Abstract: In many parts of the world, we witness an increase of anti-Semitic expression and violence, fuelled by the international context. In France, the country with the largest Jewish community in Europe, the resurgence of anti-Semitism has been particularly acute and reached its peak in October 2000 with the beginning of the Second Intifada. This paper proposes to study this phenomenon throughout - a description of the nature and the dimension of the resurgence of anti-Semitism - an examination of the national, regional and international response to anti-Semitism and - an assessment of its efficiency. This study shows that while the resurgence of anti-Semitism in France is tightly linked to the international context, the situation is also a reflection of some deep-rooted problems within French Society. This study concludes that while the legal machinery has been successful in establishing a moral rejection of anti-Semitism, in the case of France, social change is also required.