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Национальное самосознание российских евреев. Материалы социологического исследования 1997 - 1998 гг. (статья третья)

Translated Title

National Self-Consciousness of the Russian Jews: Materials of the sociological research 1997-1998 (Third Article)


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Представляем читателям заключительную статью из серии
публикаций, основанных на материалах этносоциологического
исследования, впервые проведенного в 1992–1993 гг. в Москве,
Санкт-Петербурге и Екатеринбурге, повторенного в тех же
городах в 1997–1998 гг. и посвященного разнообразным аспектам
формирования национальной идентичности российских евреев.
Оба раза с помощью формализованного интервью были опрошены
по 1300 респондентов в возрасте 16 лет и старше по репрезентативной для каждого из трех городов выборке. В первых двух статьях серии (см. «Диаспоры», 2000, № 3; 2001, № 1) подробно описаны концепция, методология, инструментарий проекта,
а также рассмотрены его эмпирические результаты, касающиеся
структуры этнической идентичности, роли иудаизма и традиций
в жизни современного еврейства, влияния семьи и ближайшего
социального окружения на национальную самоидентификацию,
освоения культурного наследия, участия в еврейском организованном движении, политических настрений еврейского населения.

Translated Abstract

The comparison of the given two surveys divided by a five years’ interval, indicates
that for the Russian Jews the emotional and cognitive identification with Israel
is still a significant component of their ethnic self consciousness. About 60 per cent
of the respondents unconditionally consider this country to be their historical motherland,
and every fourth of them visited Israel at least once. At the same time one
could say about their certain psychological «distancing» from the Israelis in the recent
five years. Thus, the share of those who consider Israelite Jews as their own people
and experience with them an indissoluble blood relationship decreased, if two surveys
are compared, from 40 to 20 per cent. The share of respondents who take a feeling of
connection with Israel and its faith to be an obligatory criterion for a true Jew dropped
by 1,8 times (up to 25%). In 1997–1998 only 11% of the respondents fully agreed with
the main postulate of Zionism about predetermination for all Jews of Diaspora to
return sooner or later to the Land of Promise, compared with 16% in 1992–1993. The
number of those who agreed with the idea with reservations also decreased from
40 per cent to about 30 per cent.
Ethnic enmity and anti Semitism remained serious reasons for anxiety for a significant
part of the Russian Jews. But on the whole anti Semitism seems to exert less
influence on Jewish self consciousness and its formation. First of all this is the case
with the young cohort whose ethnic socialisation took place to a major extent under
the impact of revival and openness of Jewish life, rather than psychologically destructive
reflection on hostile attitudes of the environment. At the same time the feeling of
pride for their people, the protection of its honour and dignity are considered by the
majority of the respondents, regardless their age, as obligatory components of Jewish
In comparison with 1992–1993, the survey of 1997–1998 revealed the double
growth of the share of those who estimated positively the prospects of free national
life of Jews in Russia (as being good or at least satisfactory). Such people constituted
almost two thirds of the sample. Simultaneously there occurred a reduction of emigration
potential of the Russian Jewry. The percentage of those who did not intend to
leave the country whenever and under any circumstances increased by two thirds,
while the proportion of the people willing to emigrate, on the contrary, dropped by
20 per cent. Along with general decrease of emigration orientations, Israel remained
to be the most probable destination point.

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Bibliographic Information

Гительман, Цви, Червяков, Владимир, Шапиро, Валерий Национальное самосознание российских евреев. Материалы социологического исследования 1997 - 1998 гг. (статья третья). Диаспоры. 2001: 224-262.  https://archive.jpr.org.uk/object-rus15