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Date: 2023
Date: 2023
Abstract: After the 1968 emigration, very few Jews remained in Poland, and even more miniscule was the number of “Jewish Jews.” Since then the number has grown somewhat, and much of it is due to the process of de-assimilation; i.e., some people with Jewish ancestors raised in completely Polonized families began to recover, reclaim, and readapt their Jewish background. An analysis of this phenomenon is offered with a series of putative reasons for its occurrence. The individuals constituting the “products” of de-assimilation are the majority of Polish Jews today and form much of the current leadership. While individuals everywhere can strengthen their ties to the Jewish people and can experience teshuvah or another kind of “Judaization,” the process of de-assimilation does not seem to be reducible to those moves. It begins with no Jewish identity, and is highly dependent on the attitudes and cultural trends in the majority society. It does not remove the de-assimilationists from the majority culture. The phenomenon is general and deserves to be studied as a sociological mechanism working in other cases of assimilation to a majority culture. In the Jewish case, it is especially dramatic. Probably the first example can be found in the evolution of the Marrano communities settled in Holland. The presence of de-assimilation seems to differentiate some European, first of all East European, communities from the globally dominant American and Israeli ones. Probably this rather new concept is needed to describe a significant part of the world of the Jews of twenty-first century Europe.
Date: 2022
Author(s): Michel, Karine
Date: 2009
Abstract: En cette fin de XXe, début de XXIe siècles, l'Europe a connu de multiples bouleversements sociaux, dont la chute du bloc soviétique. Une approche anthropologique des juifs d'ex-RDA aujourd'hui constituait dans ce cadre un sujet d'analyse fort intéressant. Considérées dans les pratiques effectives de ses acteurs, les Gemeinden juives de Saxe et de Berlin, communautés institutionnelles allemandes, nous ont permis d'appréhender le mécanisme spécifique de construction d'une identité. La judéité se meut actuellement au travers de la négociation de plusieurs variables différentes, telles que la religiosité, l'ethnicité ou la mémoire. Une analyse transversale, s'appuyant sur le mécanisme d'assignation interne et externe concomitants,permet de mettre en exergue, dans leurs formulations actuelles d'une part et dans leurs incohérences ou inadaptations d'autre part, les différents outils conceptuels à disposition dans ce mécanisme d'élaboraton. Ainsi, peut-on évoquer un retour à la religion pour les juifs immigrés de l'ex-Union soviétique aujourd'hui en ex-RDA ? La notion de communauté est-elle pertinente dans la désignation des juifs d'ex-RDA ? Comment comprendre la gestion du passé historique de l'Allemagne, après 50 ans de communisme, pour les juifs qui y résident actuellement ? Autant de questions trames de cette thèse, auxquelles nous tentons de répondre ici, par une analyse la plus fine possible de la réalité sociale juive existante aujourd'hui en ex-RDA.
Author(s): Ostrovskaya, Elena
Date: 2016
Author(s): Yelenskyi, Viktor
Date: 2020
Date: 2014
Date: 2011
Date: 2011
Author(s): Rock, Jonna
Date: 2019
Abstract: This study analyzes issues of language and Jewish identification pertaining to the Sephardim in Sarajevo. Complexity of the Sarajevo Sephardi history means that I explore Bosnia-Herzegovina/Yugoslavia, Israel and Spain as possible identity-creating factors for the Sephardim in Sarajevo today. My findings show that the elderly Sephardic generation insist on calling their language Serbo-Croatian, whereas the younger generations do not really know what language they speak – and laugh about the linguistic situation in Sarajevo, or rely on made-up categories such as ‘Sarajevan.’ None of the interviewees emphasize the maintenance of Judeo-Spanish as a crucial condition for the continuation of Sephardic culture in Sarajevo. Similarly, the celebration of Jewish holidays is more important for the maintenance of identity across the generations than speaking a Jewish language. At the same time, the individuals also assert alternative forms of being Bosnian, ones that encompass multiple ethnicities and religious ascriptions. All the youngest interviewees however fear that the Sarajevo Sephardic identity will disappear in a near future. Unique characteristics of Sarajevo Sephardim include the status of the Sephardim and minorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina given (1) the discriminatory Bosnian Constitution; (2) the absence of a law in Bosnia on the return of property; (3) the special situation wherein three major ethnic groups, and not just a single, ethnically homogeneous ‘majority,’ dominate the country; (4) the lack of a well-developed Jewish cultural infrastructure. Despite all of this, a rapprochement between the Sarajevo Jewish Community members and their religion and tradition is taking place. This phenomenon is partly attributable to the Community’s young religious activist and chazan, Igor Kožemjakin, who has attracted younger members to the religious services.