Translated Title: Starting Point of a Major Alyah?: On French Jews Who Emigrated to Israel after 2000
Abstract: With the upsurge in anti-Semitic actions in France and the murderous conflicts in the Middle East linked to the second intifada, the number of French migrants to Israel clearly increased between 2000 and 2006. The reason for this increase may be anxiety on the part of French Jews over the lack of concern among French administrative services and the media in response to the rise of anti-Jewish demonstrations. However, we should not overlook the fact that the Israeli administration and the Jewish Agency unceasingly encouraged the greatest possible number of Jews to settle in Israel so as to overcome the country’s demographic problems. Whether a deliberate choice or one due to fear, the migrants who idealized Israel were disappointed because of the hardships linked to integration.
Translated Title: From the Heder to Contemporary Schools: Jewish Education as a Reflection of a Community’s Fate
Abstract: This paper shows how from the start of the modern era to today, Jewish education always depended on the successive identity types to which the Jewish minority in France chose to belong. Following the heder of Jewish groups under the Ancien Régime, the consistorial schools followed Emancipation in the face of a concomitant and difficult challenge, namely promoting Jewish individuals in the community while acknowledging each individual’s religious specificity. Primarily a favorite means of regeneration for the poor and immigrants, this means of improvement reached the end of the 1930s in an unhappily weakened state as a result of the success of assimilation and the social secularization of society in general. Between the two world wars but mainly on the eve of World War Two, weaknesses began to appear in French Judaism as a whole along with yearnings for a more religious dimension of Jewish identity as well as a more favorable perspective on Zionism, even if many remained convinced Israelites. These yearnings were manifested in the emerging youth movements, mostly the French Israelite Boy Scouts, and the creation of the Maimonides College in Paris, which during the Occupation, experienced favorable conditions for their growth and the birth of new structures. However, this renewal was transient. Not until the 1960s and even more so in the 1970s did the development of Jewish educational opportunities flourish. The collapse of the French Israelite model was the fundamental cause of this new growth.
Les lieux de la revitalisation du judaïsme aujourd'hui. Vers un brouillage des frontières entre ashkénazes et séfarades ?
Translated Title: Spots where Judaïsm gains renewed forces today: Blurring of the borders between ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews ?
Topics: Jewish neighbourhoods, North African Jewry, Cities and Suburbs, Jewish Revival, Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Main Topic: Identity and Community