Search results

Your search found 641 items
You ran an advanced options search Previous | Next
Sort: Relevance | Topics | Title | Author | Publication Year
turned off because more than 500 resultsView all
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 > >>
Home  / Search Results
Author(s): Kovács, András
Date: 2006
Abstract: [From the introduction to the article]
Between March and November 1999, under the auspices of the Minority Research Institute of the Department of Sociology, Eötvös Loránd University, I conducted a sociological survey of the current situation of the Jewish community in Hungary. In the course of the survey, 2015 respondents were interviewed. The most important demographic and social data were collected for four generations – from respondents’ grandparents to their children. Participants in the survey were asked to respond to questions concerning their relationship towards Jewish traditions and their acceptance or rejection of various forms of Jewish identity. They were also asked for their opinions on assimilation, integration and dissimilation, on Israel, and on the current significance of the Holocaust. Finally, an attempt was made to gauge the opinions of Hungarian Jews on the state of their own community, on their relationships with non-Jews, and on antisemitism in postcommunist Hungary.
My purpose in this article shall be to analyse the data that we collected in this latter area. Firstly, I shall reveal how Jews living in Hungary define antisemitism, and whether – when it comes to classifying particular statements as antisemitic – there are any significant differences between younger and older groups of Jews, between those who are better educated and those with less education, and between those with a stronger and those with a weaker sense of Jewish identity. I shall then explore how the various respondent groups judge the extent, intensity and gravity of anti-Jewish sentiment in the country, examining in particular whether respondents themselves have experienced such sentiment or have been subjected to discrimination. I shall reveal whether respondents think that antisemitism will increase or decrease in the coming years. Finally, I shall touch upon the policies that respondents consider desirable when it comes to tackling antisemitic phenomena. Evidently, the images formed by Jews and non-Jews shall determine in large part the relations between the two groups of one other.
Author(s): Loentz, Elizabeth
Date: 2006
Abstract: Minority and immigrant Germans' embrace of the derogatory term Kanake as a self-ascription and of the low-status ethnolect Kanak Sprak has been compared to US rappers' combative use of "niggah" and Black English. This essay, however, compares the revaluation of the term Kanake, a non-assimilatory Kanak identity, and the ethnolect Kanak Sprak to some early 20th century German Jews' revaluation and embrace of Eastern European Jewish culture and Yiddish. It demonstrates also how non-minority and non-Jewish Germans have used Yiddish and Kanak Sprak in literature, theater, film, and popular culture to re-inscribe ethnic difference, especially at times when minorities and Jews were becoming indistinguishable from non-minority Germans (emancipation edicts or nationality law reform). Because Kanak Sprak is inseparable from HipHop culture, the second half of the essay examines the many parallels between the importation and naturalization of German HipHop and German Klezmer. Both were imported from the United States in the early 1980s; and following the fall of the Berlin Wall and German re-unification, both have played a role in German Vergangenheitsbewältigung [mastering the past]. While HipHop and Klezmer have become the soundtrack of German anti-racism, anti-Nazism, and multiculturalism; some observers are critical of non-minority and non-Jewish Germans' appropriation or instrumentalization of ethnic music, and have cited instances of antisemitism and racism in German Klezmer and HipHop.
Translated Title: 2005 Report
Date: 2006
Abstract: Ce rapport contient:

une analyse générale;
une comparaison des actes antisémites pour les années 2000 à 2006;
le total des actes antisémites pour l’année 2006;
le total des incidents par type d’incident;
le total des incidents par type de cible;
ainsi que le total des incidents par ville.

Analyse des incidents antisémites recensés au cours de l’année 2005

Du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2005, 60 incidents antisémites ont été recensés en Belgique. Les villes les plus touchées sont Bruxelles et Anvers, suivent la région du Brabant wallon (banlieue sud de Bruxelles), Knokke, Namur et Eupen. Certains actes touchent plus largement toute la Belgique de par la spécificité du support (presse écrite, internet…).

Deux constats clairs peuvent être mis en avant pour cette année 2005 et confirment clairement les tendances rencontrées en 2004.

Le premier est le maintient d’un nombre important d’incidents à Anvers. Alors qu’en 2002, sur les 62 incidents recensés, 7 seulement ont été perpétrés à Anvers et que, pour l’année 2003, on n’en a compté que 3 sur 28, en 2004, 20 incidents antisémites ont été recensés sur Anvers et 19 nouveaux ont pu être enregistrés pour l’année 2005.

Quant au second constat, il pointe la différence claire de la nature des incidents antisémites entre Anvers et les autres villes du pays. Sur la base des incidents recensés, 75% des attaques sur les personnes ont été perpétrées à l’encontre de membres de la Communauté juive anversoise. A Bruxelles, on relève par contre une grande augmentation des actes de vandalisme (croix gammées, celtiques…).

Ces constats ne relèvent aucunement du hasard et plusieurs raisons peuvent être avancées pour le confirmer. Tout d’abord, la grande majorité des victimes d’actes antisémites à Anvers sont les juifs orthodoxes. Ceux-ci sont victimes de bien plus d’actes antisémites que ceux recensés. Seulement, ces victimes ne réagissent que très peu. Ce n’est que grâce à un travail de sensibilisation des organisations juives anversoises que les victimes issues de de la communauté orthodoxe prennent maintenant de plus en plus l’initiative de déposer plainte. Cette tranche de la communauté est plus facilement reconnaissable en tant que juive de par l’habillement de ses membres et constitue par conséquent une cible beaucoup plus facilement repérable pour les auteurs d’agression. Enfin, l’AEL (Arab European League) est très bien implantée dans la Communauté arabo-musulmane anversoise. Ses nombreux communiqués sur l’actualité au Proche-Orient, visant à combattre l’ennemi sioniste et à stigmatiser Anvers comme la capitale du sionisme européen, devant, à leurs yeux, devenir la Mecque du combat pour la liberté du peuple palestinien, importent le conflit et amènent des jeunes habilement manipulés à commettre de tels actes.

Le nombre d’actes antisémites peut paraître élevé puisqu’il égale presque les 62 actes recensés en 2002, année où s’est déroulée en Israël l’« Opération Rempart », opération qui a fait des vagues partout dans le monde et a, entre autres en Belgique et en France, été prétexte à l’importation du conflit et au passage à l’acte antisémite de certains au nom de l’antisionisme. Le nombre élevé d’actes antisémites ne signifie pas pour autant qu’il y a une augmentation de l’antisémitisme en Belgique mais est plutôt le résultat d’une meilleure communication des incidents et d’une meilleure collaboration avec les autorités compétentes.

Enfin, au niveau politique, deux résolutions du Sénat et du Parlement bruxellois ont été adoptées afin de demander aux autorités compétentes de réagir plus fermement contre l’antisémitisme, en poursuivant de façon systématique les auteurs d’actes antisémites, négationnistes et révisionnistes. Il est également demandé aux autorités compétentes de prendre toutes les mesures nécessaires pour assurer la protection nécessaire et indispensable des membres des diverses communautés dans le cadre de leurs pratiques religieuses ou lors de la fréquentation de leurs écoles et de leurs lieux communautaires. En 2004, l’ancienne ministre de l’Egalité des Chances, Marie Arena, avait déjà, suite à plusieurs actes antisémites graves, présenté un plan en 10 points pour lutter contre le racisme et l’antisémitisme. Toutes ces initiatives doivent encore être concrétisées dans les faits…
Author(s): Pinner, Hana
Date: 2006
Abstract: This philosophy addresses the complex educational issues arising in Anglo-Jewish education catering for a community which is rooted in two cultures: the Jewish-Orthodox and the Western-liberal, a community that incorporates all aspects of Western culture that do not conflict with Jewish law or its value system. Underpinned by diverse ontologies and epistemologies these cultures differ in many aspects, most significantly for educators, in their value systems and therefore in the hermeneutic understanding of the "excellences" to be designated as ultimate and proximate aims for the education. Whereas the liberal Western culture endorses anti-authoritarian, individual autonomy, the Jewish thesis endorses such only in areas for which Jewish law has not legislated. For all other, free choices are to be exercised against the divinely commanded value system. The National Curriculum, through which secular subjects are delivered, and Judaism both require holism in education. In both, all knowledge is to serve also as a vehicle for pupils' overall personal and social growth: the cognitive/intellectual, ethical, spiritual and physical. Since holism necessarily has to be governed by an overall organic quality of wholeness, in which all the educational aims permeate every area of education, it is axiomatic that contradictions in the aims cannot be accommodated within any specific educational structure. This unitary philosophy responds to the requirements of holism by establishing an educational structure which, in itself, is free of conflict. This is achievable due to the liberal National Curriculum's acceptance, qua being liberal, of non-public values to overlay the statutory political ones in the entire school's curriculum — which, for Jewish education is the Halakhic value system. A conflict-free philosophy, however, does not guarantee conflict-free development of pupils who live their lives within both the Jewish thesis and the all pervasive, multi-media imposed Western culture. The unitary philosophy sets out strategies for dealing with these conflicts within carefully structured programmes.
Author(s): Rozenberg, Danielle
Date: 2006
Abstract: Après plusieurs siècles d'oubli consécutifs à l'expulsion des juifs d'Espagne, ce pays a redécouvert, voici quelque cent cinquante ans, la diaspora judéo-espagnole et le lien historique avec les descendants des exilés de 1492. Rencontres et évitements ; nostalgie envers une culture survivant hors des frontières et visées néo-coloniales en Méditerranée ; solidarité affichée à l'égard des " Espagnols sans patrie " ; mais refus de rapatriements aux heures sombres des pogroms et de la Shoah ; d'innombrables ambiguïtés ponctuent les étapes du rapprochement hispano- juif, jusqu'au sauvetage des juifs par Franco durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. La " question juive ", s'est nourrie en Espagne d'affrontements parlementaires à propos de la liberté religieuse, des échos de l'affaire Dreyfus ou encore de l'édition des Protocoles des sages de Sion. Paradoxe : la marginalisation des Chuetas de Majorque, la persistance d'un antijudaïsme populaire, la création, en 1941, d'un Fichier juif se sont conjuguées avec l'exaltation de Sefarad. Aujourd'hui se dessinent de nouveaux enjeux politiques et mémoriels : statut de la judaïcité espagnole issue d'immigrations récentes, réappropriations du legs médiéval, dialogue avec les différentes instances du judaïsme mondial. En focalisant l'éclairage à la fois sur la longue durée et ses principaux temps forts, cet ouvrage entend restituer dans toute sa complexité la lente normalisation des relations hispano-juives contemporaines
Date: 2006
Abstract: Are Jews today still the carriers of a single and identical collective identity and do they still constitute a single people? This two-fold question arises when one compares a Hassidi Habad from Brooklyn, a Jewish professor at a secular university in Brussels, a traditional Yemeni Jew still living in Sana’a, a Galilee kibbutznik, or a Russian Jew in Novossibirsk. Is there still today a significant relationship between these individuals who all subscribe to Judaism? The analysis shows that the Jewish identity is multiple and can be explained by considering all variants as “surface structures” of the three universal “deep structures” central to the notion of collective identity, namely, collective commitment, perceptions of the collective’s singularity, and positioning vis-à-vis “others.”

Contents:

Preface
Judaism and the culture of memory /Thomas Gergely
Introduction
European Jewry and Klal Yisrael /Eliezer Ben-Rafael, Thomas Gergely, and Yosef Gorny
Is the French model in decline? /Pierre Birnbaum
Case of Belgium /Jean-Philippe Schreiber
Identity of Dutch Jews /Ludo Abicht
Russian-Jewish immigration to Germany /Julius H. Schoeps, Willi Jasper, and Olaf Glöckner
Religiosity, praxis, and tradition in contemporary Hungarian Jewry /András Kovács
Being Jewish in Romania after the second world war /Carol Iangu
Jewish identity, memory, and anti-Semitism /Maurice Konopnicki
Siamese twins: religion and secularism in Jewish national thought /Yosef Gorny
Israeli identity and mission in Buber's thought /Shalom Ratzabi
Sovereignty, voluntarism, and Jewish identity: Nathan Rotenstreich /Avi Bareli
On religious-secular tensions /Avi Sagi
Religious-secular cleavage in contemprary Israel /Yochanan Peres
On European Jewish Orthodoxy, Sephardic tradition, and the Shas movement /Zvi Zohar
Ultra-Orthodox, Orthodox, and secular women in college /Lior Ben-Chaim Rafael
Challenge of secularism to Jewish survival in Abba Hillel Silver's thinking /Ofer Shiff
Identities of Jewish American women /Suzanne Vromen
Jews and secularization: a challenge or a prospect? /Guy Haarscher
Submission and subversion before the law /Rivon Krygier
Tradition of diaspora and political reality of the state of Israel /David Meyer
Diaspora museum and Israeli-Jewish identity /Dina Porat
Jewish transnational community and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem /Uri Cohen
Contemporary dilemmas of identity: Israel and the diaspora /Eliezer Ben-Rafael
Was the Shoah the "sanctification of God"? /Thomas Gergely.
Author(s): Švob, Melita
Date: 2006
Abstract: The initiative for Survey is given by Research and Documentation centre for
Holocaust victims and survivors in Zagreb, with support by Jewish community
Zagreb, Claims conference research funds and JOINT.
This is the second social Survey on the same population of Jewish community in
Zagreb. First survey which was realized before ten years – in 1995, had a great
success by providing with relevant data social and humanitarian work in Community,
what was important at that time, after the war in ex-Yugoslavia.
With the present research in 2005, we wish to obtain a key informant survey to
facilitate community social work, with respects to the needs of the Jewish elderly and
the implication of the aging in the Jewish community.
Objectives of the survey is to describe actual and recent situation and needs for the
elderly members of community older than 65 years, and to renew and support social
work, voluntaries actions and solidarity in the Jewish communities.
In the last ten years, between two surveys, we can perceive several mayor changes
in demographic, social, economical and health situation of the elderly, mainly
holocaust survivors:
‰ Increased proportion of elderly persons in the Jewish population in Croatia
‰ Increased proportion of persons, aged 75 years and more in the population of
elderly
‰ The rise in the number of persons aged 75 and more, increase the number of
disabled elderly
‰ Restrictions of public basic medical care and decline of public social welfare
expenditure
‰ Worsening of the economical situation and lowering standard of living
‰ Changes in the role of the Jewish family in caring for the elderly
‰ Lack of the data in community on the needs of the elderly
Author(s): Polikar, Samy
Date: 2006
Author(s): Toktaş, Şule
Date: 2006
Abstract: Contemporary liberal democracies confront governance problems elicited by the discord between the principles of equality and difference, and between the concepts of majority and minority. Citizenship came to be recognized as a vital governance tool in response to this challenge evidenced by growing academic and political interest in the concept. The basic precept that citizenship refers to is a constitutionality-based relationship between the individual and the state, implying a unique, reciprocal, and unmediated bond between the individual and the political community.

It is argued that citizenship has three main aspects. First is the legal status aspect, which enfolds citizenship in terms of civil, political, and social rights, plus duties such as obeying laws, paying taxes, and performing military service. The second aspect is the identity dimension of citizenship, which regards individuals' membership in different social and political groups in multiple categories of race, class, ethnicity, religion, gender, profession, and sexuality. The third aspect is related to citizens' capacities, responsibilities, and willingness to cooperate, in short the civic virtue that the citizens possess and perform. The sense of identity that citizens have; their maneuvers to deal with competing identities; their willingness to participate in collective decisions and access to political processes; their sense of belonging to the social, political, and economic order; and their initiative potency all refer to different features of civic virtue. All in all, modern citizenship is perceived as the combination of legal status, social roles, and moral attributes that necessitate "good citizenry."

It has been suggested that these three aspects of citizenship—legal status, identity, and civic virtue—are interrelated; as the sensitivity to identities increases, demands for legal rights increase correspondingly. It is also claimed that identity affects the way people perform their duty of civic participation and their conception of responsibility. From another point of view, it is also argued that the three components of citizenship conflict with one another under certain circumstances. For instance, claims for cultural recognition of minorities may conflict with equal citizenship status. An empirical investigation of citizenship is complementary to understanding the interaction between these three aspects. This study undertakes the crucial task of providing evidence from the field to illuminate the complex correlations and divergences within citizenship and the relational bond between the legal status, identity, and civic virtue aspects.

In this article, the results of qualitative research on a particular group of citizens—Turkish citizens with Jewish background—are discussed in the light of the parameters set above. The study provides empirical evidence to illuminate the dynamics at stake in the relationship between the legal status, identity, and civic virtue aspects in the specificity of Turkey's Jews and the conduct of Turkish citizenship. With the use of in-depth interviews conducted with the sample group of Jews, the study attempts to understand how being a non-Muslim minority group living in a Muslim-predominant society influences the perceptions and experiences regarding citizenship.

The discussion developed in the article is presented in three parts. In the first part, an overview of Turkish citizenship and the status of non-Muslim minorities per se is put forth. This part also sets forth the essentials of Turkish citizenship with its legal status, identity, and civic virtue aspects. In addition, the paradoxical consequences of the dominant paradigms inherent in citizenship in Turkey regarding non-Muslim minorities are demonstrated. The second part focuses on the field research conducted with the Jewish community in Turkey. After a brief summary of methodology and a portrayal of the general characteristics of the sample group, it discusses how members of Turkey's Jewish community experience and perceive Turkish citizenship through its aspects of legal status, identity, and civic virtue. The respondents' perceptions and experiences regarding being Turkish citizens and a non-Muslim minority are also covered. The third part offers a discussion on Turkish citizenship in the light of the research results and gives a citizen-centric account through the lenses of respondents.
Author(s): Mitchell, Bruce
Date: 2006
Abstract: Language Politics and Language Survival: Yiddish among the haredim in post-war Britainra" outlines the history and development of the Yiddish language as it is used among Ultra-Orthodox Jews in contemporary Britain. The language policies of these communities are analysed and placed within the greater socio-historical and religious context of rabbinic justifications for the use of Jewish languages, and of Yiddish in particular. Reasons for the general abandonment of Yiddish outside of the la"haredira" world are also summarized and placed in juxtaposition with the Yiddish language of loyalty of the la"haredimra". Yiddish language and corpus planning in la"haredira" schools is analysed using communal documents and newspaper articles, educational assessments of Jewish schools compiled by la"Her Majesty's Inspectorsra", a number of interviews with communal educators, tape recordings of lessons given in Yiddish, and observations made during my own visits to la"haredira" educational institutions. A significant part of this book is dedicated to the analysis of the Yiddish language itself as it is currently used in Britain. The analysis of spoken Yiddish is based on recordings of speech patterns collected in the course of field work in la"haredira" schools in London and Manchester and focuses primarily on dialectal usage based on religious sect and the geographic region within Britain. A brief sociological analysis of la"haredira" literature in Yiddish is provided in order to demonstrate the ideological function of Yiddish language texts in contemporary Britain, and in the la"haredira" world in general. The primary materials used for this are texts produced by, and published within, the la"haredira" communities of Britain.
Author(s): Glässer, Norbert
Date: 2006