Topics: Demography, Main Topic: Demography and Migration, Jewish Neighbourhoods, Comparisons with other communities, Censuses
Abstract: Internal migration plays a key role in shaping the demographic characteristics of areas. In this paper, data from the 2011 England and Wales census are used to assess the geographic patterns of migration for 4 small cultural groups that each constitute about 0.5% of the population—Arabs, Chinese, Jews, and Sikhs—with a White British “benchmark” group. It examines the sensitivity of the scale of intercommunity moves to distance, having controlled for other migrant characteristics, through the development of spatial interaction models. The analysis finds that, where a choice exists, Jews are more averse to making a longer move than other small groups, all of whom favour shorter moves than the White British. The paper also investigates the influence of origin location and socioeconomic characteristics on the choice of migration destination using multinomial logistic regression. It finds that the influence of student status, age, qualifications, and home tenure vary by group though a number of patterns are shared between groups. Finally, it probes the presence in these smaller groups of patterns found historically in the wider population, such as counter‐urbanisation. Overall, this paper broadens the understanding of minority group migration patterns by examining, for the first time, Arabs (identified separately only in the 2011 census) and 2 groups based on religion (Jews and Sikhs) and by revisiting, with new questions, the White British and Chinese groups using the latest census data.
Abstract: The size of the UK Jewish population has always been a source of uncertainty for demographers. Following considerable discussion and testing, a voluntary question on religion was introduced into the 2001 Census, which afforded the first opportunity to provide definitive answers to the socio-demographic make-up of Jews in Britain. However, examination of the 2001 Census figures and data from several large surveys suggests that the census population of 266,740 British Jews by religion is probably a considerable undercount. Jews are increasingly defining themselves in ethnic rather than religious terms, so there is reason to question the efficacy of the data derived from the current format of the census question on religion and identity in general. With growing demands for comprehensive planning of social service needs, the necessity for accurate data is more important than ever. Although much of this can be derived from the Census, there continues to be a key role for community-wide surveys.
Estimating the Jewish undercount in the 2001 Census: a comment on Graham and Waterman (2005) ‘Underenumeration of the Jewish Population in the UK 2001 Census’
Abstract: Graham and Waterman (2005) argued that there was a substantial underenumeration of Jews in the UK 2001 Census of Population. Their observations are valuable but some of the specific pieces of evidence and the recommendations that they offer can be criticised. There is an alternative method of estimating the extent to which Jews were undercounted in the census; it produces results that largely support their claims
Locating Jews by ethnicity: a reply to D. Voas (2007), ‘Estimating the Jewish Undercount in the 2001 Census: A Comment on Graham and Waterman (2005) “Underenumeration of the Jewish Population in the UK 2001 Census”’
Abstract: The inclusion of identity questions in censuses opens up new and complex horizons for quantitative analysis. In this Reply we examine these difficulties, especially those associated with the enumeration and interpretation of such data. We present Census data to illustrate these problems and which support the claim that many Jews in Britain identify not only by religion but also, or instead, by ethnicity.