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Author(s): Huber, Jasmina
Date: 2017
Author(s): Roda, Jessica
Date: 2016
Author(s): Benhabib, Seyla
Date: 2015
Abstract: This article is an autobiographical contribution recounting the entanglement of Turkish, Jewish and Armenian memories in contemporary Turkey. The ‘special friendship’ between Turkey and the Sephardic Jews, who were given refuge by the Ottoman Empire after escaping the Inquisition in Spain in 1492, has always been used as evidence of the generosity and toleration of Ottoman and subsequent Turkish rule. Recent historical research shows that these claims are both historically inaccurate and politically instrumental. Nevertheless, the Sephardic-Jewish sense of gratitude towards their Turkish protectors, as well as their continuing sense of vulnerability, is acute. Particularly in the year of the centenary of the Armenian Genocide (2015), the tangled memories of Jews, Turks and Armenians have been on display with official commemorations of the tragedy of the vessel Struma carrying Jewish refugees from Romania to Palestine (1942) and the battle over Gallipoli (1915). The Battle of Gallipoli is presented by the Turkish authorities as the beginning of the Turkish war of independence (1919–23) against imperial powers, thus emphasizing that the Armenian Genocide was part of a complex history, the purpose of which was to liberate Turkey from foreign domination. The article analyses the symbolic connections among these events and concludes by looking at the geopolitics of contemporary Turkish–Israeli relations and their impact on Armenian Genocide recognition attempts in the USA.
Date: 2015
Date: 2012
Abstract: A unique moment in Sephardic music is emerging in the Republic of Serbia. Since 2000, a small but vibrant Sephardic music scene has been formed through the efforts of a small group of individuals. The scene keeps alive a repertoire that has survived many upheavals: the Holocaust and the near-total extermination of Sephardic sacred music practitioners from the region; a half-century of religious suppression under the Yugoslav government; and the political turmoil of the 1990s and the establishment of the Republic of Serbia from what was once Yugoslavia. Each of these major socio-political shifts had an impact on how today's musicians learned and contributed to the creation of Sephardic music. Since 2000, the maintenance and reworking of the Sephardic music scene in Belgrade has taken place almost entirely because of small group individuals. The Sephardic music scene that has emerged is now made up of one concert stage ensemble, Shira u’tfila [Song and Prayer], and a collection of synagogue singers. Though the scene comprises only a small number of musicians, these individuals exercise considerable power in determining how broader categories like Sephardic and Jewish are represented and contribute to the civic, state, and international public imagination.

The expression of being Serbian, Sephardic, and Jewish is shaped and transmitted by this small group of musicians as they actively engage in a variety of discourses. These discourses concern the role of technology in the transmission of their practice, historical consciousness and nostalgia, and personal and social identities. By looking at how musical and social domains are established and promoted through performance, I show how personal taste and individual creativity play a role in representing Jewish culture in Serbia and Serbian-Jewish culture to an international audience. Ultimately, Shira u’tfila helps redefine ideas of Serbian Jewishness, and articulates an understanding of music in Jewish life as behavior that embraces both sacred and
secular, both Jewish and non-Jewish, repertoire.
Author(s): Wiens, Kathleen
Author(s): Filipović, Jelena
Date: 2015
Abstract: The status and sustainability of minority/dominated languages in the 21st century are
very much influenced by general and language ideologies of times gone by. Namely,
Eurocentric modernity-driven language policy and planning, which result in the
formation of standard language culture ideologies, are at the core of the cultural,
political and historical frameworks which, since the 19th century, have influenced the
relationship between majority (standardized) languages and minority/dominated
languages spoken in political entities recognized as nation-states in Europe. It is within
this framework of standard language cultures (Milroy, 2001) that the history, the loss,
and the possible revitalization of Judeo-Spanish can and should be understood.

Na status i održivost manjinskih jezika/jezika kojima se dominira u 21. veku
umnogome utiču opšte i jezičke ideologije prošlih vremena. Naime, evrocentrična
modernost koju pokreće jezička politika i jezičko planiranje, koja ima za posledicu
oblikovanje standardnih jezičkih kulturnih ideologija, predstavlja srž kulturnih,
političkih i istorijskih okvira koja je od 19. veka uticala na odnos između većinskih
(standardizovanih) jezika i manjinskih jezika/jezika kojima se dominira kao političke
entitete koji su priznati kao nacionalne države u Evropi. Upravo se u ovom okviru
standardnih jezičkih kultura (Milroy, 2001) mogu i treba razumeti istorija i gubitak, kao
i moguća revitalizacija jevrejsko- španskog.

En relación a las lenguas minoritarias dominadas en el siglo xxi, su estado y subsistencia
están muy influidas por las ideologías generales y también lingüísticas del tiempo que
vivimos. Concretamente, la modernidad eurocéntrica de la política y de la planificación
lingüística que conducen a la formación de ideologías culturales lingüísticas estandarizadas,
están en el núcleo de los marcos históricos, políticos y culturales que, desde el siglo xix,
han influido en la relación entre la mayoría de las lenguas (estandarizadas) y las lenguas
minoritarias dominadas habladas en las entidades políticas reconocidas como son los
Estados nación en Europa. Es dentro de este marco de culturas lingüísticas estándar (Milroy,
2001) que puede y debe ser entendida su historia y su pérdida, así como la revitalización
del judeoespañol.
Author(s): Lewkowicz, Bea
Date: 1999
Abstract: This study is an ethnographic account of the Jewish community of Thessaloniki and a description and analysis of oral histories gathered during my fieldwork in 1994. The thesis looks at the intersection of history, memory, and identity by analysing how identities and memories are shaped by historical experiences and how identities shape memories of historical experiences. Thessaloniki has undergone tremendous changes in the twentieth century. The demographic, political, and architectural landscape has radically altered. In the context of my thesis, the most relevant changes concern the ethnic and religious composition of Thessaloniki's population, the city's incorporation into the Greek nation-state (1912), the subsequent introduction of nationalism, and the annihilation of 48,000 Salonikan Jews during the Second World War. The thesis explores how these historical changes and 'events' are represented in individual narratives of Jews in Thessaloniki and in the realm of Jewish communal memory, how these historical changes have affected the formulations of Jewish communal and individual identity and memory, and how Jewish memory relates to the general landscape of memory in contemporary Greece. In chapters one and two, I discuss the theoretical framework and methodology of this thesis. Discussions on ethnicity, nationalism, memory, and certain themes of the 'anthropology of Greece' form the theoretical background of this study. The methodology applied consists of ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviewing. Chapter three presents a historical overview of the history of Thessaloniki and its Jewish community, and discusses the position of minorities in contemporary Greece. I describe the current structure and organisation of the community and look at some demographic developments of the Salonikan Jewish population in chapter four. I then proceed to a detailed account of the interviews which constitutes the main part of the thesis. Chapter five deals with the pre-war past, chapters six and seven with the experience of the war, and chapter eight with the post-war period. In chapter nine I look at perception of boundaries and notions of 'us' and 'them' among Salonikan Jews. In the conclusions, I examine the changes of post-war Jewish memorial practices in the context of the changing 'memory-scape' of the city of Thessaloniki.
Author(s): Rozenberg, Danielle
Date: 2006
Abstract: Après plusieurs siècles d'oubli consécutifs à l'expulsion des juifs d'Espagne, ce pays a redécouvert, voici quelque cent cinquante ans, la diaspora judéo-espagnole et le lien historique avec les descendants des exilés de 1492. Rencontres et évitements ; nostalgie envers une culture survivant hors des frontières et visées néo-coloniales en Méditerranée ; solidarité affichée à l'égard des " Espagnols sans patrie " ; mais refus de rapatriements aux heures sombres des pogroms et de la Shoah ; d'innombrables ambiguïtés ponctuent les étapes du rapprochement hispano- juif, jusqu'au sauvetage des juifs par Franco durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. La " question juive ", s'est nourrie en Espagne d'affrontements parlementaires à propos de la liberté religieuse, des échos de l'affaire Dreyfus ou encore de l'édition des Protocoles des sages de Sion. Paradoxe : la marginalisation des Chuetas de Majorque, la persistance d'un antijudaïsme populaire, la création, en 1941, d'un Fichier juif se sont conjuguées avec l'exaltation de Sefarad. Aujourd'hui se dessinent de nouveaux enjeux politiques et mémoriels : statut de la judaïcité espagnole issue d'immigrations récentes, réappropriations du legs médiéval, dialogue avec les différentes instances du judaïsme mondial. En focalisant l'éclairage à la fois sur la longue durée et ses principaux temps forts, cet ouvrage entend restituer dans toute sa complexité la lente normalisation des relations hispano-juives contemporaines
Author(s): Rozenberg, Danielle
Date: 2010
Abstract: Después de siglos de olvido, España redescubrió alrededor de 1850 la diáspora sefardí y su vínculo histórico con los descendientes de los exiliados de 1492. El reencuentro estuvo marcado por numerosas ambigüedades: nostalgia por una cultura preservada fuera de las fronteras y ambiciones neocoloniales en el Mediterráneo; afirmaciones de solidaridad con los Españoles sin patria, pero limitaciones a la repatriación en la Península en las horas sombrías de los pogromos (las persecuciones) y la shoah (el holocausto). La «cuestión judía» tuvo también sus dimensiones interiores: debates en las Cortes en torno a la libertad religiosa, antijudaísmo popular, antisemitismo de ciertos sectores religiosos o políticos y al mismo tiempo exaltación del legado de Sefarad. En el contexto actual de la normalización de las relaciones hispano-judías, esta obra pretende restituir el largo proceso contemporáneo de un acercamiento mutuo. Índice INTRODUCCIÓN.-CAPÍTULO I. LA AMNESIA OFICIAL Y LA HERENCIA ESCONDIDA.-La expulsión de los judíos y la transmisión del antijudaísmo.-Un caso límite de exclusión: los chuetas de Palma de Mallorca, judíos a su pesar.-La memoria de Sefarad en los descendientes de los expulsados.- CAPÍTULO II. EL VÍNCULO SEFARDÍ Y LOS INTERESES NACIONALES.-El redescubrimiento de los judeoespañoles.-La afirmación del vínculo sefardí.-Los intereses geopolíticos de España en el Mediterráneo.- CAPÍTULO III. LA CUESTIÓN JUDÍA EN EL ENFRENTA MIENTO DE LAS DOS ESPAÑAS (1860-1939).-El debate en las Cortes sobre la libertad religiosa.-La prensa y el mundo intelectual bajo la Restauración.-Los años de la Segunda República y de la Guerra Civil.-CAPÍTULO IV. LOS PRIMEROS ESTABLECIMIENTOS JUDÍOS EN LA ÉPOCA CONTEMPORÁNEA.-El retorno de los judíos a la Península Ibérica (1860-1939).-La vida judía en la España republicana.-España en guerra: 1936-1939.-CAPÍTULO V. LOS AÑOS FRANQUISTAS EN ESPAÑA.-La Falange y la Iglesia triunfantes.-La vida judía después de 1945: los años de tolerancia r
Author(s): Polikar, Samy
Date: 2006
Date: 2014
Abstract: Ladino, the heritage language of cultural affiliation for many Sephardic Jews in Bulgaria and beyond, is often discussed in terms of language endangerment and of cultural loss for this community and humanity more widely. However, for intercultural communication specialists, especially those with a linguistic focus, the Ladino experiences of Sephardic Jews in Bulgaria, as set against the backdrop of their changing political and social realities, provide rich insights regarding the linguistic complexities of identity. Through the Ladino-framed narratives of (often elderly) members of this community, we have learned how they drew, and continue to draw, upon their diverse linguistic and cultural resources to define themselves, to articulate their various identities, and to communicate within and beyond Bulgarian society. In order to connect these insights to current discussions of interculturality, and as informed by intercultural thinking, we developed the following five-zone framework: (1) the (intra-)personal, that is a zone of internal dialogue; (2) the domestic, that is a zone for the family; (3) the local, that is a zone for the Sephardic community in Bulgaria; (4) the diasporic, that is a zone for the wider Sephardic Jewish community; and (5) the international, that is the international community of Spanish-speakers. Further, the project presented here is methodologically innovative involving: several languages (i.e. it was researched multilingually as well as focused on multilingual communities) and therefore issues of translation and representation; and the use of researcher narratives as an additional means for managing the inherent reflexivities in our work.
Author(s): Arkin, Kimberly A.
Date: 2014
Abstract: During the course of her fieldwork in Paris, anthropologist Kimberly Arkin heard what she thought was a surprising admission. A French-born, North African Jewish (Sephardi) teenage girl laughingly told Arkin she was a racist. When asked what she meant by that, the girl responded, "It means I hate Arabs."

This girl was not unique. She and other Sephardi youth in Paris insisted, again and again, that they were not French, though born in France, and that they could not imagine their Jewish future in France. Fueled by her candid and compelling informants, Arkin's analysis delves into the connections and disjunctures between Jews and Muslims, religion and secular Republicanism, race and national community, and identity and culture in post-colonial France. Rhinestones argues that Sephardi youth, as both "Arabs" and "Jews," fall between categories of class, religion, and culture. Many reacted to this liminality by going beyond religion and culture to categorize their Jewishness as race, distinguishing Sephardi Jews from "Arab" Muslims, regardless of similarities they shared, while linking them to "European" Jews (Ashkenazim), regardless of their differences. But while racializing Jewishness might have made Sephardi Frenchness possible, it produced the opposite result: it re-grounded national community in religion-as-race, thereby making pluri-religious community appear threatening. Rhinestones thus sheds light on the production of race, alienation, and intolerance within marginalized French and European populations.
Author(s): Roda, Jessica
Date: 2012
Abstract: La question centrale de cette recherche s’inscrit dans la foulée des problématiques autour de
la patrimonialisation, de la performance et de la mise en scène des pratiques musicales. Elle
vise plus précisément à comprendre comment et pourquoi les Judéo-espagnols de France,
installés depuis le début du XXe siècle, utilisent les pratiques singulières des musiciens et
chanteurs professionnels majoritairement externes à la communauté pour revendiquer leur
patrimoine musical collectif et affirmer leur identité. La chercheuse replonge dans le passé
afin de saisir comment le répertoire musical s’est construit et est devenu un objet quasiment
exclusif au monde de l’art, alors qu’il reste associé aux répertoires dits « traditionnels ». En
vue d’interroger la judéo-hispanité musicale et déterminer ce qui la caractérise au présent, une
ethnographie multi-site auprès des artistes et de la communauté est proposée. Enfin, pour
comprendre le sens des pratiques, différents espaces de performance sont examinés à partir de
l’analyse des interactions entre les pôles de production et de réception, en cohérence avec le
contexte général de la pratique et de l’ensemble des paramètres performanciels. La conclusion
révèle notamment que la relation entre les artistes et la communauté génère un nouvel espace
familial et intimiste et que chacun des espaces forme un système interrelationnel dont
l’interaction permet de produire un équilibre qui consiste à faire vivre et à investir le
patrimoine musical au présent. Par ce biais, c’est notamment la problématique des catégories
musicales (musiques populaires, musiques traditionnelles, musiques de scène) reliées aux
espaces de pratique qui est interrogée.
Date: 2014
Date: 2009
Abstract: The subject of the article has been the evolution of stage performances and musical production as a mechanism of showing Jewish identity in Bulgaria in the wake of 1989. The text points out how the working out and presentation of cultural products through stage performance and amateur artistic activities turn into a way of shaping new models of Jewish identity in the wake of 1989 (construed as an element of a newly established “fabricated” tradition in the view of Eric Hobsbawm, in a period when classical folklore is losing its positions in everyday culture). The article focuses on the shows of several Jewish vocal and dancing formations, choir ensembles and soloists, who through their repertories enforce new folklore models as part of the creation of the new collective image of Bulgarian Jewry during the past 15-20 years. Two major components have been taken into consideration exerting the strongest impact on the artistic models: on the one hand, the historical relationship of the Bulgarian Jews with the Sephardic cultural tradition and, on the other, the Israeli culture penetrating along most diverse formal and informal channels. The paper raises the question about the relationship between the presentation of this culture and its consumption; between its creation and recreation in response to the changing post-modern society. Commentaries have also been offered as to how this situation contributes to the formation of the collective Jewish identity, giving precedence to the ethnic.
Author(s): Harris, Tracy K.
Date: 1994
Abstract: After expulsion from Spain in 1492, a large number of Spanish Jews (Sephardim) found refuge in lands of the Ottoman Empire. These Jews continued speaking a Spanish that, due to their isolation from Spain, developed independently in the empire from the various peninsular dialects. This language, called Judeo-Spanish (among other names), is the focus of Death of a Language, a sociolinguistic study describing the development of Judeo-Spanish from 1492 to the present, its characteristics, survival, and decline. To determine the current status of the language, Tracy K. Harris interviewed native Judeo-Spanish speakers from the sephardic communities of New York, Israel, and Los Angeles. This study analyzes the informants' use of the language, the characteristics of their speech, and the role of the language in Sephardic ethnicity.
Part I defines Judeo-Spanish, discusses the various names used to refer to the language, and presents a brief history of the Eastern Sephardim. The next part describes the language and its survival, first by examining the Spanish spoken by the Jews in pre-Expulsion Spain, and followed by a description of Judeo-Spanish as spoken in the Ottoman Empire, emphasizing the phonology, archaic features, new creations, euphemisms, proverbs, and foreign (non-Spanish) influences on the language. Finally, Harris discusses sociological or nonlinguistic reasons why Judeo-Spanish survived for four and one-half centuries in the Ottoman empire.
The third section of Death of a Language analyzes the present status and characteristics of Judeo-Spanish. This includes a description of the informants and the three Sephardic communities studied, as well as the present domains or uses of Judeo-Spanish in these communities. Current Judeo-Spanish shows extensive influences from English and Standard Spanish in the Judeo-Spanish spoken in the United States, and from Hebrew and French in Israel. No one under the age of fifty can speak it well enough (if at all) to pass it on to the next generation, and none of the informants' grandchildren can speak the language at all. Nothing is being done to ensure its perpetuation: the language is clearly dying.
Part IV examines the sociohistorical causes for the decline of Judeo-Spanish in the Levant and the United States, and presents the various attitudes of current speakers: 86 percent of the informants feel that the language is dying. A discussion of language and Sephardic identity from a sociolinguistic perspective comprises part V , which also examines Judeo-Spanish in the framework of dying languages in general and outlines the factors that contribute to language death. In the final chapter the author examines how a dying language affects a culture, specifically the role of Judeo-Spanish in Sephardic identity.
Date: 2008
Date: 2014