Topics: Main Topic: Other, Islamophobia, Minorities, Israeli Expatriates, National Identity, Nationalism
Abstract: Around 2011 Israeli (Jewish) immigration to Germany became a recurring subject in public discourse. Reflecting ideological investments, the migration was reported with curiosity. Israeli migrants turned into Jews in German imagination, contradicting their self-definition of being primarily Israelis. As Jews they were welcome, but within limits. If the ‘guests’ expressed too much agency and challenged the status quo of German/Jewish and more so Jewish/Muslim and Israeli/Palestinian relations, things could become complicated. While Palestinian issues are met with increasing support across the social, media, and political spheres, Palestinians are not that welcome as (Muslim) migrants. They are suspected of importing a ‘new antisemitism.’ This paper seeks to unravel the conflicting attitudes towards the interlinked categories Israelis/Jews and Muslims/Palestinians, by focussing on the issue of the politics of hospitality. These reveal how agentic presences of those categorised as others destabilise the assumed ethnic, and ethno-religious boundaries of the German, nominally Christian, majority.
Topics: Main Topic: Other, Islamophobia, Holocaust Memorials, Holocaust Education, Holocaust, Holocaust Commemoration, Citizenship, Secularity, Minorities
Abstract: Germany is hailed as a successful model of facing difficult pasts. Based on ethnographic research in civic education, this article situates Holocaust commemoration within German secularism. It brings together memory, Palestine and African-American studies to articulate how Holocaust memory manages an enduring crisis of citizenship. This crisis is predicated upon the disparity between the ideal of freedom and the reality of ethno-religious difference. The article demonstrates how Holocaust memory has been institutionally folded into secular time leading to a more liberal nation-state. It further explores memorial sites as extensions of secular governance, but also spaces in which embodied forms of memory, such as the Palestinian experience of catastrophe enter and desire an extension of this humanity. This notion of humanity co-produces the figure of the “anti-human.” This figure is enabled by an older strand of antisemitism and has an “afterlife” in the real or imagined body of the “Palestinian-Muslim troublemaker.”
Abrahamic Stranger: Muslim German Intellectuals on Jewish German Intellectuals and Questions of Belonging
Topics: Jewish - Muslim Relations, Main Topic: Other, Multiculturalism, Antisemitism, Islamophobia, Universities / Higher Education
Abstract: Religious minorities have always been at the centre of the German nation-state’s self-understanding, as it came to define itself vis a vis, and often against, them. Historically, this can be seen specifically in the Jewish experience, and today reverberates in the experience of Muslims grappling with a position of alterity in German society. We will move beyond the scholarship on these two religious minority groups to that of these two religious minority groups—that is the intellectual milieu of German Jews and German Muslims. Both have confronted the insider-outsider status of religious minorities in Germany, while themselves occupying—and thinking from—this position of alterity. As Jewish intellectuals a century prior, Muslim intellectuals are confronting the (im)possibility of fully belonging to the society at hand. In so doing, they are, at times inadvertently, coming into conversation with Jewish intellectuals past on ideas surrounding the practice of religion, pluralism, minority-state relations, and social ethics.
Topics: Jewish - Muslim Relations, Main Topic: Other, Care and Welfare, Haredi / Strictly Orthodox Jews, Ethnography, Jewish Women, Multiculturalism
Abstract: Drawing on ethnographic research with Haredi women in Stamford Hill to explore the limits of the secular vocabularies which dominate sociological diversity discourse, I ask why an assumed Jewish-Muslim enmity became its focus. First my response explores how a political theology of European Christendom, and a particular conjuncture of its race-religion constellation (Topolski 2018) finds expression in a secular concept of conviviality that regulates possibilities for intimacy in Hackney. I develop the claim that rationalist ideals of liberal sociality are in part mobilized to repress and contain violent histories of assimilation and exclusion in the borough. Second, I turn to Haredi women’s expression of an alternative Jewish-Muslim picture through intimacies that diverge from a convivial grammar. This leads me to tentatively explore how a vernacular Hasidic concept of chesed might hold together antinomies of care and violence, and offer alternatives for being-with, and mourning-with the neighbour in violent times.
Abstract: The Jew and the Muslim are historically among the primary figures of alterity in Europe, the constitutive outsiders who have shaped what Europe is, notably around questions of conflict, migration and integration. However, on the ground contemporary Jewish and Muslim communities have often been at the forefront of critical engagement with these questions, for example with regard to the Mediterranean migration crisis and heightened societal security concerns. This introduction sets out the main questions and themes of this volume.
Abstract: This chapter explores some of the challenges faced by Jewish pupils pertaining to mental health – specifically regarding questions of identity, antisemitism, and educational pressure – and presents some strategies for teachers to cater to their distinctive needs. In particular, the chapter encourages teachers to familiarise themselves with some of the (often overlooked) diversity of the British Jewish community in order to help recognise their assorted experiences and concerns. Indeed, by remaining attentive to the various potential causes of distress among Jewish pupils, teachers can play an important role in enabling them to negotiate their highs and lows and ultimately feel part of inclusive classrooms.
Is Anti-Israelism Antisemitism? Evidence from the Institute for Jewish Policy Research Survey of Attitudes Towards Jews Among the Population of Great Britain
Abstract: In the immediate aftermath of the horrifying terrorist attacks on the offices of Charlie Hebdo and the kosher supermarket in Paris in January 2015, one question seemed to run through much of the discourse within Jewish communal circles on the other side of the English Channel: could the same thing happen in the UK? Could the type of targeted antisemitic Islamist attack that took the lives of four Jews that day also occur in the United Kingdom, a country long known for its high levels of tolerance for minorities, low levels of antisemitism, and, in European terms at least, vibrant Jewish life?
Abstract: This chapter analyzes how both Uman locals’ and Hasidic pilgrims’ vernacular memory, as well as official local memory, are manifested in the public space of Uman, a town in central Ukraine, and how these memories interact. It demonstrates how the memories belonging to these groups of pilgrims have been shaped since the 1990s and how they have influenced the town’s memory space. The study also shows how the town’s memory has sometimes been formed in response to these pilgrimages. I argue that there are several distinctive patterns of interaction between the Hasidic pilgrims’ vernacular memory and official local memory. I define these patterns as follows: cooperation between official memory and the vernacular memory of the pilgrims; an exchange between various vernacular memories of several competing groups of pilgrims; the symbolic conflict of two opposing vernacular memories of the space; and competition between official memory and the vernacular memory of the pilgrims.
Translated Title: Female homosexuality in Judaism and Islam: texts and contexts
Abstract: : L'homosexualité féminine dans le judaïsme et l'islam : textes et contextes Puisque les textes religieux jouent un rôle central dans la condamnation de l'homosexualité dans les religions institutionnelles 1 , nous commencerons par explorer les principaux textes du judaïsme et de l'islam sur l'homosexualité, même s'ils accordent souvent moins d'attention à l'homosexualité féminine comparativement à l'homosexualité masculine. Nous soulignerons l'émergence d'une contestation de la validité et de la pertinence du discours dominant ainsi que des relations de pouvoir à l'oeuvre dans sa production, sa légitimation et sa perpétuation. Nous nous pencherons ensuite sur les positions socioculturelles et politiques des lesbiennes juives en France et des lesbiennes musulmanes en Grande‑Bretagne 2. Leur statut est triplement minoritaire : minorité culturelle et religieuse, minorité sexuelle et minorité de genre. Nous montrerons enfin comment ces femmes résistent à l'homophobie, à côté d'autres formes de discrimination, tout en préservant leurs appartenances identitaires.
Translated Title: Ways of disappearance. Memory of Jews and Roma of Transnistria
Translated Title: Values Education in the Jewish Sunday School
Topics: Main Topic: Education, Jewish Education, Education: Adult Education, Baal Teshuvah, Health, Health Education, Jewish Women, Chabad-Lubavitch
Abstract: Статья посвящена баалот-тшува («вернувшимся» в иудаизм женщинам) в московской общине хасидского движения Хабад Любавич. Их взгляды на свою жизнь, свою роль в семье и общине и отношение руководства любавического движения к женскому вопросу рассматриваются сквозь призму одной конкретной темы – практики регулярного образования для взрослых. Наряду с традиционными уроками Торы и религиозных практик, за которые ответственны женщины (диетарные законы, чистота семейной жизни), Хабад поощряет лекции по здоровому питанию и семейной психологии или занятия фитнесом, с тем чтобы позволить членам общины чувствовать себя современными людьми, сохраняя при этом традиционные ценности и патриархальную иерархию.
Topics: Antisemitism, Holocaust Memorials, Holocaust Commemoration, Main Topic: Holocaust and Memorial
Abstract: The article analyzes the memorialization of the Holocaust in Minsk and Kiev. In spite of the general policy of the Soviet government toward the Jewish population, the level of state and popular anti-Semitism varied indifferent Soviet republics, which affected the memorialization of the Holocaust. In the capital of Belorussia, Minsk, a monument to the victims of the Holocaust was erected in 1946. Ukrainian Soviet authorities did not allow any monument to be built in Babi Yar (Kiev) until 1976. The strong state and popular anti-Semitism in Ukraine was the main reason for the delay in the memorialization of the Holocaust in Kiev for many years.
Translated Title: Memory days on Jews in Smolensk and Bryansk Regions
Abstract: The article is devoted to the Jewish sacred places worshiped by non-Jewish population, in particular the graves of famous rabbis and tzaddik. There are three holy places in Chernovtsy (Chernivtsi) in Ukraine, where people come: the grave of Rabbi Benyamin Avi ha-Kogan at the Jewish cemetery in Chernivtsi on Russkaya street, the so-called Western Wall at the entrance to the cemetery in Chernivtsi, the grave of Isroel Ruzhinsky in Sadgor (Chernivtsi suburb). In all cases, people leave hand-written prayer notes and wishers. These notes are analyzed in the article.
Translated Title: "Friend among strangers": options for integrating non-Jews into Jewish religious and communal life
Translated Title: “I like this custom…”, or How we choose a tradition
«Старое» и «новое» в еврейской похоронной обрядовости (по материалам экспедиций в Бессарабию и на Буковину)
Translated Title: "Old" and "new" in Jewish funeral rituals (according to the materials of the expeditions to Bessarabia and Bukovina)
A comparative look at right-wing extremism, anti-Semitism, and xenophobi hate crimes in Poland, Ukraine, and Russia
Topics: Antisemitism, Antisemitism: Far right, Antisemitism: Christian, Hate crime, Main Topic: Antisemitism, Nationalism
Abstract: With the breakdown of the Soviet Union, and with Mikhail Gorbachev’s politics of glasnost and perestroika, suppressed religious and national movements emerged as visible elements of political conﬂict in what once constituted the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). While in the former USSR this concerned the huge former “Turkestan” region with its religious roots in Islam, and the Orthodox denominations of Russia and the Ukraine, the post-USSR Eastern European satellite states saw an eruption of both nationalism and/or suppressed Catholicism. Mark Juergensmeyer (2008: 152) describes how in Russia, the Ukraine, and Poland “religion became the expression of a nationalist rejection of the secular socialist ideology.” Partly, the free expression of religion was a component of what could be termed a democratic “eruption,” and at the same time it created strong links to “nationalist and transnationalist identities of a bygone era” (Juergensmeyer 2008: 156). The role of right-wing extremism, xenophobia, and anti-Semitism ought to be assessed in the context of the transformation of the post-Stalinist political cultures of Eastern Europe and Russia. As much as religion and its institutions were indispensable for the opposition to the Stalinist state, they helped to recreate the old nationalisms of the 19th century (and earlier) of which anti-Semitism was often an integral component. Religious zeal combined with nationalistic patriotism contains ideologies of purity for which “others,” be they ethnic minorities or Jews, were the paramount danger and source of a feared “racial pollution” (cf. Douglas 1966/2007). In the early 1990s, after German re-uniﬁcation, similar developments could be observed in parts of the former German Democratic Republic. Minkenberg (2002) sees the rehabilitation of the nation state (National-staat) in Eastern Europe in line with the spread of nationalistic rhetoric and the concept of a national ethnic identity. In the context of economic, and partly also cultural crisis, minorities are used as a scapegoat for the problems at hand. Combined with a rejection of internationalism, diversity, and European Union (EU) integration, such resentments seem like “natural” consequences of newly formed national identities (Thieme 2007a, 2007b). In the ﬁndings of the European Social Survey (2006), Polish, Hungarian, and Ukrainian populations frequently show more sympathy for conservative (right-wing) politics, gender inequality, and homophobia than Western European societies.
Topics: Antisemitism: Muslim, Israeli-Arab Conflict, Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Jewish - Muslim Relations, Main Topic: Other
Abstract: On August 2, 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, unleashing the fi rst Gulf crisis. When, by January, the United Nations’ economic sanctions had failed to force Iraqi withdrawal, the United States and a thirty-four nation coalition invaded. Although Israel did not participate, this brief war, over by February 28, could not help but intersect with the ongoing Arab-Israeli confl ict. Not only did the Iraqi president, Saddam Hussein, choose to drop missiles on Tel Aviv, touching off a secondary crisis over potential Israeli involvement, but calls to resolve the Palestinian question as part of a regional settlement circulated widely. For Muslims and Jews watching developments from afar, the First Gulf War thus became more than a conflict over Kuwaiti independence, oil rights or western imperialism. Rather it became a barometer of Muslim-Jewish relations around the world.
Zwischen nationalem Opfermythos und europäischen Standards Der Holocaust im ungarischen Erinnerungsdiskurs
Translated Title: Between the national victim myth and European standards: The Holocaust in the Hungarian Discourse of Remembrance
»Das Recht, über die Geschichte zu urteilen«. Der Umgang mit dem Holocaust in Belgien an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert
Translated Title: 'The right to judge history'. Dealing with the Holocaust in Belgium on the threshold of the 21st century
The Historicity Of The Witness: The Polish Relationship To Jews And Germans In The Polish Memory Discourse Of The Holocaust
Antisemitism and the Left in the UK and the Global Significance of the Return of the "Jewish Question"
Topics: Sephardi Jews, Main Topic: Identity and Community, Jewish Identity, Ethnicity, Language, Ladino and Haketia, Literature, Newspapers, Magazines and Periodicals
Abstract: In this paper, the question of importance of Judeo--Spanish as the means for maintaining ethnic identity among the Sephardim in the territories of former Yugoslavia is investigated through an analysis of articles dedicated to the topic published in El amigo del puevlo (a Judeo-Spanish periodical which first was published in Serbia, and then in Bulgaria), fragments from the books by Angel Pulido, Los israelitas espanoles y el idioma castellano (Madrid 1904) and Espanoles sin patria y la raza sefardi (Madrid 1905),as well as unpublished documents from the Archive of Serbia and the Jewish Historical Museum in Belgrade.The present analysis suggests that a specific language ideology(negative attitudes towards the minority language in question) has played a crucial role in language shift in favor of the majority languages in the region (which has not jeopardized the concept of ethnic identity and membership), thus supporting findings by other authors(e.g., Myhill 2004, Weis 2000) that the maintenance of ethnic identity among Jews over the centuries has often been strengthened bycultural (religious, traditional, literary, etc.) rather than linguistic criteria. From the theoretical standpoint, this research clearly supports the view that the construction of ethnicity and ethnic identity should be viewed as a complex process in which different factors (language being only one of them) have different values and saliency at different points in time (e.g., see Fishman 1989; 1999)
Fear of the “New Human Being”: On the Intersection of Antisemitism, Antifeminism and Nationalism in the Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ)
Abstract: In current political developments in Europe and the USA, it is striking that a strengthening of nationalism goes hand in hand with certain gender stereotypes, and often this discourse is also linked to moments of antisemitism. Using the example of the Austrian Freedom Party, this chapter analyses this mutual interplay of ideologies and elaborates in particular on the question of how and to what extent an antisemitism that is not expressed openly, can latently be effective in nationalism and antifeminism. Especially against the background of the taboo of manifest and racist antisemitism in the Western, post-national-socialist political public sphere in Germany and Austria, an analysis of this phenomenon is highly relevant. I call this phenomenon the intersectionality of ideologies. It can provide insight into whether antisemitism, as sometimes pretended, has actually been overcome, or whether it is not in fact effective within other ideologies, such as nationalism or antifeminism. The chapter will therefore focus on an analysis of the similarities of antisemitic and antifeminist discourses in the Austrian Freedom Party and their contribution to the strengthening of a nationalist collective.
Topics: Main Topic: Holocaust and Memorial, Holocaust Survivors, Holocaust Survivors: Children of, Holocaust Commemoration, Holocaust, Jewish Community, Restitution and Reparations
Abstract: The question of the destiny of despoiled Jewish property and its restitution or compensation to the survivors came onto the international and national scene at the beginning of the 1990s. The year 1995 marks both the last of the fiftieth anniversaries of the main dates of the persecution of the French Jews and the ensuing destruction of part of the community, and a break in the constant return to the memory of destruction. The restitution, like the compensation, was given to the Jews as individuals. The chapter evaluates the extent of the despoliation and indicates to which entities, physical or moral, it was beneficial. The first problem concerns the evolution of the Jewish community in France. In this field the Mission's recommendation for the use of money coming from the deprived properties marks a stage. The second problem concerns the particular approach connected with the time of the Holocaust.
Translated Title: Judaism in Switzerland: Religious, cultural and political identity
Abstract: The article analyzes material gathered for the project “Vojvodina Holocaust Memorials”, which studies patterns of Holocaust commemoration in Vojvodina. This comprises pioneering research that seeks to contribute to contemporary discussions on cultural memory, introducing the case of the Vojvodina Holocaust memorials. The article focuses on memorials located in Jewish cemeteries and at the sites of destroyed synagogues. After an introduction and brief historical survey of Vojvodina’s Jewry, the article provides more detailed analysis of the memorials and commemoration patterns of the Holocaust victims developed by both the Jewish and general community.
On Morphological Gender and Case-Marking in Hasidic Yiddish: Initial Evidence from the Stamford Hill Hasidim
Topics: Birth, Family and Household, Age and Generational Issues, Main Topic: Other, Post-1989, Language
Abstract: The study is based on onymic material from birthday and death notices of members of Czech Jewish communities published regularly in the bulletin Roš Chodeš (646 names), and on a sociological survey organised on-line (26 respondents). The choice of civil names for Jewish children born in the post-war period was influenced by the political and social climate in communist Czechoslovakia. Names popular with the Czech majority were preferred because Czech Jews had a tendency to hide their identity. After the revolution of 1989 and the fall of communism, the situation changed. Since then, we can see the return of traditional Hebrew names given to (not only) Jewish children. Looking for Jewish roots and interest in Judaism, brings the choice of “religious” names in adulthood that could be used only for synagogue, or publicly as second given names.
Translated Title: Identity and Assimilation: Jews and Roma in Romania
Abstract: Dieser Beitrag untersucht den Kampf der OSZE gegen den Antisemitismus und unterstreicht die Sicherheitsbedenken jüdischer Gemeinden und die Bedeutung einer gemeinsamen Definition von Antisemitismus. Ausgehend von den Erfahrungen des Autors in seiner Rolle als Persönlicher Beauftragter des Amtierenden Vorsitzenden der OSZE für die Bekämpfung des Antisemitismus beleuchtet der Beitrag auch Herausforderungen, die sich aus der Organisationsstruktur, der Finanzierung und den Entscheidungsprozessen der OSZE ergeben, und erörtert Möglichkeiten, die Rolle der OSZE bei der Bekämpfung des Antisemitismus zu stärken.