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Date: 2023
Abstract: Seit dem Massaker der Hamas vom 7. Oktober zeigt sich der Antisemitismus in der Türkei in aller Offenheit: Die regierungsnahe Yeni Şafak ruft am, 8. Dezember auf der Titelseite die Welt dazu auf, die Juden zu vernichten (Dünya bu virüsü yok etmeli), AKP-Politiker bejubeln Hitler und den Holocaust, eine islamistische Zeitung fordert den Entzug der Staatsangehörigkeit türkischer Juden und sich als ‚Linke‘ verstehende vergleichen das Massaker der Hamas mit dem Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto. Doch schon seit längerer Zeit ist Antisemitismus in der Türkei ein weit verbreitetes Phänomen: Regierungspolitiker verbreiten antisemitische Verschwörungstheorien, beliebte Unterhaltungsserien im Fernsehen tragen Antisemitismus in türkische Wohnzimmer und Schulen, Universitäten oder Kulturfestivals werden nach antisemitischen Autoren benannt. Zahlreiche antisemitische Topoi und Referenzen aus dem türkischen Diskurs – ob islamisch oder säkular – sind jedoch ohne eine Kenntnis des Hintergrunds nicht ohne weiteres erkennbar. Das führt in hiesigen Debatten zu pauschalen Vereinfachungen bezüglich des sogenannten ‚importierten‘ oder ‚islamischen‘ Antisemitismus oder aber zu seiner Bagatellisierung. Der Sammelband stellt erstmals ein breites Spektrum historischer und aktueller Erscheinungsformen von Antisemitismus seit dem ausgehenden Osmanischen Reich bis in die gegenwärtige Türkei vor. Er umfasst Perspektiven verschiedener Wissenschaftsdisziplinen ebenso wie Erfahrungsberichte von Aktivistinnen und Aktivisten, die sich gegen Antisemitismus in der Türkei engagieren. Ein Augenmerk des Bandes gilt den Bezügen zur Gegenwart in der Türkei sowie zur Situation in der Bundesrepublik.
Date: 2022
Author(s): Watson, Robert
Date: 2013
Author(s): Lehrer, Erica T.
Date: 2005
Abstract: This dissertation illustrates how a moral burden of history manifests itself in social relationships, cultural processes, and material products. Specifically, it argues that what appears to many as a superficial, commercially motivated revival of Jewishness in Poland is also a significant joint venture between non-Jewish Poles and Jewish visitors to Poland in exploring inter-ethnic memory-building and reconciliation. The findings are based on 18 months of ethnographic research in the historical Jewish quarter (Kazimierz) in Krakow, Poland, with further research in Israel and the United States among diaspora Jews. My research reveals that the notion of uniform Holocaust tourism disguises a movement to contest lachrymose conceptions of Jewishness as victimhood. I document a sense of Jewish connection to Poland---overlooked in mainstream discourses---that animates new generations of Jews and Poles to seek each other out. Similarly, much of the Jewish revival in Kazimierz is orchestrated by non-Jewish Poles. I show how they use identification with Jewishness to reconfigure their own Polishness and their visions for a pluralistic Polish nation state. I conclude that (1) popular cultural products, practices, and spaces can be important manifestations of---and tools for---moral reckoning; (2) identification with someone else's ethnicity/religion (often called appropriation) can be understood as an enlargement of, rather than an escape from, the self, and (3) Kazimierz in Krakow represents the cutting edge of Polish-Jewish relations via local grassroots culture brokers who use Jewishness to expand the Polish universe of obligation.
Date: 2016
Abstract: Much research on intercultural competence (IC) focuses on relatively recent human history, on a transnational era when, for many, especially in the economically privileged parts of the world, the possibilities for intercultural interactions have rapidly increased as physical and virtual mobility opportunities have also increased through processes such as globalization, tourism, economic migration and international education. Such research has also tended to focus on the modernist project, which developed essentially mono-ethnic, mono-cultural, and even mono-linguistic constructions of society, and inherent nationally framed understandings of cultures. Our work on IC has a different starting point. Using the narratives of often elderly Sephardic Jews living in Bulgaria, we reach back almost a century in order to trace the intra-, inter-, and transcultural activities that this diasporic community have engaged in, and continue to engage in, within and beyond their home society, interactions enabled by their multilingualism and especially their main language of cultural affiliation, Ladino. Based on our exploration of their stories, we have developed a new, data-grounded conceptualization of IC as a dynamic process of performing intra-/inter-/transcultural identities in zones of interculturality. Understood in this way, IC manifests itself as work ceaselessly in progress, as unfinished and evolving identity performance. Our research participants constantly experiment with and extend the language and relational resources they have. Whether it is when they seek interactional opportunities or when they respond to changing social circumstances, they play with the languages they have to achieve what they want to achieve and get on with their lives.
Date: 2021
Date: 2021
Date: 2011
Date: 2018
Date: 2013
Date: 2013
Date: 2013
Abstract: This article explores the recent trend of return migration from Israel to countries of the former Soviet Union. The author analyses the current debates on the subject and, based on ethnographic fieldwork in Odessa, Ukraine conducted in 2005-2007, delves into the everyday experiences of «Russian» Israelis who have resettled in Odessa for personal and professional reasons. It focuses on their reasons for relocation and experiences of settling in their old/new environments, specifically their relationship to organized Jewish life and a sense of belonging. It argues that most returnees do not envision their relocation as a permanent decision and many do return to Israel or travel back and forth. In Odessa their experiences and connections to local Jewish life vary but for the most part returnees are concerned with improving their standard of living and see their relocation as a means of achieving that goal. It is too early to understand the full scope of «Russian» Israeli presence in the FSU, but we can already see that their future moves will most likely be determined by the personal and professional opportunities they encounter and family circumstances they face. The transnational orientations and open-ended journeys of «Russian» Israelis in Odessa complicate concepts of «Home» and «Diaspora» often applied to Israel and the Jewish people. On the one hand, leaving Israel constitutes Odessa as home; on the other hand, strong ties to Israel, displayed among many returnees, speak of Israel as a place of belonging. And yet other cases point to other realities where Russian Israelis explore other options or remain on the move. Placing the material in the wider context of Diaspora studies the author argues that «Home» and «Diaspora» are not fixed categories and can no longer be seen in a simplified manner of ideological constants.
Date: 2019
Abstract: Концепция «двойной лояльности» в еврейском случае подразумевает, что еврей стоит на стороне Израиля вне зависимости от страны своего проживания, а принцип Талмуда, известный как «Закон государства обязателен для исполнения евреями» (Дина де-мальхута дина) часто рассматривается как требование к еврею придерживаться лояльности тому государству, где он живет. Попытка многих советских евреев, на разных этапах послевоенной истории этой страны, совмещать патриотизм в отношении страны проживания и преданность Израилю, воспринимался властями СССР как вызов и повод для репрессивных кампаний. Нынешняя ситуация в постсоветских странах в целом иная, и ближе к подходу современных демократических государств, признающих феномен «поли-лояльности» и двойного гражданства, закрепленного межправительственными соглашениями и программами о развитии культурных, научных, деловых и других связей.