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Translated Title: On secular Jews in France
Author(s): Kuczynski, Liliane
Date: 1993
Abstract: Pour ceux qui définissent le judaïsme, à l'instar du modèle chrétien, comme une religion, parler de « Juifs laïcs » relève du non-sens, voire de la provocation. Pourtant l'histoire religieuse est coutumière de tels franchissements de frontières : ne parle-t-on pas de « christianisme profane » ? de « religion laïque » ? Preuves, s'il en est encore besoin, que toute définition univoque est incapable de décrire une réalité humaine. Une autre contestation vient, elle, des milieux juifs défenseurs de la Halakha : les Juifs laïcs seraient des hors-la-loi, au mieux des brebis égarées.

Mais les faits sont là, qui résistent à toute prescription normative. Ceux que j'ai contactés pour réaliser cette étude m'ont souvent répondu être « l'homme (ou la femme) de la situation ! ». Ces termes parlent. S'y reconnaissent ou acceptent volontiers d'être définis comme tels, ceux pour lesquels être juif ne passe pas – ou plus, ou pas uniquement – par une expérience ou une pratique religieuse, au sens étroit. « Juifs non pratiquants » alors, comme l'on parle de « catholiques non pratiquants », gardant mémoire de leur éducation chrétienne et demeurant fidèles à certaines valeurs morales qui lui seraient attachées ? Cette synonymie, qui conserve un lien avec le seul domaine religieux, est trop restrictive. Se définir « juif laïc » connote un attachement actif ou nostalgique à des langues (le yiddish, le judéo-espagnol, l'hébreu...), à des cuisines, à des terres d'origine (l'Alsace, la Pologne, l'Egypte...), à des littératures, à des histoires nationales ou intimes : bref, à des pans différents selon chacun, de ce qui est constitutif des cultures juives. Sans aucun doute faut-il, dès l'abord, ajouter à cette définition plurielle son ombre portée : les recherches personnelles, les questions, les tâtonnements les efforts de mémoire et d'invention qu'elle suscite.
Date: 1993
Abstract: The theoretical emphasis in this thesis is on the ideas that people have regarding
the sociocultural construct of human nature. Regarded as a construct whose form
and content is intrinsically connected to economic, historic and sociocultural factors,
the thesis attempts to explain how specific circumstances have caused the orthodox
Jewish community of Gateshead to re-negotiate and crystallize the concept of
human nature in their quest to live ethical and moral lives. In the last fifty years
this community has become known as a prominent centre for higher rabbinical
studies and attracts students from all over the world. Apart from its high
intellectual standards it has also gained a reputation as harbouring members who
are devoted to inter-personal ethics. The contention of this thesis is that the
community's level of compliance to such behaviours requires an awareness and a
well-defined notion of one's "inner" self and its various components that govern the
process of moral and ethical conduct.
Underpinning a wide range of sociocultural activities the thesis deals in particular
with the way in which ideas of human nature are inherent to the content and form
of indigenous educational theory. The process of child-rearing not only ensures the
reproduction of competent sociocultural members, it also aids the child in acquiring
an understanding of its "inner" self. The latter is in Gateshead defined as the locus
of personal and individual responsibility and is consequently vital in making the child
aware of its potentiality for moral conduct.
By carefully analyzing mother-child interactions it is revealed how the structure and
content of these interactions are organized by and expressive of inherent ideas
concerning the concept of human nature. Through active participation in these
interaction sequences the child is provided with an opportunity to construct and
acquire an understanding of itself as a moral agent.
Date: 1993
Author(s): Karady, Viktor
Date: 1993
Abstract: The study of antisemitism cannot follow clear out methodological principles since it comprises historically heterogeneous features
and sociological layers of extreme diversity. This study focuses on major differences of Jewish-Gentile relations in Hungary
before and after the Shoah, the communist take-over representing structural break in this matter. The Liberal period (till 1918) of
modernization with the emergence of the nation state can be opposed to the authoritarian "Christian Course" of the Inter-War
years leading to the short-lived but devastating fascist state. With the maintenance of measure of social and religious
antisemitism in the first despite official policies of emancipation and equality and on the contrary with the preservation of the main
civil rights protecting to some Jews till the German Occupation combined with government sponsored anti-Jewish drive both
rested upon ambiguous foundations. The Communists integrated many Jews in the new power structure break through in local
history) but imposed taboo on the Jewish past persecuted Zionism and implicity the Jewish spirit under bourgeois or
cosmopolitan disguises. The 1956 Popular Front and its aftermaths brought about new kind of Jewish Gentile understanding in
oppositional circles of the Regime, but also restored the position of Jewish members of the party machinery. In the postCommunist transition there are no economic arguments to revive Old Regime antisemitism but symbolic divisions are still
operational and continue to disturb the democratic political game
Author(s): , Daniel J. Elazar
Date: 1993
Abstract: This article describes the emergence of liberal democracy, then compares and contrasts liberal democracy with communal democracy, showing the latter to be a prior form of democratic self-government. It then discusses the two in the perspective of self-government and rights, the two dimensions of democracy. Having given the United States as the best example of liberal democracy and Switzerland as the best modern example of communal democracy, it then goes on to explore the Jewish political tradition and how it is also an example of communal democracy. The article then turns to the crisis of modernity and the Jewish polity and how the modern commitment to liberal democracy won over a majority of Jews even as it posed problems for the Jewish polity, examining classical Judaism and pluralism, looking for accommodations between the two in the contemporary Jewish polity. It suggests a series of accommodations that have been developed, especially for less traditionally observant Jews, and examines their implications for the Jewish political tradition. In conclusion the article suggests that a bridging between modern conceptions of liberal democracy and premodern conceptions of communal democracy has begun and that one way to help that bridging would be for Jews to turn to the concept of federal liberty as it was developed by the English Puritans and their heirs out of the biblical tradition, at the beginning of the modern epoch, as a source of ideas and directions to pursue.