Jewish Languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Promise and Reality of the Language Rights Protection Regime
Abstract: The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1992) seeks to protect and promote regional and minority languages in Europe. The objectives and principles defined by the Charter include the recognition of regional and minority languages as cultural assets. The Charter also commits the signatories to promote the study of, and research on, regional and minority languages. Bosnia and Herzegovina signed the Charter in 2005 and officially ratified it in 2010, applying it to seventeen regional and minority languages including Ladino and Yiddish. This paper examines the disparity between the obligations entered into and the actual state of affairs. It also investigates the linguistic repertoire and language ideologies of the Jewish community in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the extent and nature of its interest in revitalizing Ladino.
Abstract: This article is an attempt to apply some operative methodologies in the research on Jewish languages to the specific blend of French used by French Jews born in France to parents with a North-African background. After a classification of the linguistic material gathered during years of fieldwork in France and Israel according to word origin (Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; general Maghrebi), it goes on to compare the status of the Arabic word in the Jewish mouth with that of the same words in the colloquial speech of young Muslims born in France to immigrant parents. The analysis of the Arabic elements integrated within the colloquial French speech of Jews and Muslims in today’s France goes further, taking into account the last echoes of the speech specific to Catholic pieds-noirs.