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Author(s): Dajč, Haris
Date: 2017
Abstract: Once one of the most numerous and prosperous minorities in Yugoslavia, the number of Jews declined from over 80,000 to 15,000 in the years aer WW2. is number further decreased due to migration to Israel in the first post-war years, and further impoverishment took place because of confiscation and restitution of the majority of private and communal Jewish property, and enforced renouncing of Yugoslav citizenship. e first multi-party elections in Yugoslavia brought to power nationalist elements in all republics, which was followed by civil war, and the breaking of socialist Yugoslavia. Jews of Yugoslavia found themselves on different warring sides. Fragmentation on all confronted sides made the Jewish community even more vulnerable. A huge majority of former Warsaw Pact members aer the Berlin wall fell passed laws for restitution of property taken by the state in post WW2 period. Jews of Yugoslavia, in several new states, had promises from state offi cials that their property would be restituted and errors made half a century ago would be rectified. e only case where such a promise came true was Serbia. In 2011 Serbia passed General Restitution Law concerning individuals, therefore also Jews. In 2006 Serbia passed Law on property of the religious communities that also included Jewish community and that helped restitution of the Jewish communal property. e state of Serbia is the only state in the region that passed the Jewish Lex Specialis that concerns on Jewish property with no successor but also unclaimed Jewish property in February 2016. Croatia passed a General Restitution Law in 1996, and amended it in 2002, but it only affects property nationalized aer May 1945. at Law is limited to direct successors who are Croatian citizens or citizens of countries which have bilateral agreements with Croatia. Due to very high taxes, in some cases reaching 25% of property value, a lot of Jewish requests remained unsolved. Bosnia and Herzegovina is one of the rare European countries that did not pass such a law. Moreover, the BIH constitution declares three constituent nations: Serbs, Croats and Bosnians, while others as minorities cannot be nominated for state positions, according to chapters IV and V of the BIH constitution (Sejdić and Finci v. Bosnia and Herzegovina). is paper aims to give insight into the economic power of Jews just before the breakdown of Yugoslavia, and the current economic situation of Jewish communities in Serbia, Croatia and BIH, with a special emphasis on their economic, legal and social position in the last two decades. is restitution issue is very important for it shows how much goodwill states have for helping their local Jewish communities. e research material is obtained from local Jewish communities, periodicals, reports, interviews, conferences, scientific journals and statistical data of all three states and various Jewish organization. Facing the past, admitting and rectifying remain open issues in those countries, and they are excellent indicators of the progress achieved in the last 25 years.
Author(s): Volmert, Miriam
Date: 2017
Author(s): Kapralski, Slawomir
Date: 2017
Abstract: The argument focuses on the reception of the globalized narrative of the Holocaust in the regional memories of East‐Central Europe, in particular Poland. It is argued that this narrative has not been successfully integrated into the regional memory, partly because of the narrative's own deficiencies and partly due to the specific nature of the way in which regional memories have been produced. Instead, it has contributed to the split of collective and social memories in the region as well as to further fragmentation of each of these two kinds of memory. In result we may say that in post‐communist Poland the Holocaust has been commemorated on the level of official institutions, rituals of memory, and elitist discourses, but not necessarily remembered on the level of social memory. It is claimed that to understand this phenomenon we should put the remembrance and commemoration of the Holocaust in the context of the post‐communist transformation, in which the memory of the Holocaust has been constructed rather than retrieved in the process of re‐composition of identities that faced existential insecurity. The non‐Jewish Poles, who in the 1990s experienced the structural trauma of transformation, turned to the past not to learn the truth but to strengthen the group's sense of continuity in time. In this process many of them perceived the cosmopolitan Holocaust narrative as an instrument of the economic/cultural colonization of Eastern Europe in which the historical suffering of the non‐Jewish East Europeans is not properly recognized. Thus the elitist efforts to reconnect with the European discourse and to critically examine one's own identity has clashed with the mainstream's politics of mnemonic security as part of the strategy of collective immortalization that contributed to the development of antagonistic memories and deepened social cleavage.
Date: 2017
Author(s): Leite, Naomi
Date: 2017
Abstract: How are local understandings of identity, relatedness, and belonging transformed in a global era? How does international tourism affect possibilities for who one can become?

In urban Portugal today, hundreds of individuals trace their ancestry to 15th century Jews forcibly converted to Catholicism, and many now seek to rejoin the Jewish people as a whole. For the most part, however, these self-titled Marranos ("hidden Jews") lack any direct experience of Jews or Judaism, and Portugal's tiny, tightly knit Jewish community offers no clear path of entry. According to Jewish law, to be recognized as a Jew one must be born to a Jewish mother or pursue religious conversion, an anathema to those who feel their ancestors' Judaism was cruelly stolen from them. After centuries of familial Catholicism, and having been refused inclusion locally, how will these self-declared ancestral Jews find belonging among "the Jewish family," writ large? How, that is, can people rejected as strangers face-to-face become members of a global imagined community - not only rhetorically, but experientially?

Leite addresses this question through intimate portraits of the lives and experiences of a network of urban Marranos who sought contact with foreign Jewish tourists and outreach workers as a means of gaining educational and moral support in their quest. Exploring mutual imaginings and direct encounters between Marranos, Portuguese Jews, and foreign Jewish visitors, Unorthodox Kin deftly tracks how visions of self and kin evolve over time and across social spaces, ending in an unexpected path to belonging. In the process, the analysis weaves together a diverse set of current anthropological themes, from intersubjectivity to international tourism, class structures to the construction of identity, cultural logics of relatedness to transcultural communication.

A compelling evocation of how ideas of ancestry shape the present, how feelings of kinship arise among far-flung strangers, and how some find mystical connection in a world said to be disenchanted, Unorthodox Kin will appeal to a wide audience interested in anthropology, sociology, Jewish studies, and religious studies. Its accessible, narrative-driven style makes it especially well suited for introductory and advanced courses in general cultural anthropology, ethnography, theories of identity and social categorization, and the study of globalization, kinship, tourism, and religion.
Date: 2017
Author(s): Schult, Tanja
Date: 2017
Author(s): Amit, Hila
Date: 2017
Abstract: Looking at different perspectives and practices regarding Hebrew’s use or place of use, this chapter seeks to find connections between perceptions of diasporic Hebrew as they are envisioned and practiced in contemporary Berlin. What are the various events and activities taking place with regards to Hebrew in contemporary Berlin? How do Hebrew texts written today in Berlin correspond to the work of Scholem, Rosenzweig and others? Who are the people behind these activities and texts, and what is the political significance of their activities?

The article will open with a description of important notions of Zionist ideology. Then, I will describe briefly main aspects relevant to Israeli emigration. I will explain the importance of the city of Berlin to the Hebrew culture starting from the 18th century, as well as a Zionist center in the first half of the 20st century. The last two sections of this article will explore two figures of Israeli emigrants and their activities in contemporary Berlin. I will follow the activist Tal Hever-Chybowski, who claims to have established the first literary journal to be published in Hebrew in Europe since 1944 (entitled: Mikan Va'eilah - “from here and onwards”). Hever- Chybowski describes his motivation in the following words: “The goal of the journal is to become a literary cultural platform for non-hegemonic and non-sovereign Hebrew, a Hebrew that is free from the shackles of nationality and territory.” I say “claim to have established,” because this journal is not yet published, even though Hever-Chybowski describes it as if it is.

I will also follow the work of Mati Shemoeluf, a Hebrew author working in Berlin, who described the wonders of a Hebrew Library in Berlin. Shemoeluf, just like Hever-Chybowski, can be criticized for his embellishments of reality, since the Hebrew library – at least as Shemoeluf describes it - does not really exist. What are their political motivations, and what form of political activity are they practicing, are the questions I address in this chapter.
Date: 2017
Abstract: Le nombre d’actes antisémites ayant donné lieu à un dépôt de plainte est passé de 808 en 2015 à 335 en 2016. Soit une baisse de 58%.

Le déploiement du plan de protection statique par l’opération Sentinelle à travers la France a, selon toute vraisemblance, contribué activement et dans des délais courts à cette baisse. Les effets à moyen et long termes des plans gouvernementaux luttant contre le racisme et l’antisémitisme sont très attendus pour continuer à réduire le nombre d’actes racistes et antisémites encore trop nombreux.

Relevons derrière ces chiffres encourageants certaines réalités qui doivent être intégrées à
l’analyse :

-L’ultra violence et le terrorisme, qui ciblent les Juifs en France, éclipsent souvent l’antisémitisme « du quotidien ». De très nombreuses victimes d’agressions verbales ou de violences légères antisémites ne déposent plus plainte. Elles cèdent à une
habituation ou à une banalisation. Le curseur de l’antisémitisme est allé si loin dans la terreur que les « signaux plus faibles » ne sont plus dénoncés ; alors que leur gravité et conséquences désastreuses restent entières.

-1 acte raciste sur 3 commis en France en 2016 est dirigé contre un Juif alors que les Juifs représentent moins de 1% de la population.

-Depuis de nombreuses années, il existe un glissement fort des propagandes et discours antisémites des anciens supports vers Internet. Or, à ce jour, le recensement exhaustif des incitations à la haine ou à la violence antisémites sur le Net n’existe pas.

-L'antisionisme et la haine d'Israël grandissants œuvrent comme des paravents masquant, décomplexant, voire légitimant l’antisémitisme. Comment mesurer et étudier un phénomène pour le combattre si on lui permet de se dissimuler ? Comment
cautionner un délit par un autre délit ?
Date: 2017
Abstract: Denne rapport beskriver og analyserer antallet af registrerede antisemitiske hændelser i Danmark i 2016. Rapporten er udarbejdet på grundlag af anmeldelser til AKVAH, der udgør en del af Det Jødiske Samfunds sikkerhedsorganisation.

AKVAH har i 2016 registreret 22 antisemitiske hændelser i Danmark fordelt på følgende kategorier: Forsøg på drab, trusler, antisemitiske ytringer, hærværk og anden chikane. Hændelserne fordeler sig på ét tilfælde af forsøg på drab, to tilfælde af trusler, 17 tilfælde af antisemitiske ytringer, et tilfælde af hærværk og et tilfælde af anden chikane. Ud af de 22 registrerede antisemitiske hændelser er der tre hændelser, hvor det er vurderet, at de alene kan betegnes som potentielt antisemitiske.

De 22 registrerede antisemitiske hændelser i 2016 er fire hændelser færre end antallet af
registrerede hændelser i 2015, der var på 26. Den eneste stigning i antallet af registrerede hændelser er sket inden for kategorien antisemitiske ytringer. I 2015 registrerede AKVAH 11 tilfælde af antisemitiske ytringer, som var den største hændelsesgruppe i det daværende år. Dette antal steg i 2016 til 17 registrerede tilfælde. Kategorien udgør således stadigvæk den største hændelsesgruppe.

Antallet af trusler, antallet af overfaldssituationer og fysisk chikane samt antallet af hærværkshændelser er derimod faldet. I 2015 blev der registreret syv tilfælde af trusler, mens der i 2016 blev registreret to tilfælde. Ligeledes blev der i 2015 registreret fire tilfælde af overfaldssituationer og fysisk chikane, mens der i 2016 ikke er blevet registreret sådanne tilfælde.

Der er også sket et fald i antallet af hærværksepisoder. I 2016 blev der registreret et tilfælde af hærværk, hvilket er et fald på to tilfælde i forhold til 2015. I både 2015 og 2016 er der blevet registreret ét tilfælde af kategorien drab og drabsforsøg. Generelt set er der registeret et samlet fald i antallet af ”grovere” antisemitiske hændelser fra 2015 til 2016.
Date: 2017
Abstract: Background: The English National Health Service (NHS) has significantly extended the supply of evidence based
psychological interventions in primary care for people experiencing common mental health problems. Yet despite
the extra resources, the accessibility of services for ‘under-served’ ethnic and religious minority groups, is considerably
short of the levels of access that may be necessary to offset the health inequalities created by their different exposure
to services, resulting in negative health outcomes. This paper offers a critical reflection upon an initiative that sought
to improve access to an NHS funded primary care mental health service to one ‘under-served’ population, an
Orthodox Jewish community in the North West of England.

Methods: A combination of qualitative and quantitative data were drawn upon including naturally occurring data,
observational notes, e-mail correspondence, routinely collected demographic data and clinical outcomes measures, as
well as written feedback and recorded discussions with 12 key informants.

Results: Improvements in access to mental health care for some people from the Orthodox Jewish community were
achieved through the collaborative efforts of a distributed leadership team. The members of this leadership team
were a self-selecting group of stakeholders which had a combination of local knowledge, cultural understanding,
power to negotiate on behalf of their respective constituencies and expertise in mental health care. Through a process
of dialogic engagement the team was able to work with the community to develop a bespoke service that
accommodated its wish to maintain a distinct sense of cultural otherness.

Conclusions: This critical reflection illustrates how dialogic engagement can further the mechanisms of candidacy,
concordance and recursivity that are associated with improvements in access to care in under-served sections of the
population, whilst simultaneously recognising the limits of constructive dialogue. Dialogue can change the dynamic of
community engagement. However, the full alignment of the goals of differing constituencies may not always be
possible, due the complex interaction between the multiple positions and understandings of stakeholders that are
involved and the need to respect the other’-s’ autonomy.
Date: 2017
Abstract: Faith schools represent controversial aspects of England’s educational politics, yet they have been largely overlooked as sites for geographical analysis. Moreover, although other social science disciplines have attended to a range of questions regarding faith schools, some important issues remain underexamined. In particular, contestation within ethnic and religious groups regarding notions of identity have generally been ignored in an educational context, whilst the majority of research into Jewish schools more specifically has failed to attend to the personal qualities of Jewishness. The interrelationships between faith schools (of all kinds) and places of worship have also received minimal attention. In response, this investigation draws upon a range of theoretical approaches to identity in order to illustrate how Jewish schools are implicated in the changing spatiality and performance of individuals’ Jewishness. Central to this research is a case study of the Jewish Community Secondary School (JCoSS), England’s only pluralist Jewish secondary school, with more extensive elements provided by interviews with other stakeholders in Anglo-Jewry. Parents often viewed Jewish schools as a means of attaining a highly-regarded ‘secular’ academic education in a Jewish school, whilst also enabling their children to socialise with other Jews. In the process, synagogues’ traditional functions of education and socialisation have been co-opted by Jewish schools, revealing a shift in the spatiality of young people’s Anglo-Jewish identity practices. Furthermore, JCoSS, as well as many synagogues, have come to represent spaces of contestation over ‘authentic’ Jewishness, given widely varying conceptualisations of ‘proper’ Jewish practice and identity amongst parents, pupils and rabbis. Yet, although JCoSS offers its pupils considerable autonomy to determine their practices, such choice is not limitless, revealing an inherent dilemma in inclusivity. The thesis thus explores how different manifestations of Jewishness are constructed, practised and problematised in a school space (which itself is dynamic and contested), and beyond.
Date: 2017
Abstract: The study investigates the main motives for preservation of sites of Jewish heritage tourism (JHT) by studying three locations in Macedonia: Skopje (the capital), Štip (the largest city in the east part of Macedonia) and Bitola (the largest city in the southwest part of Macedonia). The article assesses the presence of several motivations, like: (i) Guilt; (ii) Interest in national history; (iii) Revival of a glorious Past; (iv) Economic benefits; (v) Display of sympathy; and (vi) Dark tourism development. The analysis is based on a qualitative research method and incorporates: (a) Qualitative data analysis, by conducting interviews in June 2016 with key stakeholders from central and local governments as the main policy makers; and (b) Analysis of secondary data sources, achieved by reviewing literature, historical, and statistical data related to Jewish history in Macedonia. Generally, the results point to the presence of strong iconic connection among Macedonians and the Jews that lived in Macedonia. The general findings indicate that by establishing and maintaining JH sites, stakeholders reflect sentiments of sympathy and even admiration to the perished Jewish community and a strong desire to revive a glorious past. Only in the case of Bitola, the potential economic benefits were surfaced as the main motive for initiating activities and investments in JH sites. Finally, the study recommends design and development of JHT product and tailor-made tourist packages as key elements that may boost tourism development in Macedonia alongside with commemoration of the Jews and their ties with the Macedonian people.
Editor(s): Meri, Josef
Date: 2017
Date: 2017
Abstract: Представленная книга документированных исследований А. Бураковского исторически охватывает 30-летний период развития социально-политической жизни Украины начиная с распада СССР и до 2016 года включительно. Книга содержит 10 глав и соответствуещее теме книги вступительное слово профессора истории Ивана Химки (John-Paul Himka). События в ней разворачиваются на фоне всех «майданов», начиная от первого — НРУ, и заканчивая «евромайданом», при президентах Л. Кравчуке, Л. Кучме, В. Ющенко, В. Януковиче — вплоть до революционного перехода власти в независимой Украине к ее 5-му президенту П.Порошенко. Все события в книге разворачиваются на фоне эволюции развития как украинского, так и еврейского возрождения, и их жесткого взаимовлияния. При этом автор, будучи долгое время в центре тех и других событий, большое внимание уделяет трансформации еврейско-украинских отношений, главным образом, уже в независимой Украине.
Date: 2017
Author(s): Kijek, Kamil
Date: 2017
Abstract: Artykuł ten przedstawia najważniejsze wątki krytycznej debaty wokół treści wystawy stałej Muzeum Historii Żydów Polskich Polin. Analizując różnice między dwoma polami badawczymi – studiami żydowskimi i studiami nad relacjami polsko-żydowskimi – autor broni tezy, że wiele krytycznych głosów w debacie wynika z niezrozumienia różnic między przedmiotem badań tych dwóch pól, po części wynikającego z obecnej sytuacji – panującego nacjonalizmu i etnocentryzmu, wywierających wpływ również na polskie debaty historyczne. Domaganie się od wystawy opowiadającej tysiącletnią historię Żydów na ziemiach polskich, aby koncentrowała się głównie na stosunku społeczeństwa większościowego do Żydów, grozi popełnieniem błędu teleologii, to jest interpretowaniem wcześniejszych wydarzeń i procesów jako nieuchronnie prowadzących do Zagłady, a także pomijaniem wszystkich tych elementów dziejów żydowskich, które z perspektywy Holokaustu i badań nad antysemityzmem nie mają znaczenia. Tego rodzaju postulaty i stojące za nimi metahistoryczne założenia grożą pozbawieniem Żydów roli podmiotów w ich własnej historii. Z drugiej strony autor tekstu wskazuje na elementy narracji wystawy stałej Muzeum Polin, w których rzeczywiście w niedostateczny sposób uwzględniona została problematyka antysemityzmu jako ważnego elementu żydowskiego doświadczenia i kluczowego czynnika dziejów Żydów w Polsce. Przywrócenie rzeczywistego dialogu i komunikacji pomiędzy przedstawicielami studiów żydowskich i badaczami relacji polsko-żydowskich, przy zachowaniu autonomii tych dwóch pól i zrozumieniu różnic pomiędzy nimi, jest też istotne z punktu widzenia niewątpliwych zagrożeń w postaci prób wykorzystania Muzeum Polin w budowie upolitycznionych, bezkrytycznych wizji historii Polski i stosunku Polaków do Żydów.

Author(s): Róna, Dániel
Date: 2017
Abstract: Az antiszemitizmus elleni küzdelem egyik legfontosabb feltétele a zsidóellenesség okainak pontos ismerete és az antiszemitizmus
valódi elterjedtségének vizsgálata. A Tett és Védelem Alapítvány (TEV) fő célja ezért a kérdést övező ismerethiány felszámolá-
sa. A TEV egyfelől havi rendszerességgel,szakmailag megalapozott módon fgyeli a magyar közéleti eseményeket és a sajtót, és
ezek alapján kimutatja az antiszemita megnyilvánulásokat és cselekedeteket. A rendszeres havi monitoringtevékenységgel összegyűjtött információk elemzése nélkül nem lehet valós védelmet biztosítani a közösség számára. Ebben az éves jelentésben a 2016 évi havi monitoringtevékenység eredményeit foglaljuk össze.

A jelentés kétféle cselekménnyel foglalkozik: az antiszemita gyűlölet-bűncselekményekkel, illetve a gyűlölet motiválta
incidensekkel. A jelentésben ezt a kettőt összefoglalóan gyűlöletcselekményeknek nevezzük. Mindkettő esetében fontos kritérium,
hogy azok elkövetésekor azonosítható az antiszemita motiváció. Az egyes kategóriák részletes meghatározása a módszertan fejezetben található.

Az események regisztrálásán kívül fontos azok különböző jellemzőinek számbavétele is. A havi jelentések adatait összegezve éves
jelentésünkben az eseteket incidenstípusokaz incidensek áldozatai és elkövetői, és a szervezettség szintje szerint elemeztük. 2016 -
ban az Alapítvány 48 antiszemita gyűlöletcselekményt azonosított: az esetszám csökkent a 2015. éves (52) monitoringtevékenység során zonosítottakhoz képest, de még mindig magasabb, mint a 2014. évi. (37). Az esetszámok havi hullámzása az elmúlt két év tendenciái alapján nagyfokú véletlenszerűséget mutatnak: politikai uborkaszezonban és évközben is tapasztaltunk már magasabb és alacsonyabb értékeket. A regisztrált cselekmények kicsivel több, mint háromnegyede, 77 százaléka a gyűlöletbeszéd kategóriájába tartozik, emellett még rongálást és fenyegetést észleltünk. A gyűlöletcselekmények kronológiáját külön fejezetben mutatjuk be.

A TEV nemcsak a közéleti-politikai antiszemita eseményeket térképezi fel, hanem a magyar társadalom zsidósághoz fűződő viszonyáról, ismereteiről és az antiszemitizmus elterjedtségéről szóló tudásunkat is bővíteni kívánja. Ennek érdekében Alapítványunk
megbízásából a Medián Közvéleményés Piackutató Intézeta korábbi évekhez hasonlóan 2016 novemberében átfogó, országos
reprezentatív felmérést végzett erről a témákól. A kutatás publikációja teljes terjedelemben magyar és angol nyelven is a TEV
honlapján található, az eredmények összefoglalását pedig ebben a jelentésben egy különálló fejezetben ismertetjük.

Az éves jelentés az antiszemitizmus okainak megértéséhez is hozzá kíván járulni. A „Gyűlöletcselekmények és gyűlölet motiválta
incidensek és társadalmi következményeik” című fejezetben a jelentés áttekinti a klasszikus és modern szociálpszichológiai,
történeti és kulturális magyarázatokat, majd mindegyik elmélet jelenkori érvényességét is teszteli: összeveti azokat a friss Medián-kutatás eredményeivel.

A monitoring és kutatás mellett Alapítványunk tevékenységében jelentős mértékben megjelenik a jogi segítségnyújtás és az
oktatás is. Jelentésünkben bemutatjuk azon jogszabályokat, amelyek jelenleg a gyűlöletcselekmények elleni küzdelem jogi kereteit
adják Magyarországon, valamint beszámllunk az általunk kezdeményezett 13 jogi eljárásról feloszlatási kérelem, kérvény,
munkaügyi kereset, törvényességi felügyeleti eljárás kezdeményezése és vádindítvány ügyekben.

Oktatási tevékenységünk a középiskoláknak kidolgozott programmal bővült, melynek keretében 35 intézményben több, mint
2100 diák vett részt az etika tantben lebonyolított előadásokon.

Jelentésünkben a vizsgált időszakban a nyilvánosság fgyelmét jelentős mértékben felkeltő kiemelt üggyel foglalkozunk
(esettanulmány). Az eset leírásán keresztül megfgyelhetjük, hogyan reagáltak a külön böző hivatalos és félhivatalos szervek, civil
szervezetek. 2014-ben a német megszállás emlékműve és a Sorsok Háza projekt kapott kiemelkedő fgyelmet, a 2015-ös évben
a Pázmány egyetemen bevezetett kötelező holokauszt-kurzust övező közódott 2017-re)
Date: 2017
Abstract: La Fondazione Centro di Documentazione Ebraica Contemporanea e Ipsos hanno realizzato un’indagine volta ad indagare quali siano oggi le opinioni ed i sentimenti degli Italiani nei confronti degli ebrei: apertura/chiusura, possibili stereotipi diffusi, fino ad arrivare al misurare la presenza o meno di un vero e proprio antisemitismo.

L’indagine si inserisce all’interno di un quadro conoscitivo da parte dell’Osservatorio antisemitismo del CDEC già molto articolato, approfondito e ricco di indagini passate sia di natura qualitativa che quantitativa, sebbene – soprattutto quelle quantitative – siano un po’ datate nel tempo.

L’obiettivo di CDEC è stato dunque quello di disporre di un’indagine di scenario aggiornata, caratterizzata da una solida metodologia di rilevazione e che possa diventare un punto di partenza anche per monitoraggi periodici che vadano a costruire una sorta di «barometro dell’intolleranza».

Affrontare un tema come quello delle opinioni nei confronti di gruppi etnici o religiosi specifici, espone ai rischi della cosiddetta desiderabilità sociale, cioè al fatto che gli intervistati più difficilmente esprimono direttamente posizioni critiche o negative su temi come questo. In sostanza, sapendo che le proprie opinioni possono essere oggetto di riprovazione sociale, si tende a non esprimerle se non addirittura a mascherarle.

E’ apparso opportuno quindi far precedere il set di domande dedicate al tema specifico, da alcune domande utili a classificare gli intervistati in termini di apertura più generale nei confronti del mondo e verso «l’altro» e il «diverso», già sperimentate e validate da Ipsos in altre indagini su temi analoghi con un approfondimento sul tema dell’immigrazione: al netto dei rischi terroristici, respingimento o accoglienza? Gli immigrati sono un problema per il nostro stile di vita?
Date: 2017
Abstract: CIDI registreerde in 2016 109 antisemitische incidenten in Nederland, tegenover 126 in 2015. In meer Europese landen, bijvoorbeeld in Frankrijk, is een daling geconstateerd. Deze cijfers zijn echter hoger dan vóór 2014, met 171 incidenten een piekjaar in verband met de oorlog in Gaza.

CIDI is verheugd over de daling, maar wijst tegelijk op de volgende twee punten: Na twee jaar is het aantal meldingen nog hoger dan in het ‘normale jaar’ 2013, toen heeft CIDI 100 incidenten geteld. Bovendien is de daling voor een groot deel toe te schrijven aan het dalen van het aantal scheld-email-berichten (van 12 in 2015 naar 7 in 2016); dit medium lijkt vervangen te worden door sociale media, waarover CIDI steeds meer meldingen ontvangt.

Sociale media hebben steeds meer invloed op de publieke opinie en het maatschappelijk veld. Daarom heeft CIDI besloten met ingang van 2017 incidenten op internet die op personen gericht zijn ook mee te nemen in de Monitor Antisemitische Incidenten.

Vooral het dalen van het aantal incidenten op scholen stemt positief. Helaas is het aantal incidenten rondom voetbal nog steeds hoog. (9 in 2016, 10 in 2015) en is het aantal scheldpartijen gestegen. In de categorie scheldpartijen en lastigvallen op straat heeft CIDI in 2015 24 incidenten geregistreerd, in 2016 waren het 25 incidenten.

Vandalisme (21 incidenten) en fysiek geweld (3 incidenten) vormen nog steeds een probleem. Ter vergelijking: in 2015 telden we 20 vandalisme- en 5 fysiek geweld incidenten. In 2016 telde CIDI 2016 3 meldingen in de ‘traditionele’ media. In 2015 telden we geen melding in deze categorie.

Het woord “Jood” wordt helaas steeds vaker als scheldwoord gebruikt. Steeds meer constateren we het gebruik hiervan bij (algemene, niet eens op Joden gerichte) scheldpartijen. CIDI vindt dit zeer verontrustend.

De Joodse gemeenschap wordt nog altijd bedreigd. Inlichtingen van antiterreurorganisaties in binnen- en buitenland geven aan dat joden bovenaan de “hitlijst” staan van terroristen. Daarom verdient de beveiliging van Joodse instellingen de hoogste prioriteit.

CIDI blijft wijzen op het belang van educatie vanaf jonge leeftijd, op scholen en op informele clubs zoals sportverenigingen.
Date: 2017
Abstract: Настоящая книга представляет собой второе издание (исправленное и дополненное) книги автора "20 лет Большой алии: статистический анализ перемен", вышедшей в 2013 году, которая, в свою очередь, явилась логическим продолжением предыдущей книги автора “Еврейское население бывшего СССР в ХХ веке (социально- демографический анализ)”. Если первая книга автора была посвящена развитию со- ветского еврейства в стране исхода, то нынешняя – тем изменениям, которые претер- пела еврейская русскоязычная община в Израиле, где сейчас проживает ее бóльшая часть. Наш анализ охватывает период с начала 1990-х годов до настоящего времени, и включает динамику общей численности репатриантов по республикам исхода, их расселение по городам и регионам Израиля, демографические аспекты, образование (как взрослого населения, так и детей и молодежи), владение ивритом и английским языком, компьютерную грамотность, армейскую/национальную службу. Особое внима- ние уделяется профессиональному трудоустройству репатриантов, и в частности, специалистов с высшим образованием. Рассматриваются также изменения в эконо- мическом положении репатриантов, их состояние здоровья, а также общая удовлетво- ренность жизнью в Израиле, национальное самосознание, традиции и ценности. По сравнению с предыдущим изданием, данные уточнены в соответствии с новыми ис- точниками и с учетом тенденций последних лет. Данные по репатриантам сопоставляются со всем еврейским населением Израиля, а по возможности – с еврейскими иммигрантами из бывшего СССР в США и Германии. Книга предназначена для демографов, социологов, специалистов, занятых проблема- ми интеграции репатриантов в различных сферах и всех интересующихся данной про- блемой.