how successful Limmud has been in taking people ‘one step further on their Jewish journeys’, what these journeys consist of and their wider impact on Jewish communities.

The study focuses on Limmud volunteers and draws on a survey of ten Limmud volunteer communities in eight countries - UK, USA, South Africa, Bulgaria, Hungary, Germany, Israel and Argentina - together with focus groups conducted with Limmud volunteers from around the world.

The findings provide clear evidence that Limmud advances the majority of its volunteers on their Jewish journeys, and for a significant proportion it takes them ‘further’ towards greater interest in and commitment to Jewish life.

Limmud’s principle impact on its volunteers lies in making new friends and contacts, encountering different kinds of Jews and enhancing a sense of connection to the Jewish people. For many Limmud volunteers, their experience has increased their Jewish
knowledge, their leadership skills and their involvement in the wider Jewish community. Involvement in Limmud therefore enhances both the desire to take further steps on their Jewish journeys, and the tools for doing so.

Limmud impacts equally on Jews regardless of denominationand religious practice. The younger the volunteers and the less committed they are when they begin their Limmud journeys, the further Limmud takes them. Those with more senior levels of involvement in Limmud report higher levels of impact on their Jewish journeys than other volunteers, as do those who had received a subsidy or training from Limmud.

Limmud volunteers often have difficult experiences and risk burnout and
exhaustion. While volunteers generally view the gains as worth the cost, Limmud
needs to pay attention to this issue and provide further support.
Date: 2015
Abstract: Commemorating the seventy-year anniversary of the Holocaust in Hungary, this book focuses on current practices in teaching the Holocaust.

In June 2014, at a conference co-organised by the Tom Lantos Institute, a group of professors, scholars, museum directors, and activists involved in memorial projects met at Central European University (CEU) in Budapest, Hungary, to discuss the future of Holocaust Studies. This subsequent book publication considers the potential of Holocaust memorialization and memory work to serve as a catalyst for addressing discrimination today by exploring different innovative teaching practices in higher education as well as bold and creative civic and institutional initiatives.

The authors who contributed to this book project come from across Europe and North America and their work showcases new directions in Holocaust education and commemoration.

Anna-Mária Bíró
Introduction 6
John Shattuck
Introduction 7
Andrea Pető and Helga Thorson
Introduction: The Future of Holocaust Memorialization 8
Institutional Perspectives and Challenges 11
Paul Shapiro
Facing the Facts of the Holocaust: The Challenges and the Cost of Failure 12
Karen Jungblut
The Future of Holocaust Memorialization: Institutional Perspectives
and Challenges 16
Holocaust Discourses Now 21
Cecilie Felicia Stokholm Banke
Teaching the Holocaust as Part of Local History: The Case of Denmark 22
Klas-Göran Karlsson
Holocaust History and Historical Learning 29
John C. Swanson
Returning to History: Memory and Holocaust Education 35
Benefits and Challenges of Digital Resources 41
Helga Dorner, Edit Jeges, and Andrea Pető
New Ways of Seeing: Digital Testimonies, Reflective Inquiry,
and Video Pedagogy in a Graduate Seminar 42
Elizabeth Anthony
The Digital Transformation of the International Tracing Service Digital
Collection 46
Working against Prejudice and Hate 53
Ildikó Barna
Introducing a New Subject in a Challenging Environment among Students of
Military Sciences, Public Administration, and Law Enforcement in Hungary:
A Case Study 54
Heike Radvan
Facing Current Anti-Semitism, Racism, and Neo-Nazism: Talking about the
Holocaust in Local Initiatives in East Germany 60
Charlotte Schallié
The Case of Feincost Adam©: Confronting Antisemitism
through Creative Memory Work 65
Rethinking Pedagogical Practices
Annamaria Orla-Bukowska
Remembering Righteousness: Transnational Touchstones
in the International Classroom 72
Helga Thorson and Andrea van Noord
Stories from the Past, Creative Representations of the Future:
Inter-Cultural Exchange, the Possibility of Inter-Generational Communication,
and the Future of Holocaust Studies 80
Local Initiatives in Commemorating the Holocaust
Barbara Kintaert
Shedding Light on the Past: Digging for Information and
Grassroots Memorialization
Borbála Klacsmann
Memory Walk: History through Monuments 100
Gabor Kalman
Filming the Past for the Present 105
About the Authors 1
Author(s): Graham, David
Date: 2018
Abstract: JPR’s report, European Jewish identity: Mosaic or monolith? An empirical assessment of eight European countries, authored by Senior Research Fellow Dr David Graham, asks whether there is such a thing as a European Jewish identity, and, if so, what it looks like.

The question of whether there is a Jewish identity that is at once common to all European Jews but also peculiar to them, has intrigued scholars of contemporary Jewry since the fall of the Berlin Wall. This study contrasts the European picture with the two major centres of world Jewry, the United States and Israel, and examines the nature and content of Jewish identity across Europe, exploring the three core pillars of belief, belonging and behaviour around which Jewish identity is built.

This research was made possible by the advent of the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) survey in 2012 examining Jewish people’s experiences and perceptions of antisemitism across nine EU Member States: Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Romania, Sweden and the UK. As well as gathering data about antisemitism, the study investigated various aspects of the Jewishness of respondents, in order to ascertain whether different types of Jews perceive and experience antisemitism differently. This study focuses on the data gathered about Jewishness, thereby enabling direct comparisons to be made for the first time across multiple European Jewish communities in a robust and comprehensive way.

The report concludes that there is no monolithic European identity, but it explores in detail the mosaic of Jewish identity in Europe, highlighting some key differences:
• In Belgium, where Jewish parents are most likely to send their children to Jewish schools, there is a unique polarisation between the observant and non-observant;
• In France, Jews exhibit the strongest feelings of being part of the Jewish People, and also have the strongest level of emotional attachment to Israel;
• Germany’s Jewish community has the largest proportion of foreign-born Jews, and, along with Hungary, is the youngest Jewish population;
• In Hungary the greatest relative weight in Jewish identity priorities is placed on 'Combating antisemitism,' and the weakest level of support for Israel is exhibited;
• In Italy, respondents are least likely to report being Jewish by birth or to have two Jewish parents;
• The Jews of Latvia are the oldest population and the most likely to be intermarried;
• The Jews of Sweden attach a very high level of importance to 'Combating antisemitism' despite being relatively unlikely to experience it, and they observe few Jewish practices;
• In the United Kingdom, Jews observe the most religious practices and appear to feel the least threatened by antisemitism. They are the most likely to be Jewish by birth and least likely to be intermarried.

According to report author, Dr David Graham: “This report represents far more than the culmination of an empirical assessment of Jewish identity. Never before has it been possible to examine Jewish identity across Europe in anything approaching a coherent and systematic way. Prior to the FRA’s survey, it was almost inconceivable that an analysis of this kind could be carried out at all. The formidable obstacles of cost, language, political and logistical complexity seemed to present impenetrable barriers to the realisation of any such dream. Yet this is exactly what has been achieved, a report made possible through an FRA initiative into furthering understanding of Jewish peoples' experience of antisemitism. It reveals a European Jewry that is more mosaic than monolith, an array of Jewish communities, each exhibiting unique Jewish personas, yet united by geography and a common cultural heritage."
Date: 2013
Abstract: Despite the Holocaust’s profound impact on the history of Eastern Europe, the communist regimes successfully repressed public discourse about and memory of this tragedy. Since the collapse of communism in 1989, however, this has changed. Not only has a wealth of archival sources become available, but there have also been oral history projects and interviews recording the testimonies of eyewitnesses who experienced the Holocaust as children and young adults. Recent political, social, and cultural developments have facilitated a more nuanced and complex understanding of the continuities and discontinuities in representations of the Holocaust. People are beginning to realize the significant role that memory of Holocaust plays in contemporary discussions of national identity in Eastern Europe.

This volume of original essays explores the memory of the Holocaust and the Jewish past in postcommunist Eastern Europe. Devoting space to every postcommunist country, the essays in Bringing the Dark Past to Light explore how the memory of the “dark pasts” of Eastern European nations is being recollected and reworked. In addition, it examines how this memory shapes the collective identities and the social identity of ethnic and national minorities. Memory of the Holocaust has practical implications regarding the current development of national cultures and international relationships.

Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Preface and Acknowledgments
John-Paul Himka and Joanna Beata Michlic
1. "Our Conscience Is Clean": Albanian Elites and the Memory of the Holocaust in Postsocialist Albania
Daniel Perez
2. The Invisible Genocide: The Holocaust in Belarus
Per Anders Rudling
3. Contemporary Responses to the Holocaust in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Francine Friedman
4. Debating the Fate of Bulgarian Jews during World War II
Joseph Benatov
5. Representations of the Holocaust and Historical Debates in Croatia since 1989
Mark Biondich
6. The Sheep of Lidice: The Holocaust and the Construction of Czech National History
Michal Frankl
7. Victim of History: Perceptions of the Holocaust in Estonia
Anton Weiss-Wendt
8. Holocaust Remembrance in the German Democratic Republic--and Beyond
Peter Monteath
9. The Memory of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Hungary
Part 1: The Politics of Holocaust Memory
Paul Hanebrink
Part 2: Cinematic Memory of the Holocaust
Catherine Portuges
10. The Transformation of Holocaust Memory in Post-Soviet Latvia
Bella Zisere
11. Conflicting Memories: The Reception of the Holocaust in Lithuania
Saulius Sužied<edot>lis and Šarūnas Liekis
12. The Combined Legacies of the "Jewish Question" and the "Macedonian Question"
Holly Case
13. Public Discourses on the Holocaust in Moldova: Justification, Instrumentalization, and Mourning
Vladimir Solonari
14. The Memory of the Holocaust in Post-1989 Poland: Renewal--Its Accomplishments and Its Powerlessness
Joanna B. Michlic and Małgorzata Melchior
15. Public Perceptions of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Romania
Felicia Waldman and Mihai Chioveanu
16. The Reception of the Holocaust in Russia: Silence, Conspiracy, and Glimpses of Light
Klas-Göran Karlsson
17. Between Marginalization and Instrumentalization: Holocaust Memory in Serbia since the Late 1980s
Jovan Byford
18. The "Unmasterable Past"? The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Slovakia
Nina Paulovičová
19. On the Periphery: Jews, Slovenes, and the Memory of the Holocaust
Gregor Joseph Kranjc
20. The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Ukraine
John-Paul Himka
Omer Bartov
Date: 2015
Abstract: A magyar lakosság több, mint egyharmada vall antiszemita előítéleteket – ez az egyik megállapítása annak a tanulmánynak, amit a mai napon mutatott be a nyilvánosságnak Tett és Védelem Alapítvány központjában. A Tett és Védelem Alapítvány megbízásából a Medián Közvéleménykutató Intézet készített átfogó felmérést az antiszemita előítéletek mértékéről, a zsidósággal kapcsolatos beállítódás jellemzőiről, valamint a zsidó szervezetek aktív közéleti szerepvállalásának megítéléséről.

Az 1200 fő megkérdezésével készült reprezentatív kutatás főbb megállapításai:

• Az elmúlt időszakban kis mértékben nőtt az antiszemita előítéleteket vallók aránya,

• A magyar közvéleményt csak igen mérsékelten foglalkoztatják a zsidó közélet kérdései.

• A Jobbik szavazói az átlagnál jóval nagyobb arányban vallanak zsidóellenes nézeteket,

• Szintén növeli a zsidóellenesség valószínűségét a nacionalista, rendpárti, tekintélyelvű társadalmi attitűd, és a másság különböző formáinak (homoszexualitás, kábítószer-fogyasztás, bevándorlás) elutasítása.

• A vészkorszak emlékezete mélyen megosztja a magyar társadalmat: a magyar felelősség kérdéséről éppúgy megoszlanak a vélemények, mint arról, hogy a jelenlegi közbeszédben napirenden kell-e tartani a kérdést. A nyílt holokauszt-tagadó és -relativizáló kijelentések támogatottsága a 2006-os 6-8 százalékról 2014-re fokozatosan 12-15 százalékra emelkedett.

• A magyar lakosság véleménye megoszlik abban a kérdésben, hogy a zsidóság második világháború alatti tragédiájáért ki a felelős: 51 százalék szerint Magyarország is felelős, 40 százalék szerint viszont kizárólag a németek. A válaszadók 52 százaléka nem támogatja a Szabadság téri emlékmű felépítését, 34 százalék igen.

• A kormány és a zsidó közösségek közötti párbeszédről megoszlanak a vélemények, abban is, hogy a kormánynak mikor kellene kikérni a zsidó szervezetek véleményét, és abban is, hogy a zsidó szervezeteknek milyen esetekben kellene nyilvános állásfoglalást tenniük.
Abstract: One of the most important preconditions of the fight against anti-Semitism is possessing knowledge of the prevalence of anti-Semitism and the reasons behind it. Consequently, the main objective of Action and Protection Foundation (APF) is to fll this knowledge gap. APF monitors Hungarian public events and media on a monthly basis and points out anti-Semitic actions. Without analyzing and evaluating the data collected by the regular monthly monitoring activity, there is no real protection for the community. In this semiannual report, we summarize the results of our monitoring activity between January and June 2017. The report deals with two different kinds of actions: anti-Semitic hate crimes and incidents generated by hatred. In this report, we call both of these two actions hate crimes. In both cases, it is an important criterion that anti-Semitism is identifed in the background as the main driver

Az antiszemitizmus elleni küzdelem egyik legfontosabb feltétele a zsidóellenesség okainak pontos ismerete és az antiszemitizmus valódi elterjedtségének vizsgálata. A Tett és Védelem Alapítvány (TEV) fő célja ezért a kérdést övező ismerethiány felszámolása. A TEV havi rendszerességgel, szakmailag megalapozott módon figyeli a magyar közéleti eseményeket, a különböző médiumokat, és azonosítja az antiszemita megnyilvá- nulásokat és cselekedeteket. A rendszeres havi monitoring tevékenység során összegyűjtött információk elemzése, értékelése nélkül nem lehet valós védelmet biztosítani a zsidó közösség számára. Ebben a féléves jelentésben a 2017. januártól júniusig terjedő időszak monitoring tevékenységének eredményeit foglaljuk össze. A jelentés kétféle cselekménnyel foglalkozik: az antiszemita gyűlölet bűncselekmé- nyekkel, illetve a gyűlölet motiválta incidensekkel. A jelentésben e kettőt összefoglalóan gyűlölet-cselekményeknek nevezzük. Mindkettő esetében fontos kritérium, hogy azok elkövetésének hátterében azonosíthatóan megjelenjen az antiszemita motiváció.

Author(s): Róna, Dániel
Date: 2017
Abstract: Az antiszemitizmus elleni küzdelem egyik legfontosabb feltétele a zsidóellenesség okainak pontos ismerete és az antiszemitizmus
valódi elterjedtségének vizsgálata. A Tett és Védelem Alapítvány (TEV) fő célja ezért a kérdést övező ismerethiány felszámolá-
sa. A TEV egyfelől havi rendszerességgel,szakmailag megalapozott módon fgyeli a magyar közéleti eseményeket és a sajtót, és
ezek alapján kimutatja az antiszemita megnyilvánulásokat és cselekedeteket. A rendszeres havi monitoringtevékenységgel összegyűjtött információk elemzése nélkül nem lehet valós védelmet biztosítani a közösség számára. Ebben az éves jelentésben a 2016 évi havi monitoringtevékenység eredményeit foglaljuk össze.

A jelentés kétféle cselekménnyel foglalkozik: az antiszemita gyűlölet-bűncselekményekkel, illetve a gyűlölet motiválta
incidensekkel. A jelentésben ezt a kettőt összefoglalóan gyűlöletcselekményeknek nevezzük. Mindkettő esetében fontos kritérium,
hogy azok elkövetésekor azonosítható az antiszemita motiváció. Az egyes kategóriák részletes meghatározása a módszertan fejezetben található.

Az események regisztrálásán kívül fontos azok különböző jellemzőinek számbavétele is. A havi jelentések adatait összegezve éves
jelentésünkben az eseteket incidenstípusokaz incidensek áldozatai és elkövetői, és a szervezettség szintje szerint elemeztük. 2016 -
ban az Alapítvány 48 antiszemita gyűlöletcselekményt azonosított: az esetszám csökkent a 2015. éves (52) monitoringtevékenység során zonosítottakhoz képest, de még mindig magasabb, mint a 2014. évi. (37). Az esetszámok havi hullámzása az elmúlt két év tendenciái alapján nagyfokú véletlenszerűséget mutatnak: politikai uborkaszezonban és évközben is tapasztaltunk már magasabb és alacsonyabb értékeket. A regisztrált cselekmények kicsivel több, mint háromnegyede, 77 százaléka a gyűlöletbeszéd kategóriájába tartozik, emellett még rongálást és fenyegetést észleltünk. A gyűlöletcselekmények kronológiáját külön fejezetben mutatjuk be.

A TEV nemcsak a közéleti-politikai antiszemita eseményeket térképezi fel, hanem a magyar társadalom zsidósághoz fűződő viszonyáról, ismereteiről és az antiszemitizmus elterjedtségéről szóló tudásunkat is bővíteni kívánja. Ennek érdekében Alapítványunk
megbízásából a Medián Közvéleményés Piackutató Intézeta korábbi évekhez hasonlóan 2016 novemberében átfogó, országos
reprezentatív felmérést végzett erről a témákól. A kutatás publikációja teljes terjedelemben magyar és angol nyelven is a TEV
honlapján található, az eredmények összefoglalását pedig ebben a jelentésben egy különálló fejezetben ismertetjük.

Az éves jelentés az antiszemitizmus okainak megértéséhez is hozzá kíván járulni. A „Gyűlöletcselekmények és gyűlölet motiválta
incidensek és társadalmi következményeik” című fejezetben a jelentés áttekinti a klasszikus és modern szociálpszichológiai,
történeti és kulturális magyarázatokat, majd mindegyik elmélet jelenkori érvényességét is teszteli: összeveti azokat a friss Medián-kutatás eredményeivel.

A monitoring és kutatás mellett Alapítványunk tevékenységében jelentős mértékben megjelenik a jogi segítségnyújtás és az
oktatás is. Jelentésünkben bemutatjuk azon jogszabályokat, amelyek jelenleg a gyűlöletcselekmények elleni küzdelem jogi kereteit
adják Magyarországon, valamint beszámllunk az általunk kezdeményezett 13 jogi eljárásról feloszlatási kérelem, kérvény,
munkaügyi kereset, törvényességi felügyeleti eljárás kezdeményezése és vádindítvány ügyekben.

Oktatási tevékenységünk a középiskoláknak kidolgozott programmal bővült, melynek keretében 35 intézményben több, mint
2100 diák vett részt az etika tantben lebonyolított előadásokon.

Jelentésünkben a vizsgált időszakban a nyilvánosság fgyelmét jelentős mértékben felkeltő kiemelt üggyel foglalkozunk
(esettanulmány). Az eset leírásán keresztül megfgyelhetjük, hogyan reagáltak a külön böző hivatalos és félhivatalos szervek, civil
szervezetek. 2014-ben a német megszállás emlékműve és a Sorsok Háza projekt kapott kiemelkedő fgyelmet, a 2015-ös évben
a Pázmány egyetemen bevezetett kötelező holokauszt-kurzust övező közódott 2017-re)