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Translated Title: Yiddish Revived in Lemberg
Date: 2019
Abstract: Традиционный язык ашкеназского еврейства – идиш ‑ почти исчез в качестве средства живого общения на просторах Восточной Европы и постсоветских стран в связи с культурной ассимиляцией в советское время и массовой эмиграцией его последних носителей в 90-е гг. прошлого века. Но он был одним из важнейших символов еврейского возрождения в 1988-1992 годах, то есть накануне распада СССР и в ранний постсоветский период. Именно вокруг идеи восстановления и развития идишской культуры строилась деятельность возникших в те годы Обществ еврейской культуры, первое из которых в Украине (оно же ‑ второе по счету в СССР) было основано во Львове. Однако в последующие годы этот фактор ушел на периферию идентичности местного еврейства. После перерыва в четверть века интерес к данной теме вновь возрождается, но уже как к академической дисциплине, причем в основном усилиями нееврейских интеллектуалов и деятелей местной культуры. Сам по себе этот процесс можно только приветствовать, однако одновременно еврейским общественным лидерам имеет смысл задаться вопросом, что стоит за этот тенденцией. Общая либерализация гуманитарного знания, попытка ответственно взглянуть на историю своих народов в свете судеб их еврейских соседей или характерная для ряда стран Восточной Европы попытка превращения еврейской культуры в приватизированную местным нееврейским обществом «единицу памяти»?
Author(s): Zaagsma, Gerben
Date: 2011
Author(s): Verschik, Anna
Date: 2014
Author(s): Verschik, Anna
Date: 1999
Abstract: The topic of the present article is the socio-cultural history of Estonian Jews as well as main patterns of their linguistic behavior. This atypical Jewish community definitely deserves more scholarly attention than it has received. It is important to stress that not all Jews living in Estonia today are considered to be Estonian Jews. Only those who were born and/or whose socialization took place in independent Estonia (1918-1940) and their descendants are included in this group. Those who migrated to Estonia after 1940 belong socio-culturally and linguistically to a different community (Russian language and cultural orientation). Estonian Jews are multilingual as a rule (Estonian, Yiddish, Russian, German); however, reasons for their multilingualism differ from those of a traditional Jewish community. In our case these reasons include: small size of the minority, high rate of urbanization, lack of strict orthodoxy, acculturation and modernization. Yiddish dialect spoken in Estonia, or Estonian Yiddish, is highly valued by its speakers. The status of Yiddish among other co-territorial languages is discussed in this paper. Linguistic behavior is based largely on a high degree of linguistic awareness (speakers enjoy their multilingualism). However, the number of Yiddish speakers is constantly decreasing due to certain historical events (Soviet and Nazi occupation of Estonia, abolition of cultural autonomy, Soviet ethnic policy, etc). The possibilities of future developments -a shift to other languages, the emergence of a Yiddish-Estonian-Russian mixed variety, a new multilingualism of Yiddish-speaking immigrants -should all be taken into consideration.
Author(s): Muir, Simo
Date: 2009
Abstract: Artikkelin tarkoituksena on kuvata sosiolingvistisestä näkökulmasta Helsingin juutalaisten kontakteja ja kielenvaihtoja ja analysoida joitakin juutalaisten etnolektisen puheen ilmiöitä. Artikkeli tarkastelee tätä kenttää etnolektin yleisten määritelmien sekä jiddišinjälkeisen juutalaisen etnolektin (Post-Yiddish Jewish Ethnolect) käsitteen valossa.

Artikkelin ensimmäinen osa tarkastelee Helsingin juutalaisen yhteisön muodostumista, juutalaisen yhteisön monikielisyyttä ja yhteisössä tapahtuneita kielenvaihtoja jiddiaistä ruotsin kautta suomeen. Myös venäjän, saksan ja (nyky)heprean kielellä on on ollut roolinsa yhteisön monikielisyydessä. Vastoin yleistä käsitystä, Helsingin juutalainen yhteisö säilytti jiddišin kielen verrattain pitkään ruotsin ja suomen rinnalla. Jiddišin kielellä oli tärkeä sija kulttuurielämässä sekä uskonnollisessa toiminnassa. Artikkeli pohtii myös eri tekijöitä, jotka johtivat lopulta jiddišin kielen syrjäytymiseen.

Artikkelin toinen osa tarkastelee lehdissä ja juutalaisissa revyyteksteissä esiintyviä vanhan juutalaisruotsin ja juutalaissuomen parodioita. Nämä osoittavat omalta osaltaan, että valtaväestöllä oli selvä kuva siitä, mitkä olivat juutalaisruotsin tai juutalaissuomen ominaispiirteet ja että Helsingin juutalaisten kielelliseen repertoaariin kuului jiddišinvaikutteinen varieteetti. Myös tänä päivänä on havaittavissa ryhmänsisäisessä kanssakäymisessä niin ruotsin kuin suomenkin kielessä erityinen etnolektinen rekisteri, jota voidaan käyttää tunnusmerkkisissä tilanteissa (marked situations). Tämä etnolektinen rekisteri esiintyy erityisesti tilanteissa, joissa etnisen ryhmäidentiteetin rooli on keskeinen. Artikkeli tarkastelee ilmiötä kirjallisten ja suullisten lähteiden avulla ja tuo esille sen keskeisiä piirteitä.
Author(s): Mitchell, Bruce
Date: 2006
Abstract: Language Politics and Language Survival: Yiddish among the haredim in post-war Britainra" outlines the history and development of the Yiddish language as it is used among Ultra-Orthodox Jews in contemporary Britain. The language policies of these communities are analysed and placed within the greater socio-historical and religious context of rabbinic justifications for the use of Jewish languages, and of Yiddish in particular. Reasons for the general abandonment of Yiddish outside of the la"haredira" world are also summarized and placed in juxtaposition with the Yiddish language of loyalty of the la"haredimra". Yiddish language and corpus planning in la"haredira" schools is analysed using communal documents and newspaper articles, educational assessments of Jewish schools compiled by la"Her Majesty's Inspectorsra", a number of interviews with communal educators, tape recordings of lessons given in Yiddish, and observations made during my own visits to la"haredira" educational institutions. A significant part of this book is dedicated to the analysis of the Yiddish language itself as it is currently used in Britain. The analysis of spoken Yiddish is based on recordings of speech patterns collected in the course of field work in la"haredira" schools in London and Manchester and focuses primarily on dialectal usage based on religious sect and the geographic region within Britain. A brief sociological analysis of la"haredira" literature in Yiddish is provided in order to demonstrate the ideological function of Yiddish language texts in contemporary Britain, and in the la"haredira" world in general. The primary materials used for this are texts produced by, and published within, the la"haredira" communities of Britain.
Author(s): Gruber, Ruth Ellen
Date: 2009
Abstract: This essay explores two “real imaginary” worlds in Europe -- the “virtually Jewish” and the “imaginary wild west.” The author describes some of the ways that European non-Jews adopt, enact and transform elements of Jewish culture, using Jewish culture at times to create, mold, or find, their own identities. She also describes a surprising and remarkably multi-faceted Far West subculture in Europe that, stoked, marketed and even created by popular culture, forms a connected collection of “Wild Western spaces.” There are major differences between the “virtually Jewish” phenomenon and the “virtually western” European response to the American Frontier saga. One has to do with a real, traumatic issue: coming to terms with the Holocaust and its legacy of guilt and loss. The other is the embrace and elaboration of a collective fantasy and its translation into personal experience. But in certain ways they can be viewed as analogous phenomena. Both have to do with identity, and the ways in which people use other cultures to shape their own identities. In addition, in both “virtually Jewish” and “imaginary western” realms, the issue of “authenticity” is involved, as well as the distinction between creative cultural appropriation and mere imitation. Both entail the creation of “new authenticities” -- things, places and experiences that in themselves are real, with all the trappings of reality, but that are quite different from the “realities” on which they are modeled or that they are attempting to evoke. The process has led to the formation of models, stereotypes, modes of behavior and even traditions.