Leigazoltam a zsidókhoz -- (A "társadalmi zsidó" identitás kialakulásának élettörténeti gyökereiről)
Translated Title: I have a certificate of not being an anti-Semite.
Topics: Main Topic: Identity and Community, Jewish Schools, Jewish Revival, Assimilation, Jewish Identity, Jewish - Non - Jewish Relations
Abstract: Being non-Jewish in a Jewish community on the one hand, and being referred to as a „Jew" outside it is a tricky situation, in which the non-Jewish children sent to the newly founded Jewish elementary schools find themselves. Why do parents do that to their children? The answer lies in their individual life stories. The article demonstrates an individual case of a father who struggles against his burdening family-past and unconscious anti-Semitism by becoming a „quasi-Jew" through sacrificing his daughter by sending her to a Jewish school
Innocent Culprits - Silent Communities. On the Europeanisation of the Memory of the Shoah in Austria
Topics: Main Topic: Holocaust and Memorial, Memory, Holocaust Commemoration, National Identity, Oral History and Biography
Abstract: The Shoah destroyed the substance of Austrian Jewishness. The emigration of the survivors after 1945 and the indignation of the Austrian society resulted in the dislocation of the memory of the Shoah itself. The Shoah provoked a massive social amnesia during the first two to three decades after World War II in Europe. The long silence was broken by the American television series Shoah in 1979 and by the Waldheim affair in 1986. Since the second half of the 1990s, a large‐scale restitution process and a new government program of commemoration have begun. Seemingly, Austria has successfully joined the mainstream of the European culture of memory. However, Austrian Jews as victims or survivors gradually came to be missing or played a minor role in the daily practice of the local and national politics of memory. One has the impression that the ‘local Jews’ have been overshadowed by the Europeanisation of the Shoah. The paper presents an Austrian case as a paradoxical example of ‘creative forgetting’ or ‘forgetting by remembering’.
Topics: Main Topic: Holocaust and Memorial, Antisemitism, Holocaust Memorials, Jewish Museums, Jewish - Non - Jewish Relations
Abstract: From the perspective of the past two (almost three) years, it seems that the significant anniversary of 2014 went down in the annals of history as a remarkable fiasco of Hungarian memory politics. Controversial Monument, Divided Hungarians, Angered Jewish Community – these newspaper headlines are still fresh in our minds. Over the course of the year, the Hungarian Holocaust Memorial Year turned to become somewhat infamous, and scandal followed upon scandal not only in domestic media but also in foreign newspapers. However, everything had started off well in the beginning. This essay will first briefly introduce the broader context of this fiasco, discussing the main differences between Eastern and Western European memory politics before and after 1989. It will then distinguish some milestones of the Hungarian ambiguity and delay in coping with the European tendencies in Holocaust remembrance. After that, it will turn to its central subject, analysing the main events of the Hungarian Holocaust Memorial Year 2014. Toward the end, the essay will map the different initiatives between the coordinates of memory politics and show some unintended consequences
of the unsuccessful governmental intentions.
of the unsuccessful governmental intentions.
Abstract: Research was conducted at two Jewish schools founded in Budapest in 1989, using the method of narrative biographical interviews and hermeneutic case analysis. Many children of mixed marriages or non-Jewish families attend these schools. Using the case analysis of a family in which the father is from a Jewish survivor family and the mother has an anti-Semitic background, the mixed marriage pattern “interchanged identities” is examined. The couple tried to rid themselves of their families' pasts, the husband by refusing his Jewishness and the wife by defying her anti-Semitic father and her identification with him. The unconscious mechanisms, shame, and guilty feelings lying behind their efforts are discussed.
Abstract: Mindennapi életünk milliárdnyi eseménye alussza Csipkerózsika álmát lelkünk mélyrétegeiben, mindaddig, amíg valamilyen 'sorsesemény' felszínre nem hozza azokat, és ezzel mintegy átstrukturálja életünk megszokott szerkezetét. Ezek az események a maguk idejében nem alkottak jelent vagy jövőt meghatározó élményt. Ahogy a szerzők ezt megfogalmazzák: 'Ez a múlt tehát olyan múlt, amely soha nem volt jelen'. A rendszerváltozás olyan 'sorseseménynek' számít, amely képes volt átstrukturálni a múltat, az egykor jelentésnélküliként megélt események a megváltozott jelenben új struktúrába szerveződtek, ettől jelentésük megváltozott, jelent formáló, jövőt meghatározó jelentést kaptak, ahogy a szerzők ezt - talán túl tömören fogalmazva - írják: 'a sorsesemény olyan jelenre utal, amely soha nem volt jövő. Értelmezésünkben e soha-nem-volt-jövő jelenből tekintünk vissza e soha-nem-volt-jelen múltra, s előre a soha-nem-lesz-jelen, illetve soha-nem-lesz-múlt jövőre'. A magyarországi zsidó identitást, illetve annak a rendszerváltozás utáni változását, 'átstrukturálódását' vizsgálta Kovács Éva és Vajda Júlia. Két csoport körében végezték - az erre a célra kidolgozott interjú-készítési módszerrel, a 'narratív interjús technika' alkalmazásával - vizsgálataikat a kilencvenes évek elején alakult zsidó iskolákba beíratott gyermekekkel és szüleikkel - akik részben vallásos, részben vallásukat már elhagyott zsidók, de ugyanúgy van közöttük katolikus, vagy éppen vegyes felekezetű család is. A lefolytatott beszélgetések szociológiai, szociálpszichológiai elemzése a választások indítékait, az identitás hátterét tárják fel.
'I Have a Certificate of Not Being Anti-Semite"- Identity of a 'Social Jew': Its Roots in Life History
Topics: Jewish Schools, Jewish Revival, Assimilation, Jewish Identity, Jewish-Non-Jewish Relations, Main Topic: Identity and Community
Abstract: Should our Readers be asked were they would investigate the nature of Jewish identity, theymight be somewhat surprised at the question for they would think it is a matter of fact to do soamong the Jews, wherever else? Nevertheless, Jewish identity of non-Jewish intellectuals is to be discussed below. Given the fact that two Jewish schools were recently established inBudapest, we decided to study the identity forming function of these schools by means of narrative life history interviews. While making the interviews we found that many non-Jewish parents took their children to these schools and the interviews also suggested that these parents have a kind of positive Jewish identity or consider some of their features Jewish or Jewish-like. We do not have the common case here, when, for example, non-Catholic childrenwere sent to convent schools for the good reputation of the school while overtly keeping their own religion. The families discussed in our study take their children to a Jewish school not asthose belonging to some other religion (even though they are actually non-Jewish) but on thegrounds of culture and values common (or considered to be common) with Jewry.
Intergenerational Responses to Social and Political Changes: Transformation of Jewish Identity in Hungary
Abstract: Jewish identity in the diaspora has always had its problematic sides, particularly in the last 100 years. As a consequence of factors such as secularization, the erosion or dissolution of traditional communities, and rapid assimilation processes, Jewish identity became more problematic, and its borders and definitions more vague, doubtful, or flexible. Definitions of “being a Jew” were relativized; they became various points on a scale that may range from belonging to a ritual community, to a distinct ethnic, religious and/or linguistic group, through belonging to more or less well-defined subcultures and/or traditions, to the point where no Jewish identity exists at all.