Abstract: The Jewish population living in Britain has commonly been depicted as a ‘model of integration’. This paper explores the social and spatial transitions made by the Jewish community over the course of more than a century of settlement and adaptation, with particular reference to Leeds. Using an historical perspective, the paper traces the changing ‘place’ of Jews in wider society in terms of their socio-economic status and how they construct themselves as a religious and ethnic minority in Britain. Drawing on a mixed methods approach, the paper reveals how Leeds Jews’ understandings of community, identity, integration and citizenship have evolved over time. The research uncovers diverse and complex interpretations of Jewishness and integration, which unsettle the idealised notions of community, the straightforward trajectory of adaptation, and unproblematic conceptions of identity embedded in the Jewish model of integration. The paper reflects on the implications of the Jewish experience for current debates and discourses on ‘race’, difference and social integration in twenty-first-century Britain.
Topics: Immigration, Russian-Speaking Jews, Integration, Russian Emigration, Main Topic: Demography and Migration
Abstract: Since 1990 considerable numbers of Jewish emigrants have resettled in Germany, predominantly in Berlin. Under certain, not very stringent, conditions, persons with Jewish ancestry receive full refugee status and are entitled to all associated practical and financial assistance. Research reveals different categories of immigrants to have markedly different ways of dealing with their new surroundings and the support offered by German institutions. Some conform to the expectations of the German authorities and the Jewish Community whereas others show more or less deviant behaviour. The present article examines these different strategies from the dual perspective of the immigrant's habitus and capital on the one hand, and the German context on the other. It is concluded that four types of immigrants may be discerned.
German and Jewish migration from the former Soviet Union to Germany: Background, trends and implications
Abstract: With the break-up of the Soviet Union, emigration from its successor states has increased considerably since the beginning of the 1990s. The most important receiving country of this outmigration has been Germany, which admitted approximately 1.63 million ethnic Germans and 120,000 Jews from the former Soviet Union between 1990 and 1999. In this article I explore the background and the implications of this recent emigration movement of Germans and Jews from the former Soviet Union to Germany. First, the migration movement of ethnic Germans and Jews will be described in the light of the German admission policy. Second, the social and cultural background and the emigration motivation of German and Jewish migrants will be examined. Finally, the integration of these recent immigrant groups from the former Soviet Union into Germany will be explored, with reference to the concept of segmented assimilation.
Topics: Demography, Censuses, Statistics, Migration, Comparisons with other communities, Main Topic: Demography and Migration
Abstract: Taking advantage of the availability of 2011 England and Wales census microdata, and recognising the importance of internal migration in shaping the size and nature of communities, this paper seeks to identify and quantify the underlying determinants of internal migration of small cultural groups. The Jewish group is one of the longest present minority groups in Britain. Three other groups (Arab, Chinese, and Sikh), which have been present in significant numbers for a much shorter period, are also examined. Multivariate binary logistic regression has been applied to data extracted from the 2011 safeguarded microdata files, to understand whether, having controlled for the variables identified, there remain residual unexplained differences between Jewish, other smaller group, and general migration levels. The study shows that the initial wide variation in migration propensity between these cultural groups is partly explained by compositional differences between groups, but that even after controlling for individual-level socio-demographic characteristics, regional location and distance of migration, cultural differences in migration behaviour remain. Overall, the study shows that there are fewer differences between Jewish and white British migration levels than for the other three groups, for whom a small but significant ‘cultural group penalty’, inhibiting migration propensity, remains.
Topics: Surveys, Interviews, Jewish Identity, Jewish Continuity, Intermarriage, Main Topic: Identity and Community
Abstract: This article is based on two recent studies of Jews in the Netherlands: a randomised survey of 1,036 people and a qualitative study of 30 non-religious, postwar-born Jews. Those with two Jewish parents and a Jewish upbringing were the most likely to exhibit a strong bond with Judaism, especially if they had a Jewish partner. The varied ties that secular, postwar-born Jews felt to Judaism have been deeply influenced by individualism and fragmentation in life. Judaism has become less self-evident for them compared to their parents and grandparents, and has increasingly become a matter of choice, comparable with developments in other ethnic and religious groups. At the same time their bond includes elements that are less uncommitted. Their various ties have different potentials for continuity. Attachments most resembling traditional forms, expressed in observance of Jewish holidays and anchored to social units wider than the family, have the greatest likelihood of continuity. More individualistic forms of Jewish ties, often restricted to personal sentiments and family idiosyncrasies, are the least likely to survive. Rising anti-Semitism and endangerment of Israel may strengthen existing ties.
Transnational orientations from home: Constructions of Israel and transnational space among Ukrainian Jewish youth
Topics: Diaspora, Israel-Diaspora Relations, Jewish Youth, Interviews, Globalisation, Main Topic: Identity and Community
Abstract: This article addresses the transnational and diaspora orientations of Ukrainian Jewish youth at home, as articulated in discourse and practice. It suggests that young Ukrainian Jews locate their everyday experiences and relationships within transnational space, thereby transnationalising the local and localising the transnational. Within this local/global continuum, a vibrant transnational Ukrainian Jewish youth culture is emerging with its own unique characteristics, which simultaneously challenge assumptions about practices of diaspora and transnationalism and seek to redefine these concepts and their distinctions.