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Author(s): Vapné, Lisa
Date: 2013
Abstract: Cette thèse étudie la politique migratoire vis-à-vis d’un groupe ethnicisé accueilli en raison de son identité putative, tout comme analyse la relation à une identité assignée de ces migrants. Dans une première partie, la recherche porte sur la construction par l’Allemagne entre 1990 et 2010 d’une politique d’accueil destinée à des personnes identifiées comme juives par leurs papiers d’identité et résidant sur le territoire de l’ex-Union soviétique, dans le but de renforcer démographiquement la Communauté juive allemande : dans ce cadre, en vingt ans, plus de 200 000 personnes catégorisées comme « réfugiés du contingent » puis comme « migrants juifs » ont immigré en Allemagne. Nous y montrons qu’il est attendu de ces migrants qu’ils remplacent symboliquement les Juifs d’Allemagne émigrés avant 1933 ou exterminés sous le IIIe Reich. Mais, en raison de l’inadéquation entre les Juifs espérés et les migrants juifs postsoviétiques, déjudaisés et rencontrant des problèmes d’intégration professionnelle en Allemagne, l’accueil de ces migrants va progressivement se restreindre. À travers la mise en doute de l’authenticité de leurs papiers d’identité, la véracité de leur identité juive va être questionnée. Dans une seconde partie, s’appuyant sur des entretiens biographiques, ce travail analyse la mise en récit de l’identification comme Juif de ces migrants, avant l’immigration, pendant le processus migratoire et après l’immigration, interrogeant le passage d’une identification comme Juif stigmatisante à une identification valorisante puisque clef d’entrée pour l’immigration en Allemagne.
Author(s): Sapiro, Philip
Date: 2016
Abstract: This thesis presents an investigation into the population geography of Jewish residents of England and Wales in the twenty-first century. The aims of the study are to understand the spatial distribution of the group; identify whether there are distinct differences between groupings in different parts of the country; identify whether the demographics and nature of these groups is changing over time; and to examine whether the pattern for Jews is similar to those for other minority groups of comparable size. Most importantly, the thesis theorises what the patterns found may mean for the demographic future of Anglo-Jewry. The results provide a clearer foundation for organisations responsible for the social welfare of Jewish groups in various parts of the country. In addition, as Jews have been present in Britain in significant numbers for longer than other minority groups, it provides useful insights into future trajectories for more-recently arrived groups. Thus, the findings provide an improved basis for policy formulation by the public authorities with wider responsibilities for combating disadvantage and improving social cohesion. Building on an understanding of the history of Jewish settlement in Britain, and existing demographic studies, the analysis presented takes advantage of the inclusion of a question on religion in the 2001 and 2011 censuses. The principal data sources are census outputs, including Special Migration Statistics, individual microdata, and the Longitudinal Study. The analysis investigates the heterogeneity of the group through the development of a novel geodemographic classification methodology that addresses weaknesses in other approaches and the particular needs of small, unevenly distributed sub-populations. It finds evidence of seven distinct classes, with a strong spatial clustering to their distribution. The spatial distribution of Anglo-Jewry is examined in the context of other minority groups, including previously under-studied Arabs and Sikhs; that analysis finds a strong commonality to the pattern for Jews and some other small groups – their trajectories demonstrating a tension between the benefits of group congregation (apparently driven by religion, even in sub-populations defined by ethnic group) and a desire for suburbanisation. It also identifies the strong impact of geographic scale when drawing conclusions based on distribution indices. The underlying drivers of internal migration, an important contributor to changes in spatial distribution, are examined using logistic regression, having first legitimated the use of (post-move) census-derived characteristics in migration analysis. The assessment finds a broad consistency in underlying determinants of migration and, for the Jewish group, an absence of a group penalty inhibiting the propensity to move home, present for other small groups. The patterns of recent internal migration are analysed using spatial interaction modelling and multi-nominal logistic regression; longer term (1971 onwards) patterns are also examined. Based on these analyses, and allowing for potential future patterns of births and longevity, population trends found through an innovative application of the 2011-based geodemographic analysis to 2001 census data are extrapolated to produce estimates of the Jewish population of England and Wales for future decades. The novel approach used takes account of group heterogeneity and absence of group-specific fertility and mortality data. The projection demonstrates an increasing Jewish population, in contrast to the reduction seen during the second half of the twentieth century, but with a growing proportion being found in strictly orthodox enclaves, which gives rise to a number of societal and policy implications.
Author(s): Alexander, Philip
Date: 2016
Abstract: This research offers an original contribution to the study of contemporary klezmer
music by analysing it in relation to a particular urban environment. With its origins in a
largely destroyed Eastern European Jewish culture, contemporary klezmer is both
historically-grounded and paradoxically rootless, cut loose from geographical
specificity by the internationalism of its recent revival. Seeking to counteract the
music’s modern placeless-ness, this dissertation analyses the musical and spatial means
by which klezmer has been re-rooted in the distinctive material and symbolic conditions
of today’s Berlin. The theoretical framework takes in questions of cultural identity,
music and place, authenticities of tradition and instrumental practice, to show how this
transnational and syncretic music – with few historical ties to Berlin – can be
understood in relation to the city’s particular post-reunification bricolage aesthetic and
subversively creative everyday tactics. Beginning by mapping the criss-crossing
networks of musicians and their multiple artistic perspectives, the dissertation proceeds
through an exploration of the official and unofficial spaces within which these fluid
musical practices operate, leading onto ways that the city of Berlin is made manifest in
the music itself – how the city is interpellated sonically and textually. Processes of
musical transmission and education are analysed through the filters of tradition and
pedagogical ideologies, from which my own instrument, the piano accordion, is used as
a lens through which to uncover the balance between personal expression and
historically-informed performance. The final chapter looks at the relationship between
history, Jewish identity and music in the city. It explores the resonances between the
contested discourse of memorial and present-day cultural and musical production,
discovering how at times sound and music can act as a living sonic embodiment that
speaks against the silence of historical memory
Author(s): Tiffany, Austin
Date: 2018
Author(s): Morawska, Lucia
Date: 2012
Author(s): Fidler, Wendy
Date: 2016
Abstract: This study provides an analysis of the attitudes of a minority faith in the UK, the Jews, to interfaith engagement, to the Council of Christians and Jews and other monotheistic religions. It is based on oral testimonies of interviewees who were all members of the Oxford Jewish Congregation, a unique community which has three Jewish groupings of Orthodox, Masorti and Liberal all under one roof. The objectives are to determine the influence of upbringing and life experiences on resultant interfaith attitudes, and link these with the religious denomination of the respondents. Thereafter these attitudes are considered in relation to Israel; to membership of the Council of Christian and Jews; to the attitudes of Jews entering into the sacred space of the ‘Other’ in situations of increasing intensity. Finally this thesis explores attitudes of Jews welcoming non-Jews to attending services in synagogues.

The thesis firstly highlights that the participants’ attitudes towards those of other religions were dependent upon upbringing, background and life experiences, irrespective of whether these resultant attitudes were positive, ambivalent or negative. Secondly, the most significant result found was that all the respondents were involved in dialogue with the Other irrespective of whether they had positive, ambivalent or negative attitudes towards interfaith and despite which Jewish denomination they belonged to. Thirdly, with regard to Israel, each had their own view and opinion which was not dependent on religious affiliation. Fourthly, with regard to the space of the Other, there is more complexity from whether the respondents would enter a church, attend, then participate in an interfaith service held in a church, and finally if they would take part in a service in a church involving a friend or colleague. The responses were divided by the Jewish grouping of the interviewees and demonstrated a new paradigm. There were personal interfaith boundaries beyond which responders would not pass. There was no correlation between background or religious affiliation, revealing an underlying level of unpredictability within the interviewees. Fifthly, this study demonstrated that half of the Orthodox responders were engaged in interfaith activity. Anecdotally, without previous evidence, it has been assumed that Orthodox Jews were less likely to engage in interfaith work. Within this research this was not the case.
Date: 2011
Abstract: Au carrefour des études de genre, de la sociologie des religions, et de la sociologie politique, cette recherche explore la dimension locale des conflits religieux sur le genre à partir du cas du judaïsme français des années 2000 et la fabrique organisationnelle du genre et de l'identité juive dans les synagogues non orthodoxes en France, qui se caractérisent notamment par l'ouverture du rituel aux femmes. L'approche ethnographique permet d'analyser les dispositifs de socialisation (comme l'organisation de l'espace, du rituel, de la prise de parole, de la formation religieuse, de la mobilisation pour le développement de la synagogue) qui contribuent à la production locale du genre. En particulier, cette thèse montre comment la perception de la division sexuée du travail dans l'organisation, l'appropriation des débats religieux sur le genre, la légitimité de mobilisations locales pour la participation des femmes au rituel, dépendent de la position de chaque organisation dans les concurrences religieuses. Dans une configuration où la place des femmes dans l'espace religieux est utilisée comme marqueur symbolique entre courants religieux en concurrence pour la définition de l'identité juive (configuration que l'on propose d'appeler plus généralement politisation religieuse du genre) la participation répétée au rituel et aux activités de la synagogue engendre un intérêt pratique pour le genre, qui se traduit notamment par une fierté égalitaire masculine et par une injonction féminine à la justification. Si les travaux sur genre et religion ont surtout abordé les contextes religieux conservateurs, cette recherche explore la normativité des contextes religieux égalitaires
Author(s): Brown, Melanie
Date: 2012
Abstract: The Jewish community of Dublin has been in existence for 400 years. Nowadays, many Dublin Jews are descended from Lithuanians who settled in Dublin at the turn of the twentieth century. Most Dublin Jews are integrated into Dublin society, yet little is known of cultural practices specific to Dublin’s Jewish community. This dissertation focuses on the practice of liturgical music in Terenure synagogue, one of Dublin’s two remaining Orthodox synagogues. While music is an integral part of all synagogue services throughout the year, the musical repertoire of the Sabbath morning service has been selected as representing the music which is most commonly experienced by practicing Orthodox Jews in Dublin. Much of the music in Dublin’s Orthodox synagogue has been retained as part of a Lithuanian oral tradition. However, the Dublin Jewish community is currently undergoing a demographic shift, owing to the emigration of Dublin-born Jews coupled with migration into Dublin of Jews from a variety of social, cultural and national backgrounds. As the profile of the Jewish community changes, there is evidence of a gradual shift in the musical tradition of the synagogue. Here there is an attempt to preserve part of the Lithuanian musical tradition for the future.
Ethnographic fieldwork has been conducted among all sections of the Jewish community of Dublin in order to obtain information regarding the history, culture and identity of Dublin Jews. This has provided insight into the oral tradition which has retained the music of the Orthodox synagogue thus far. Other sources of information have included archives and further published/unpublished resources. The research has also involved recording, transcribing and analysing examples of liturgical Jewish music performed in Dublin. This has resulted in a comprehensive historical account of the Dublin Jewish community together with a discussion on Irish Jewish identity. Such material provides a background for the corpus of music which has been collected from various contributors. As well as recordings, this features six fully transcribed versions of the main sections from the Orthodox Sabbath service performed by five individuals, and a discussion on performance practice within the synagogue. It also includes examples of congregational singing which also forms a significant part of the service. Considerations are given to issues including emotion, identity, transmission, gender and the role of the congregation in the performance of music within the Orthodox synagogue of Dublin.
The findings reveal that musical performance in the synagogue assists in promoting a sense of community among those who participate. Orthodox Jewish liturgical music and the way it is disseminated whether in the synagogue or other setting also provides a link with the past, dialogue with the past being an integral part of broad Jewish culture. Prior to this, little has been documented regarding the music of the Orthodox Dublin synagogue; therefore this research provides a basis on which further study of the topic may be conducted.
Author(s): Felcher, Anastasia
Date: 2016
Abstract: The thesis is based on three starting points. The first is on the acknowledgement of the lamentable condition of buildings of Jewish-related heritage in cities with a multicultural past across the present-day former Soviet Union. The second is on the acknowledgement of a slow process of gradual recognition of these traces as examples of tangible heritage and a provisional resource for heritage commodification. The third is the on the acknowledgement of ‘heritage’, ‘memory’ and ‘space’ as phenomena that are subject to manipulation on various levels.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the understanding of what constitutes national heritage in the newly-appeared independent states has conformed to correspond with the interpretations and values of national histories. In managerial terms some immovable heritage of ethnic minorities has been returned to the symbolic successors of previous owners. This defined provisional sources of funding for partial renovation of this heritage, as well as its use. The remaining sites, the majority of which are monuments protected by the state, most frequently stay unattended. In order to design policy recommendations to improve the situation, a complex understanding of factors that influence heritage protection, interpretation, and promotion in the post-Soviet space is needed.
Within this state of affairs, the thesis aims to analyze agency behind 'top-down' policies and 'down-up' grass-roots initiatives towards (non)interpretation of Jewish-related heritage sites in Chişinǎu (Moldova), Odessa and L’viv (Ukraine) and Minsk (Belarus). This selection of cities is chosen to reveal the multiplicity of factors that determine apparent similarity in heritage condition and management in the post-Soviet space, but instead reveal diverse dynamics of interaction between heritage and politics; heritage and nationalism; heritage and civil society, etc.
The methodology utilized here includes archival search, participant observation, media and expert opinion analysis, as well as examination of museum exhibitions. The fieldwork included data collection on the actual condition of Jewish heritage in the cities under discussion and interviews with various agents. Elite interviews were analyzed as basis for authoritative heritage discourse before discussing actual heritage projects in these cities. Based on interdisciplinary analysis, the thesis provides an embracing overview of the broad spectrum of agency behind Jewish heritage-related initiatives (or their absence). It then offers recommendations for the advancement of managerial strategies.
Author(s): Kaymak, Özgür
Date: 2016
Abstract: Bu çalışmada İstanbul’un Rum, Yahudi ve Ermenilerinin Lozan Antlaşması’ndan sonra azınlık olarak kendi kimliklerini ve gündelik hayatlarını yeniden inşa etme süreçleri, tarihsel arka planı dikkate alarak, kolektif belleğin oluşumu ve kamusal/politik/özel alanın inşası çerçevesinde analiz edilmektedir. Bu bağlamda özetle, Cumhuriyetin kuruluşundan bugüne kadar gayrimüslim azınlıkların çoğunluktan farklı olan dini-etnik kimliklerinin kentteki inşa süreçleri, pratikleri ve bu inşa sürecini etkileyen dinamikler; eşit vatandaş ve azınlık olma arasında yaşadıkları siyasi ve sosyal çelişkiler; bu çelişkili durumlar karşısında ürettikleri kimlik stratejileri; hem devletle hem de geniş toplumla kurdukları ilişkiler gündelik hayat pratikleri üzerinden çözümlenmeye çalışılmıştır. İstanbul kentindeki “gayrimüslim-azınlık” kimliklerinin bu inşa süreci farklı kuşak, sosyal sınıf ve cinsiyet değişkenleriyle incelenmiştir. Tez çalışmasında İstanbul’un gayrimüslimlerinin yaşantılarını, deneyimlerini, azınlık olmaktan kaynaklı sorunlarını kendi seslerinden görünür hale getirebilmek amacıyla niteliksel araştırma tekniklerinden derinlemesine mülakat, odak grup ve sözlü tarih kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada İstanbul’un üç azınlık cemaatinin azınlık kimliklerinin oluşumunda kolektif belleklerindeki travmalar ve bu travmaların çeşitli stratejilerle kuşaklararası aktarımı; mekansal aidiyetlerini ve kimliklerini oluşturan tarihsel, kültürel ve iktisadi dinamikler; gayrimüslim azınlık kimliği ile uğranılan dışlanma ve ayrımcılıkların vatandaşlık ve ulusal aidiyetin oluşumu üzerindeki etkileri; kamusal, politik ve özel alanda gayrimüslim azınlık olmanın anlamı ve giderek azalan nüfusları ile İstanbul’da mekanda büzüşme ve dağılma halleri analiz edilmektedir. Tez çalışması, yukarıda açıklanan çerçevede üç cemaati, sınıf, cinsiyet ve kuşak kriterleri ile karşılaştırmalı olarak analiz etmeye olanak veren, niteliksel araştırma tekniklerinin kullanıldığı geniş ölçekli bir araştırmaya dayanmaktadır.
Date: 2017
Abstract: Faith schools represent controversial aspects of England’s educational politics, yet they have been largely overlooked as sites for geographical analysis. Moreover, although other social science disciplines have attended to a range of questions regarding faith schools, some important issues remain underexamined. In particular, contestation within ethnic and religious groups regarding notions of identity have generally been ignored in an educational context, whilst the majority of research into Jewish schools more specifically has failed to attend to the personal qualities of Jewishness. The interrelationships between faith schools (of all kinds) and places of worship have also received minimal attention. In response, this investigation draws upon a range of theoretical approaches to identity in order to illustrate how Jewish schools are implicated in the changing spatiality and performance of individuals’ Jewishness. Central to this research is a case study of the Jewish Community Secondary School (JCoSS), England’s only pluralist Jewish secondary school, with more extensive elements provided by interviews with other stakeholders in Anglo-Jewry. Parents often viewed Jewish schools as a means of attaining a highly-regarded ‘secular’ academic education in a Jewish school, whilst also enabling their children to socialise with other Jews. In the process, synagogues’ traditional functions of education and socialisation have been co-opted by Jewish schools, revealing a shift in the spatiality of young people’s Anglo-Jewish identity practices. Furthermore, JCoSS, as well as many synagogues, have come to represent spaces of contestation over ‘authentic’ Jewishness, given widely varying conceptualisations of ‘proper’ Jewish practice and identity amongst parents, pupils and rabbis. Yet, although JCoSS offers its pupils considerable autonomy to determine their practices, such choice is not limitless, revealing an inherent dilemma in inclusivity. The thesis thus explores how different manifestations of Jewishness are constructed, practised and problematised in a school space (which itself is dynamic and contested), and beyond.
Author(s): Scholefield, Lynne
Date: 1999
Abstract: Interpreting culture as symbols, stories, rituals and values, the thesis explores the culture of a Jewish and a Catholic secondary school in a dialogical way. The survey of the literature in Chapter 1 identifies relevant school-based research and locates the chosen case-study schools within the context of the British 'dual system'. Chapter 2 draws on the theoretical and methodological literatures of inter-faith dialogue and ethnography to develop and defend a paradigm for the research defined as open-inclusivist and constructivist. The main body of the thesis (Chapters 3-5), based on field-work undertaken in 1996 and 1997, presents the two schools in parallel with each other. Chapter 3 describes the details of the case studies at 'St. Margaret's' and 'Mount Sinai' and my developing research relationship with each school. In Chapter 4 many different voices from each school are woven into two 'tales' about the schools' cultures. This central chapter has a deliberately narrative style. Chapter 5 amplifies the cultural tales through the analysis of broadly quantitative data gained from an extensive questionnaire administered to a sample of senior students in each school. It is the only place in the thesis where views and values from the two schools are directly compared. The final two chapters widen the horizon of the study. Chapter 6 presents voices which were not part of the original case studies but which relate, in different ways, to the culture of the two schools. Chapter 7, with theoretical ideas about Jewish schools and education, and Catholic schools and education, provides resources for further dialogue about culture within Judaism and Catholicism and for Jewish-Christian dialogue. The thesis ends with some reflections on possible implications of the two cultures for discussions about the common good in education.
Date: 1997
Abstract: In many parts of the world today, ethnic identity is not merely the product of socialization, but is the result of conscious choice on the part of the individual. Nowhere is this more evident than in the countries of the former East Bloc, where sweeping political changes have removed many barriers to the expression of ethnic sentiment. The present work represents an attempt to build a generalizable model of ethnic identity construction by identifying the major influences on group conceptions of ethnic identity and describing the process by which those conceptions change over time. The primary case study focuses on the construction of ethnic identity among Polish Jews born after World War II. Conclusions are based primarily on data collected in interviews with members of that community. Traditionally, theories of ethnicity have posited a unity of beliefs, values or behaviors within an ethnic group. In contrast to traditional theories, the model proposed here focuses on major areas of conflict within groups, positing that conflict over issues deemed relevant in some degree to all members of the group is the driving force behind ethnic change. In choosing to identify, members of ethnic groups are presented with a set of issues, which are both important and controversial for the group, on which they feel obligated to take a position. The set of controversial issues relevant to a given group at a given time, the model posits, is determined by three factors: differences between cohorts arising from their formative experiences; differences between subgroups arising from conflicts between communal institutions; and differences between subgroups arising from their varied responses to input from outside groups. Whereas works on ethnicity in the field of political science have tended to focus on nationalism, or the pursuit of statehood by ethnic groups, this model treats nationalism and organized political behavior in general as a potential outgrowth of ethnicity, but not as its necessary byproduct.
Date: 2012
Abstract: A unique moment in Sephardic music is emerging in the Republic of Serbia. Since 2000, a small but vibrant Sephardic music scene has been formed through the efforts of a small group of individuals. The scene keeps alive a repertoire that has survived many upheavals: the Holocaust and the near-total extermination of Sephardic sacred music practitioners from the region; a half-century of religious suppression under the Yugoslav government; and the political turmoil of the 1990s and the establishment of the Republic of Serbia from what was once Yugoslavia. Each of these major socio-political shifts had an impact on how today's musicians learned and contributed to the creation of Sephardic music. Since 2000, the maintenance and reworking of the Sephardic music scene in Belgrade has taken place almost entirely because of small group individuals. The Sephardic music scene that has emerged is now made up of one concert stage ensemble, Shira u’tfila [Song and Prayer], and a collection of synagogue singers. Though the scene comprises only a small number of musicians, these individuals exercise considerable power in determining how broader categories like Sephardic and Jewish are represented and contribute to the civic, state, and international public imagination.

The expression of being Serbian, Sephardic, and Jewish is shaped and transmitted by this small group of musicians as they actively engage in a variety of discourses. These discourses concern the role of technology in the transmission of their practice, historical consciousness and nostalgia, and personal and social identities. By looking at how musical and social domains are established and promoted through performance, I show how personal taste and individual creativity play a role in representing Jewish culture in Serbia and Serbian-Jewish culture to an international audience. Ultimately, Shira u’tfila helps redefine ideas of Serbian Jewishness, and articulates an understanding of music in Jewish life as behavior that embraces both sacred and
secular, both Jewish and non-Jewish, repertoire.
Author(s): Hofman, Nila Ginger
Date: 2000
Abstract: My dissertation addresses the sociocultural processes which contribute to the construction of ethnocultural identity among Zagrebian Jews. I argue, contrary to the often essentialized perception of Jewish identity imposed by e.g. the Croatian government and Jewish international organizations, that Jewish identity in Zagreb is actively chosen in ways that are both idiosyncratic and contingent upon the surrounding sociocultural environment. At the heart of my argument is an appeal to the dynamic and contextual nature of identity negotiation, and the influence this has on the maintenance and survival of the Zagrebian Jewish community. In support of this, I have employed ethnographic methods to assess (i) the ways in which Jewish identity is negotiated by community members and (ii) the ways in which the meaning of Jewish community is sustained in Zagreb. With regards to (i), I conclude that Zagrebian Jews understand their identities in terms of symbolic ethnoreligiosity, i.e. in terms of feelings and nostalgic ideas about Jewish culture and tradition. With regards to (ii), I show that the history and development of Jewish identity in Zagreb can be traced through patterns of membership participation in various Jewish organizations prevalent in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These patterns reveal the predominantly secular nature of the Zagrebian Jewish community. In light of this, I argue that community for Zagrebian Jews is ultimately defined symbolically through various types of social interaction among members. It is for this reason that the recent attempts of both international Jewish organizations and the Croatian government to impose an essentialized image of Jewish identity on the community are at odds with, and ultimately destructive to, the secular and improvisatory self-images of the members themselves.
Author(s): Zisere, Bella
Date: 2010
Abstract: La chute du régime communiste et l'indépendance de la Lettonie ont déclenché de nombreux changements politiques à l'intérieur de ce pays, qui ont concerné dans un large mesure la communauté juive. Cette période a en effet été marquée par une émigration massive de Juifs, en particulier en Israël et aux Etats-Unis, ainsi que par l'émergence d'une vie communautaire, interdite à l'époque soviétique, principalement grâce au soutien d'associations juives internationales comme Joint et l'Agence juive. La désoviétisation de la Lettonie a également contribué à un réexamen de son histoire, y compris de ses aspects les plus difficiles, comme le génocide juif, au cours duquel près de 90% de la communauté locale a été exterminée. Par conséquent, pour l'ensemble des Juifs lettons, le contexte a été radicalement transformé : ils sont passés du statut de Juifs soviétiques, victimes du régime, séparés du reste de la société et auxquels on refusait le droit de se souvenir - toute allusion au génocide juif étant interdite en URSS - et même de quitter les frontières du pays, à celui de citoyens bénéficiant d'une place assurée dans la société, avec un passé douloureux reconnu, voire mis en avant, par les institutions politiques. En Lettonie, la mise en place de la politique commémorative s'impose dans le cadre de la démocratisation et de l'intégration européenne, mais est compliquée par le croisement entre la mémoire traumatique des Lettons chrétiens, liée aux répressions soviétiques en 1940, et celle de Juifs lettons, refusant la mise en parallèle entre les Soviétiques et les Nazis. Les immigrés postsoviétiques, quant à eux, se retrouvent confrontés à leur société d'accueil, ce qui leur impose de s'adapter encore plus rapidement aux mêmes transformations sociales.
Author(s): Myers, Jo-Ann
Date: 2016
Abstract: Most Jewish day schools in the United Kingdom underperform in the teaching and
learning of Hebrew. Indeed, prominent figures in the UK Jewish establishment have
singled out the teaching of Ivrit (Modern Hebrew) in Jewish day schools as in need of
improvement. Former Chief Rabbi Lord Sacks argues that whilst children are undoubtedly
better educated Jewishly now than in the past, many challenges remain.
I contend that the physical separation between the Jewish Studies and the Hebrew
departments in Jewish day schools does a disservice to both by shutting the door to
crucial teaching and learning opportunities of Hebrew. I recommend that Jewish day
schools should be working towards breaking down these ‘barriers’. In the present
research, I address this issue from the perspective of my own interest, namely Hebrew
pedagogy. My research investigates the extent to which creating connections between
Biblical Hebrew and Modern Hebrew can enhance the teaching and learning of Hebrew in
Jewish day schools.
I employ an Action Research methodology within the context of a case study using
elements of Appreciative Inquiry and written through the lens of Autoethnography. From a
theoretical perspective, I draw on research regarding second and foreign language
acquisition and suggest that Ivrit cannot be separated from its religious, cultural and
historic framework. That is, while Hebrew is taught in the United Kingdom as a Modern
Foreign Language, I propose that we are in fact teaching a cultural language. This term
more aptly describes a modern living language bound up in a particular religion, culture
and time, as is Ivrit. Using the Hebrew root letters as the route to link Biblical and Modern
Hebrew, my research demonstrates that this integration can enhance the teaching and
learning of both. My case study shows that schools and teachers who choose to integrate
Biblical and Modern Hebrew can successfully embrace educational change, a process
which will require them to confront their belief systems as well as accepting new teaching
approaches and materials.
The Hebrew language has evolved, survived and thrived over the millennia and for me it is
the essence of Jewish survival.
Date: 2016
Abstract: Though the exclusion of contemporary Orthodox Jewish women from active roles in public worship and other central religious activities has been condemned as patriarchal oppression by feminists and lauded as freeing women for sacred domestic duties by Orthodox apologists, little research has been carried out on Orthodox women’s religious lives and self-understanding. This study uses participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and monitoring of community email lists and media to document women’s religious activities in London; to investigate the constraints that shape these activities; and to examine women’s exercise of agency and creativity within these constraints to shape a rich, changing, and sometimes contested set of spiritual opportunities. The study examines four spheres of action, defined by the intersection of two axes: communal-individual arenas and culturally sanctioned-innovative practices. Alongside culturally sanctioned activity such as synagogue attendance and observance of the sexual purity system, innovative and hitherto unknown practices such as berakhah (blessing) parties exist, besides more controversial attempts to participate in public worship, both in women-only services and mixed services (partnership minyanim). The patterns and transmission of women’s individual customs are also examined, elucidating their religious significance for women. In addition to recording new practices, the study documents two periods of accelerated change, in the early 1990s and from 2005 onwards. It suggests that Orthodox women may be divided into three permeable groups—haredi (ultra-Orthodox’), identitarian/traditionalist, and Modern Orthodox—and examines the worldviews and innovative techniques displayed by each group. Factors such as education, community pressure, and norms of the non-Jewish community combine with differing group outlooks to give a nuanced explanation of the rich variation within Orthodox women’s religious lives. The study provides a basis for cross-communal research into Jewish women’s spirituality and models the complex interplay and impact of social and personal factors on religious life.
Author(s): Roth, David
Date: 2010
Abstract: This study is focused at understanding what is motivating children towards learning in a religious Jewish school? This particular context has the distinctive feature of a dual curriculum, namely the National Curriculum and a Jewish Studies curriculum. Given the span of learning which takes place in this educational context the researcher was interested to explore the motivational forces apparent in the school as perceived by school staff and children with relation to both curricula. A further interest was to explore whether 'learning' situated in a distinctive value-based context couched in a set of religious beliefs would impact on children's motivational orientations towards learning. Despite the numerous motivational theories which have developed and been applied to educational contexts over the last fifty years, the school researched is situated as part of a closed community where no significant research has taken place. Given the unique features of this educational setting the research has been conducted in a context-specific way. Framed in Constructivist Grounded Theory methodology (Charmaz 2006) the researcher has collected and analysed data, and being part of this community has been able to organise and interpret the generated themes underlying the motivational orientations which are dynamic in this community. Consistent with Grounded Theory methodology the theoretical framework was constructed through a rigorous analysis and organisation of data in a bottom-up way which lead to the following formulation: 'In the context of a religious Jewish school, learning is reinforced at every level as being of ultimate value'. This grounded theory was further broken down in terms of understanding its psychological underpinnings, drawing from social learning theory, ecosystemic perspective and moral psychology. This was further unpicked in terms of the Jewish literature pertaining to motivation and learning and in particular to its emphasis on the notion of respect to significant others and its impact on children's adaptation to cultural and religious influences. Apart from the fact that children are motivated towards learning in individual ways, this study highlights the impact of societal and systemic influences on motivational orientations towards learning. Although this has been demonstrated in a particular context, the researcher advocates the position that any school by virtue of being a social context will have environmental influences operating at a systemic level. Therefore, the findings generated from this study are shown to be generalisable to other educational contexts as well. Following the call of the Every Child Matters (2003) agenda, to improve the five major outcomes for children, it is fundamentally important to ensure that children are motivated to learn. It is hoped that this study which can be considered as a preliminary study of 'the influence of social processes on motivation' will be replicated across respective communities and educational contexts to demonstrate what the impact of these social processes are and how children's engagement and motivation towards learning can be enhanced.
Author(s): Tkachenko, Paul
Date: 2013
Abstract: The Real Deal is a term often used by musicians to describe people they perceive to be more authentic than them. Over the past seven or eight years, I have performed music from Eastern Europe, the Balkans, Turkey and beyond under the umbrella of World Music in one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the world: London. As I negotiated my way onto this scene and played with some of the finest musicians, I became increasingly aware of those I felt to be the Real Deal. I also began to feel that, in certain circumstances, I may also have appeared to be the Real Deal to others. Many of the musicians on this scene had begun their foray into these diverse styles with klezmer and it is this style that I explore most with relation to the Real Deal. As klezmer is a Jewish music style not played, or even enjoyed, by all Jews, this makes notions of the Real Deal much more ambiguous.

This thesis examines the movable perception that is the Real Deal and the complex interplay that results between musicians. Through discussions with twenty musicians with whom I have played regularly, I discussed the Real Deal and how it affects the way we work. Although half of the musicians self-identified as being Jewish and the other half did not, this became only one factor in the complex negotiations involved in professional music making. The often amusing anecdotes of mistaken identity that we shared raised fundamental questions about our stage performances.

I examine the complex issues surrounding klezmer as a style of music and the unique scene that has developed from the American revival in London. I consider the role of the Jewish Music Institute and how it serves the Jewish community and professional musicians in London and beyond. Finally, I assess how my discussions with musicians and the Jewish Music Institute have not only changed and shaped this evolving scene, but forced me to question my own attitudes and practice.
Date: 1993
Abstract: The theoretical emphasis in this thesis is on the ideas that people have regarding
the sociocultural construct of human nature. Regarded as a construct whose form
and content is intrinsically connected to economic, historic and sociocultural factors,
the thesis attempts to explain how specific circumstances have caused the orthodox
Jewish community of Gateshead to re-negotiate and crystallize the concept of
human nature in their quest to live ethical and moral lives. In the last fifty years
this community has become known as a prominent centre for higher rabbinical
studies and attracts students from all over the world. Apart from its high
intellectual standards it has also gained a reputation as harbouring members who
are devoted to inter-personal ethics. The contention of this thesis is that the
community's level of compliance to such behaviours requires an awareness and a
well-defined notion of one's "inner" self and its various components that govern the
process of moral and ethical conduct.
Underpinning a wide range of sociocultural activities the thesis deals in particular
with the way in which ideas of human nature are inherent to the content and form
of indigenous educational theory. The process of child-rearing not only ensures the
reproduction of competent sociocultural members, it also aids the child in acquiring
an understanding of its "inner" self. The latter is in Gateshead defined as the locus
of personal and individual responsibility and is consequently vital in making the child
aware of its potentiality for moral conduct.
By carefully analyzing mother-child interactions it is revealed how the structure and
content of these interactions are organized by and expressive of inherent ideas
concerning the concept of human nature. Through active participation in these
interaction sequences the child is provided with an opportunity to construct and
acquire an understanding of itself as a moral agent.
Author(s): Frank, Fiona
Date: 2012
Abstract: This thesis casts new light on the immigrant experience, focusing on one extended Scottish Jewish family, the descendents of Rabbi Zvi David Hoppenstein and his wife Sophia, who arrived in Scotland in the early 1880s. Going further than other studies by exploring connections and difference through five generations and across five branches of the family, it uses grounded theory and a feminist perspective and draws on secondary sources like census data and contemporary newspaper reports with the early immigrant generations, oral testimony with the third and fourth generations and an innovative use of social networking platforms to engage with the younger generation. It explores Bourdieu’s theories relating to cultural and economic capital and the main themes are examined through the triple lens of generational change, gender and class. The thesis draws out links between food and memory and examines outmarriage and ‘return inmarriage’. It explores the fact that antisemitic and negative reactions from the host community, changing in nature through the generations but always present, have had an effect on people’s sense of their Jewish identity just as much as has the transmission of Jewish identity at home, in the synagogue, in Hebrew classes and in Jewish political, educational, leisure and welfare organisations. It makes an important link between gendered educational opportunities and consequent gendered intergenerational class shift, challenges other studies which view Jewish identity as static and illustrates how the boundary between ‘insider’ and ‘outsider’ is blurred: the Hoppenstein family offers us a context where we can see clearly how insider and outsider status can be self-assigned, ascribed by others, or mediated by internal gatekeepers.
Author(s): Lewkowicz, Bea
Date: 1999
Abstract: This study is an ethnographic account of the Jewish community of Thessaloniki and a description and analysis of oral histories gathered during my fieldwork in 1994. The thesis looks at the intersection of history, memory, and identity by analysing how identities and memories are shaped by historical experiences and how identities shape memories of historical experiences. Thessaloniki has undergone tremendous changes in the twentieth century. The demographic, political, and architectural landscape has radically altered. In the context of my thesis, the most relevant changes concern the ethnic and religious composition of Thessaloniki's population, the city's incorporation into the Greek nation-state (1912), the subsequent introduction of nationalism, and the annihilation of 48,000 Salonikan Jews during the Second World War. The thesis explores how these historical changes and 'events' are represented in individual narratives of Jews in Thessaloniki and in the realm of Jewish communal memory, how these historical changes have affected the formulations of Jewish communal and individual identity and memory, and how Jewish memory relates to the general landscape of memory in contemporary Greece. In chapters one and two, I discuss the theoretical framework and methodology of this thesis. Discussions on ethnicity, nationalism, memory, and certain themes of the 'anthropology of Greece' form the theoretical background of this study. The methodology applied consists of ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviewing. Chapter three presents a historical overview of the history of Thessaloniki and its Jewish community, and discusses the position of minorities in contemporary Greece. I describe the current structure and organisation of the community and look at some demographic developments of the Salonikan Jewish population in chapter four. I then proceed to a detailed account of the interviews which constitutes the main part of the thesis. Chapter five deals with the pre-war past, chapters six and seven with the experience of the war, and chapter eight with the post-war period. In chapter nine I look at perception of boundaries and notions of 'us' and 'them' among Salonikan Jews. In the conclusions, I examine the changes of post-war Jewish memorial practices in the context of the changing 'memory-scape' of the city of Thessaloniki.
Author(s): Pinner, Hana
Date: 2006
Abstract: This philosophy addresses the complex educational issues arising in Anglo-Jewish education catering for a community which is rooted in two cultures: the Jewish-Orthodox and the Western-liberal, a community that incorporates all aspects of Western culture that do not conflict with Jewish law or its value system. Underpinned by diverse ontologies and epistemologies these cultures differ in many aspects, most significantly for educators, in their value systems and therefore in the hermeneutic understanding of the "excellences" to be designated as ultimate and proximate aims for the education. Whereas the liberal Western culture endorses anti-authoritarian, individual autonomy, the Jewish thesis endorses such only in areas for which Jewish law has not legislated. For all other, free choices are to be exercised against the divinely commanded value system. The National Curriculum, through which secular subjects are delivered, and Judaism both require holism in education. In both, all knowledge is to serve also as a vehicle for pupils' overall personal and social growth: the cognitive/intellectual, ethical, spiritual and physical. Since holism necessarily has to be governed by an overall organic quality of wholeness, in which all the educational aims permeate every area of education, it is axiomatic that contradictions in the aims cannot be accommodated within any specific educational structure. This unitary philosophy responds to the requirements of holism by establishing an educational structure which, in itself, is free of conflict. This is achievable due to the liberal National Curriculum's acceptance, qua being liberal, of non-public values to overlay the statutory political ones in the entire school's curriculum — which, for Jewish education is the Halakhic value system. A conflict-free philosophy, however, does not guarantee conflict-free development of pupils who live their lives within both the Jewish thesis and the all pervasive, multi-media imposed Western culture. The unitary philosophy sets out strategies for dealing with these conflicts within carefully structured programmes.
Author(s): Law, Lisa
Date: 2003
Abstract: Much research recognises the clinical value of considering clients' cultural context. 'Cultural competence' may be considered the balance between sensitive practice and an awareness about particular cultural groups. 'Jewishness' is a powerful influence on the majority of Jewish people, regardless of religiosity. Jewishness incorporates more than Judaism, for example, it includes Jewish history, ethnicity and culture. This research aims to help therapists work with Jewish families by familiarising them with aspects of Jewishness, in order to gain insight to the 'lived experience' of contemporary, British, Jewish families, so as to consider the potential clinical implications of Jewishness and develop cultural competence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight British-born, culturally, rather than religiously, Jewish mothers aged between 30 and 39. The interview transcripts were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis methodology. Ten themes (^entity', Tradition and Culture', 'Characteristics', 'Family', 'Community', 'Continuity', 'Difference and Similarity', 'Fear', 'Feelings' and 'Services') were derived from the analysis and considered in terms of clinical implications. For example, the women spoke about a (sometimes) inexplicable 'bicultural' identity and the significant impact of Jewish history. These issues may inhibit Jewish clients from speaking about the relevance of their Jewishness with non-Jewish therapists. Suggestions were made for developing a Jewish cultural, historical and political perspective, so that beliefs, behaviours and characteristics are not misinterpreted and 'therapeutic safety' for Jewish clients is maximised. Other recommendations included using cultural consultants and adopting a systemic framework. Issues that may be particularly difficult for Jewish families were discussed and recommendations for future research made.
Author(s): Moulin, Daniel
Date: 2013
Abstract: The increasing diversity of societies is one of the most important educational issues of the globalised era. However, while some attention has been paid to the schooling experiences of racial, ethnic and immigrant minorities in Western societies, little research has been conducted with religious adolescents.
This thesis explores the complexities of religious adolescents’ experiences of English secondary schools. As an exploratory study, I employed an emergent research design carrying out loosely-structured, group and single interviews at eleven places of worship to investigate the schooling experiences of 99 adolescent Christians, Jews and Muslims. In order to interpret their reported experiences, I applied a theoretical model based on the Students’ Multiple World Framework in conjunction with concepts of religious identity negotiation and construction.
The interview data show how Christians, Jews and Muslims negotiate their religious identities in the context of the numerous challenges presented by secondary schools in a religiously plural and largely secular society. In classroom worlds participants perceived their religious traditions to be distorted, inaccurately or unfairly represented. In peer worlds participants reported that they could experience prejudice, and criticism of their beliefs. Christians, Jews and Muslims reported two principal management strategies in the face of these challenges, either: declaring their religious identity openly, or by masking it in public.
The findings of this study are highly relevant to debates about the role of religion in education, including those concerning faith and Church schools and the nature and purpose of the curriculum subject Religious Education.
Author(s): Rose, Esther Davida
Date: 2010
Abstract: Existing research and anecdotal accounts have consistently reported that Jewish people are positively inclined to seek treatment for mental health problems, including making use of psychiatric services and psychotherapy. However, much of this data has been based on samples of American Jewry and there appear to be no existing studies in the UK which have quantitatively investigated whether there are similar help seeking preferences for mental health problems amongst British Jewry. The present study investigated Jewish people’s attitudes and intentions to seek professional help for mental health problems and their experiences of seeking professional help in the UK. Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980) the study also aimed to determine the strongest predictors of intentions and attempts to seek professional help, according to people’s attitudes, perceived social pressure, beliefs about the causes of mental illness and level of religiosity. The study included 126 Jewish people who were predominantly recruited from synagogues and community centres across the UK. Results indicated that a high percentage of this sample would be willing to see a mental health professional if they experienced a mental health problem. According to multiple regression analysis, attitudes towards seeking professional help and stress-related causal beliefs most strongly predicted intention to seek professional help. Despite the sample being non-clinically recruited, 63% of participants reported that they had experienced a mental health problem and the majority of these individuals had sought professional help in the past. Path analysis revealed that actual attempts to seek professional help were directly influenced by intention to seek professional help, perceived social pressure and supernatural causal beliefs. Given the high prevalence of mental health problems and use of professional mental health services amongst this sample, clinical considerations highlighted the need for preventative mental health strategies and culturally sensitive mental health services for Jewish people. Limitations of the study include the use of an opportunity sample which was unable to recruit members of the Ultra-Orthodox Jewish community.
Author(s): Gerson, Jane
Date: 2008
Abstract: Kosher food is not necessarily the same as 'Jewish' food. The thesis explores ideas of Jewish identity in Britain in relation to food, examining the period from the end of austerity in the mid-1950s until the beginning of the twenty-first century. The period starts with Britain's emergence from the strictures of rationing and the development of an era of abundance and choice that has led, at the beginning of the twenty-first century, to a complex and ambivalent relationship between food and society. The thesis explores food in relation to the histories of diverse British Jewish communities and individuals deploying a range of evidence including oral histories, memoirs, journalism and cookery books. It studies the practice of Jewish identity and food, looking at Jewish communities ranging from the strictly Orthodox to progressive Jews. Theories of place, displacement and circuitry in the context of a global food economy are central to the thesis as are ideas of memory, myth and ritual. The first two chapters study the religious, political and social context of kosher food practice in Britain, analysing relations between the ecclesiastical authorities, the kosher food industry and consumers in which issues of class and gender are pivotal. Non-Jewish responses to kosher food are also examined. The third chapter interrogates the culinary origins of Ashkenazi and Sephardi food in Britain in the context of the globalization of the food industry, questioning how this affects the 'Jewishness' of specific culinary practices. The final chapter investigates the meaning and development of Jewish food rituals with respect to Sabbath and festival observance. The thesis suggests that despite the particularity of Jewish practice in relation to food, and the specific circumstances of the Diaspora, the Jewish practice of identity through food should not be treated as exceptional. The concept of 'Jewish' food is as problematic and as valid as the identification of any other group with a specific cuisine.
Author(s): Abramson, Sarah J.
Date: 2010
Abstract: This dissertation is an exploration of the ways in which Jewish youth movements create, recreate and re-envision wider Jewish communal norms relating to authenticity, or what it means to be a `real' or `legitimate' Jew. The culmination of thirteen months participant observation fieldwork within one Jewish youth movement, as well as interviews with other youth movement leaders and archival research of one prominent British Jewish newspaper, I argue that the modem Orthodox Jewish Establishment in the United Kingdom has a strong grip on the concept of authenticity. The stakes for maintaining control over the boundary between the authentic and the inauthentic are high, as British Jewry is shrinking rapidly and education has been identified as the primary means by which to secure communal continuity. Consequently, Jewish formal education often supports particular (Orthodox) interpretations of Jewish authenticity, specifically in relation to communal pluralism, appropriate gender identifications and relationships with Zionism. However, these Orthodox expectations of authenticity are often incompatible with how many young British Jews today lead their lives. Youth movements are key sites in which the battle for continuity is being waged; British Jewish youth movements aim to create informal education agendas that inspire young people to create lifelong affiliations with Judaism. I contend that informal education has the necessary flexibility to disrupt (and thus redefine) the boundaries of Jewish authenticity. Specifically, the very pillars of Orthodox authenticity (pluralism, gender and Zionism) are beginning to be (re)- constructed in new and innovative ways by some movements. It is in this space, created through the negotiation of a movement's ethos and its simultaneous obligation to, or disregard for, communal (Orthodox) expectations, that the validation of `alternative' performances of Judaism is possible. In turn, such validation helps to associate authenticity with a fluid and context- dependent belief system that is more likely to secure communal continuity than the exclusive Orthodox system currently so predominant.
Author(s): Schmack, Yvonne Joy
Date: 2015
Abstract: The thesis examines the relationship between the teaching of Judaism and secondary school pupils’ perceptions of and attitudes to Jews. The study has two distinct contexts. The first is the perpetuation of negative attitudes towards Jews in England, and the second is the study of Judaism within Religious Education (‘curriculum Judaism’). Following an introductory chapter Chapters 2 and 3 analyse attitudinal development and the impact of strategies to challenge misconceptions. Particular reference is made to negative attitudes and behaviours to Jews in contemporary England and the impact of characteristics traditionally attributed to Jews. In Chapter 4 and 5 the context of curriculum Judaism is examined. Through a review of scholarly literature and policy documentation it is argued that the history of curriculum Judaism is unique and has been shaped by factors not conducive to presenting the tradition accurately. It maintains that teachers’ confidence in selecting appropriate content and teaching methods, and in challenging misconceptions, is pivotal for positive attitudinal development. Through a mixed methods approach, qualitative data is gathered from the three sources closest to curriculum Judaism - pupils, teachers and class textbooks. The data analysis in Chapter 7 and 8 contends that teachers often lack both confidence and appropriate knowledge to reflect the integrity of contemporary Judaism. Discussion of the selection and presentation of curriculum content and resources leads on to a consideration of the impact on pupils’ attitudes to Jews, with particular reference to the teaching of the Holocaust as a part of curriculum Judaism. The thesis argues that to meet the demands described above new approaches need to be established which develop teachers’ knowledge, discernment and confidence regarding appropriate content selection; effective learning experiences and strategies to effectively challenge misconceptions and stereotypes which inevitably develop into antisemitism.
Author(s): Moshkovitz, Yuval
Date: 2014
Abstract: This is a psychosocial research project investigating ‘national identity’ amongst middle class Jewish-Israelis in Britain. Its aim is to map key contents and highlight social categories that subjects draw on in their construction of ‘national identity’ and to study how they negotiate these categories and contents when narrating a story of ‘who they are’ as Israelis in Britain. The first part of the thesis provides historical and theoretical background to the study of national identities, with a focus on Jewish-Israeli identity in the context of Zionism. An empirical study is then presented, in which twelve Israelis living in London were interviewed in depth about their views on Israeli national identity, what it meant personally to them to be ‘an Israeli’, and what it meant to be ‘an Israeli in London’. Interviews were transcribed and a critical narrative approach was used to analyze the resulting texts, taking account of reflexive interview processes as well as exploring links with the broader cultural and political context. The findings reveal the elasticity and fluidity of ‘Israeli identity’. Subjects drew on a shared cultural reservoir - Zionist images, preconceptions and signifiers - to describe their personalized experience of belonging to or alienation from an acceptable notion of ‘Israeliness’ while living abroad. ‘Israeli identity’ was constructed against stereotypical images of ‘the others’ which, at times, applied racist discourse. Subjects constructed ‘Israeliness’ differently depending on the context they referred to (e.g. Israeli or British society). Each context had its distinct ‘others’. Within the British context Israeliness was constructed against the images of ‘the local Jews’, the ‘English’ and the ‘local Arabs and Muslims’. Constructing an Israeli identity was also influenced by the social position that subjects were implicated in, in relation to their class, ethnicity, gender, or occupation. This also shaped their experience of dislocation in Britain. Most of the participants conformed with a mainstream perspective on Israeli nationalism and refrained from criticizing it. This was interpreted as a discourse reflecting their privileged socio-cultural position in Israel and their commitment to a Zionist ethos which condemns emigration. Such a portrayal of Israeliness both initiated and contributed to a sense of unsettledness characteristic of this middle-class group. Subjects moved back and forth between two identificatory positions (‘Ha’aretz’ and ‘Israel’) as their points of identification constantly changed. The research contributes to the analysis of nationalism phenomena and associated concepts such as diaspora and belonging among a middle class group of migrants. It outlines cultural, material and political forces that sustain nationalism yet also demonstrates ways through which subjects negotiate or resist the discourses and social categories offered to them for the construction of a ‘national identity’.
Date: 1997
Abstract: Ce travail s'inscrit au croisement des sciences economiques et des sciences sociales. Il part d'un constat economique, celui de l'extraordinaire croissance, dans les annees 70 a 80, d'un marche, qui vingt ans auparavant n'etait qu'embryonnaire : le marche des produits cacher. Il presente les enjeux d'une telle vigueur : enjeux religieux, symboliques et identitaires d'une part, enjeux economiques et de pouvoir d'autre part. L'etude des pratiques alimentaires juives en modernite, en tant que "fait social total", permet de saisir l'organisation materielle d'une consommation symbolique. L'alimentation, parce que symboliquement centrale en tant que pratique sociale, est un angle d'approche ideal pour une sociologie religieuse du judaisme. Les observations conduite dans le domaine de la cacheront informent sur les juifs de france en dehors de ce seul domaine, mais aussi sur la place de l'alimentation dans toute societe humaine. Cette these s'articule sur deux axes : d'une part croire-pratiques-identites et d'autre part economie-institutions-pouvoir. Les consommateurs, effectifs ou potentiels, dans leur pratiques et leurs representations, etablissent un certain rapport aux textes prescriptifs, face a cela, les acteurs economiques et institutionnels, agissent selon des normes de la tradition, mais aussi selon des logiques propres, logiques de survie financiere et de pouvoir. Ces imbrications se mettent en place pour produire une configuration particuliere nommee economie du croire. Ce concept rend compte de la facon dont deux rationalites, l'une religieuse, l'autre economique, se font face, tantot s'affrontant, tantot se renforcant l'une l'autre. Si l'ethique juive prone un equilibre ideal entre les interets economiques et la necessite d'une solidarite collective, assuree par la centralite accordee au don, qu'en est-il dans les faits ? n'y a-t-il pas une tentation du veau d'or, c'est a dire une inversion entre les fins et les moyens, entre l'ethique et la technique, entre l'objet et le sens ?
Date: 2012
Abstract: La presente tesis doctoral constituye un estudio sociológico en profundidad de las comunidades judías contemporáneas de Cataluña y los entramados institucionales que se han erigido en torno a ellas. Todo el trabajo que se presenta tiene su origen en la siguiente pregunta de investigación: ¿por qué en los últimos veinte años aproximadamente se ha producido un proceso tan significativo de transformación y diversificación institucional y comunitaria en el caso de la colectividad judía de Cataluña sin que haya tenido lugar un gran crecimiento de esta población? El objetivo general de la investigación, concretado en diferentes objetivos específicos, es el de realizar un estudio sociológico en profundidad de las comunidades judías contemporáneas de Cataluña y de sus procesos de diversificación institucional y comunitaria a través del análisis de sus dinámicas de construcción y transmisión identitaria. La aproximación teórica general desde la que se ha elaborado esta investigación es la de la sociología de la religión, aunque ha sido necesario incorporar elementos de otros enfoques, como el análisis de las identidades nacionales, así como también aspectos específicos sobre la historia del judaísmo. Además, la multidimensionalidad que caracteriza tanto la identidad como la vivencia judías obligan a abandonar los esquemas analíticos tradicionales basados en supuestos derivados del cristianismo con el fin de ofrecer una comprensión más completa del objeto de estudio. Desde una perspectiva comprensiva, que se centra no sólo en los hechos objetivos, sino en la interpretación que las personas hacen de ellos, se ha elaborado un marco teórico que sirve de esquema de interpretación para entender la realidad empírica catalana. Éste se estructura en torno a un hilo conductor que hace referencia a los procesos de construcción y transmisión identitaria, a su concreción a nivel vivencial y comunitario y a su interconexión con el exterior de las comunidades. Es decir, partiendo de las ideas teóricas referidas a las concepciones del judaísmo y de la identidad judía (nivel simbólico), se llega a las formas concretas de vivir y experimentar esta pertenencia (nivel práctico), y, finalmente, de proyectarlas, tanto hacia dentro de la propia colectividad judía, como hacia fuera de ésta, hacia el entorno no judío (nivel práctico y simbólico). Del mismo modo, se incorpora la traslación institucional (nivel institucional) en que estas concepciones, vivencias y proyecciones se materializan. La propuesta metodológica que mejor se ajusta a las características del objeto de estudio y a los objetivos concretos planteados es una de carácter eminentemente cualitativo. Más concretamente, se ha planteado el enfoque narrativo como el eje central de la propuesta metodológica, ya que permite captar las narraciones que las personas elaboran de su propia experiencia, y éste se ha complementado con otras aportaciones. De este modo, la tesis, que consiste en un estudio de caso (la colectividad judía catalana) con comparación de subcasos (las cuatro comunidades judías), articula de forma complementaria tres técnicas de recogida de la información: las entrevistas en profundidad, las observaciones directas, y el análisis de documentación diversa. Las aportaciones más significativas de la tesis son las siguientes: - La constatación de una fuerte diversificación institucional y comunitaria del mundo judío catalán en los últimos veinte años, que se ve plasmada en un trabajo de mapeo que identifica y caracteriza las comunidades, entidades y asociaciones judías existentes en Cataluña en la actualidad. - La explicación de esta diversificación a través del análisis de las diferentes concepciones, vivencias y proyecciones del judaísmo y de la identidad judía encontradas entre la población objeto de estudio. - La identificación de las principales divergencias entre comunidades judías, erigidas principalmente en torno a diferencias religiosas y a la mutua concesión o denegación de legitimidad. - La conclusión de que los procesos de transformación institucional y comunitaria que han sido estudiados constituyen, en definitiva, la consolidación de la colectividad judía institucionalizada o, dicho de otro modo, la institucionalización de la diversidad
Author(s): Kudenko, Irina
Date: 2007
Abstract: In the last few years, multicultural citizenship, once hailed as a solution to national cohesion, has faced increasing political and academic accusations of inciting segregation and group divisions. This has prompted a re-evaluation of different institutional and discursive arrangements of national citizenship and their impact on the integration of minority ethnic groups. This research into the history of Jewish integration into British society analyses the relationship between changing forms of British citizenship and the evolution of British Jewish identities. In so doing, it enhances our understanding of how citizenship policies affect minority selfrepresentation and alter trajectories of integration into mainstream society. The research draws on an historical and sociological analysis of the Jewish community in Leeds to reveal how the assimilationist and ethnically defined citizenship of Imperial Britain conditioned the successful Jewish integration into a particular formula of Jewish identity, `private Jewishness and public Englishness', which, in the second part of the 20th century, was challenged by multicultural citizenship. The policies of multiculturalism, aimed at the political recognition and even encouragement of ethnic, racial and religious diversity, prompted debates about private-public expressions of ethnic/religious and other minority identities, legitimating alternative visions of Jewish identity and supporting calls for the democratisation of community institutions. The thesis argues that the national policies of multiculturalism were crucial in validating multiple `readings' of national and minority identity that characterise the present day Leeds Jewish community. Employing a multi-method approach, the study demonstrates how the social and geographical contexts of social actors, in particular their positions within the minority group and the mainstream population, enable multiple `readings' of sameness and differences. In particular, the research explores how a wealth of interpretations of personal and collective Jewish identities manifests itself through a selective and contextualised usage of different narratives of citizenship.
Author(s): Hakim, Jamie
Date: 2012
Abstract: In current Jewish Studies scholarship there is a broad consensus that the Arab-Israeli war of June 1967 caused both an intense emotional response in Britain’s Jewish community and a change in the relationship this community had with the State of Israel. What this scholarship has yet to provide is either a detailed account of the ways that the June 1967 war impacted on this community or a sustained theorisation of how the intensity generated by a world-historical event might bring about change. This thesis attempts to address these gaps by interviewing twelve British Jews who lived through their community’s response to the war and supplement this data with original archival research, adding detail that is currently missing from the historical record. It then interprets this data using a cultural studies approach grounded, primarily, in the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari. In using this approach this thesis reveals that it was the intense affectivity generated by the Zionist representation of the war as the ‘Six Day War’ that caused the community to change in the post-1967 conjuncture. It then identifies these changes as cultural ¬– occurring on the planes of identity, representation, everyday life, cultural practice and, most crucially, affectivity. In revealing the centrality of affect in the impact of the war on the British Jewish community, this thesis argues that the hegemonic form of Zionism that emerges within that community after 1967 is ‘Popular Zionism’, defined as an intensely charged affective disposition towards the State of Israel that is lived out in the cultural identities, everyday lives and cultural practices of British Jews.
Date: 2009
Abstract: This thesis examines the issue of ethnicity and kinship and explores the advent of identity formation, specifically in a Reform Jewish context, via youth movement participation. Through the mediums of informal education, focus group discussion and individual semi-structured interviews, I engage in an exploration of identifying what it means to be Jewish, how youth movements augment and abet Jewish identity formation, and the boundaries that exist between young Jews and their host communities.
Youth movement youngsters are observed in situ and Grounded Theory (Strauss, 1987; Glaser, 1978; Glaser, 1992; Glaser, 1998; Glaser, and Strauss, 1968) is employed to elucidate their engagements and interactions. Three case studies (Stake, 1995) are then presented to illustrate the experience of youth movement “graduates”. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (Smith, 2004; Smith and Osborn, 2003) is used to consider the dimensions of their relationship to Judaism, their youth movement and mainstream society.
I conclude that Jewish Identity is a combination of the Motivational and the Situational imperatives. The combined values of religion, culture and national affinity provide the motivational forces. Situational factors inducing Jewish identity amongst youth movement members are the ever wider boundaries they create for themselves and that are created for them. The first boundary of these youngsters that I identify is their movement loyalty relative to other Jewish youth movements; the next is their Reform Judaism within a wider Jewish context and the broader category is their “Jewishness” in a wider society. This “Jewishness” is expressed through the desire for Jewish Continuity (the future of the Jewish people) and the perpetuation of the feeling of “otherness”.
The final chapter charts my developing identity as a researcher. I pose and answer questions taken from throughout the thesis to illustrate my trajectory along the route of becoming a researcher and interpolating my Jewish roots and their significance in my identity development.
Author(s): Corbett, Timothy
Date: 2015
Abstract: This thesis presents the first integrated history of Vienna’s four Jewish cemeteries as sites reflecting the construction, negotiation and at times contestation of Jewish communal belonging within Viennese society, embedded in the Viennese cityscape. Through a novel analysis of the sepulchral epigraphy of the thousands of matzevot or grave-memorials contained therein, the development and expression of codes of belonging constructed in the nexus between shifting notions of ‘Jewish’ and ‘Viennese’ culture are illuminated in a longue durée from the medieval into the modern periods. The Shoah, while it does not represent the first instance of the violent erasures of Jewish life and culture in the city, through its magnitude and presence in living memory constitutes a profound rupture in the historic enmeshment of the Jewish community in Viennese society. During the Shoah, the cemeteries became a focal point for the attempted excision or revision of Jewish cultural heritage and its place in Viennese culture, perpetrated by a complex network of agency, with the cemeteries moreover becoming recalibrated as sites of intense Jewish-communal introspection and activity. The cemeteries constituted after the Shoah some of the only sites of Jewish heritage to survive in the physical and memorial landscape, becoming moreover deeply contested sites of memory, within the context of the fledgling re-establishment of Jewish life in the city and the conflicted political and historical discourses in the Second Austrian Republic. This thesis presents the cemeteries as sites of the most profound engagements with Vienna’s long and convoluted Jewish history, comprising moments of great cultural prowess as well as murderous destructivity, embodying the deeply interactive yet conflicted relationship between the City of Vienna and its successive Jewish communities.
Author(s): Fuhr, Christina
Date: 2012
Abstract: This thesis attends to the major question ‘how is Jewish identity created and maintained in contemporary Britain?’ To answer this question, I have done one year of ethnographic fieldwork in Britain, which included 121 interviews with Jewish people of various ages and across different religious as well as non-religious denominations.
This thesis identifies four major elements informing the creation and perpetuation of Jewish identity: One, a sense of difference from the majority population creates and maintains the identity. Jews can perceive themselves to be different religiously, nationally, ethnically and/or culturally from white Christian British people. Two, trauma memory has an impact on the creation and sustenance of this identity. Vicarious group trauma, meaning trauma experienced by proxy of previous generations, can inform identity through its influence on everyday experiences. Three, community affiliation plays a role in creating and particularly reinforcing the identification. The Jewish community provides resources, social interaction and thus signalled attention, and regard; all of them respond to innate human needs that a person aims to have satisfied. Four, a group norm of continuity is important in the perpetuation of this identity within and across generations. This norm is created and sustained by its members through their focus on endogamy. Wanting to have a partner from one’s own group, have Jewish children and raise them in a Jewish lifestyle can, thereby, reinforce and maintain a sense of Jewishness (inter-) generationally. Without members marrying within the faith and having children that are raised with Judaism, it would be difficult to preserve Jewish identity in a country where the group does not constitute the majority.
The thesis concludes that there are two reasons why Jews in diaspora have been able to sustain as a group and maintain their identity over time. Firstly, the multi-dimensionality of the Jewish group and respective affiliation platforms have allowed its members to create a multi-faceted meaning of being Jewish, and, secondly, continuous external challenges to the group’s security together with constant reminders of those challenges; both have prevented the group from assimilating into mainstream society.
Author(s): Hart, Rona
Date: 2004
Abstract: This ethnographic study delineates the experiences of immigrant families
living in London as they engage with local schools. The findings chapters of
the dissertation explore issues of access, by following the parents as they
enter London's educational marketplace and as they choose a school for
their children. The study portrays the process of educational choice from
their perspective as newcomers, highlighting their positioning in the
educational marketplace and the significance of their skills and resources as
educational consumers.
The findings reveal eight types of capitals that these families draw on as
they engage with the education market. These are: cultural properties, social
resources, identities, symbolic assets, psychological empowerment,
cognitive capacities, economic means and statutory positioning. The
analyses highlight the development that occurred in the choosers'
consumerist skills over time, suggesting that there may be a way to
empower disadvantaged choosers to obtain improved positions as
educational consumers.
A central theme in this study is the occurrence of a communal pattern of
schooling among this group of families. Searching for the factors that
occasion segregation in education, the focus of the research shifted to
explore the role of the choosers' networks. The findings suggest that by
using various control mechanisms, these networks engendered a continual
pattern of schooling resulting in segregation and closure.
'Choosing schools - choosing idenbties' stands for the main argument of this
study which states that the choice of school, as an act of consumerism,
represents the choosers' collective identities, and at the same time plays a
significant role in reinventing these identities.
Author(s): Leviton, Mervyn
Date: 2005
Abstract: The main aim of this research is to determine whether or not there has been any noticeable change in the level of religious observance and practice of less or non-observant parents which directly or indirectly can be attributed to the influence of their children and the Jewish primary school they attend. There is a frequently voiced assumption amongst those involved in Jewish education that parents, whose children attend a Jewish primary school, have increased their level of observance due to the influence of their children and the school. However, no previous research has been carried out in the United Kingdom in order to examine the basis of this premise. The purpose ofmy own research is to test this assumption in a thorough and rigorous manner by means of both questionnaires and in-depth interviews with parents of pupils attending three Jewish primary schools in England. In addition, there are two further specific areas that will be investigated as supplementary parts ofthe main research: [i] To compare the extent of similarities and differences of any such changes in religious observance between those Jewish families in England who formed part ofmy study, and those in the USA whose children attend Jewish day schools, who have also been the subject of separate research in the USA. [ii] To determine whether within the data of this research study, there is any correlation with previous research in the field of social psychology regarding causes and effects of social conformity and deviation. The data from this specific area of research will be used to focus on the effects of a crucial inter-connection between parents, children and the school. The thesis includes an examination of previous allied research and its implications relating to the nature of religious identity and changes in parental behaviour attributed to the influence of their children's Jewish education. It also contains chapters outlining the historical and social background which led to a weakening ofJewish religious observance in the UK during the zo" century and a study of the changing role of the traditional Jewish family and its effect on the levels of religious observance in Anglo-Jewry. The data from questionnaires and interviews are analysed in a thorough manner. The results and conclusions of this thesis should be of benefit to those planning and administering Jewish primary schools in the UK.