Search results

Your search found 23 items
Sort: Relevance | Topics | Title | Author | Publication Year
Home  / Search Results
Author(s): Amit, Hila
Date: 2017
Abstract: Looking at different perspectives and practices regarding Hebrew’s use or place of use, this chapter seeks to find connections between perceptions of diasporic Hebrew as they are envisioned and practiced in contemporary Berlin. What are the various events and activities taking place with regards to Hebrew in contemporary Berlin? How do Hebrew texts written today in Berlin correspond to the work of Scholem, Rosenzweig and others? Who are the people behind these activities and texts, and what is the political significance of their activities?

The article will open with a description of important notions of Zionist ideology. Then, I will describe briefly main aspects relevant to Israeli emigration. I will explain the importance of the city of Berlin to the Hebrew culture starting from the 18th century, as well as a Zionist center in the first half of the 20st century. The last two sections of this article will explore two figures of Israeli emigrants and their activities in contemporary Berlin. I will follow the activist Tal Hever-Chybowski, who claims to have established the first literary journal to be published in Hebrew in Europe since 1944 (entitled: Mikan Va'eilah - “from here and onwards”). Hever- Chybowski describes his motivation in the following words: “The goal of the journal is to become a literary cultural platform for non-hegemonic and non-sovereign Hebrew, a Hebrew that is free from the shackles of nationality and territory.” I say “claim to have established,” because this journal is not yet published, even though Hever-Chybowski describes it as if it is.

I will also follow the work of Mati Shemoeluf, a Hebrew author working in Berlin, who described the wonders of a Hebrew Library in Berlin. Shemoeluf, just like Hever-Chybowski, can be criticized for his embellishments of reality, since the Hebrew library – at least as Shemoeluf describes it - does not really exist. What are their political motivations, and what form of political activity are they practicing, are the questions I address in this chapter.
Author(s): Lev Ari, Lilach
Date: 2013
Abstract: This paper describes and analyzes the multiple ethnic identities
and identifications among first-generation Jewish Israeli immigrants
in Europe, and specifically in London and Paris, by means of closedend
questionnaires (N=114) and in-depth semi-structured interviews
(N=23).

Israelis who live in Europe are strongly attached to Israel and are
proud to present themselves as Israelis. Despite their place of residence,
these Israelis, particularly those residing in London and over the age
of 35, manage to find ways to preserve their Israeli identity. They also
perceive the need to expose their children to other Israelis as another
means of preventing assimilation. On the other hand, those who are
under the age of 35, and in particular those residing in Paris, have less
opportunity or less need to maintain their Israeli identity in Europe.
The older Israelis in London are also somewhat more integrated with
the proximal host and have a stronger Jewish identity than do younger
Israelis, particularly those residing in Paris. Living in Europe allows
Israelis to flourish economically without having to identify with or
belong to a cultural and social ethnic niche. The ethnic identity of
first-generation Israeli immigrants in Europe is multifaceted. While it
is primarily transnational, it is also dynamic and constantly changing
though various interactions and is, of course, susceptible to current
local and global political and economic events. For younger Israeli
immigrants, assimilation into the non-Jewish population appears to be
a possible form of identity and identification. This assimilation may be
moderated among young adults who build bridges with local Jewish
communities in tandem with their transnational formal connections
with Israel, a process that can benefit both sides. Such a process - the
reconstruction of ethnic Israeli-Jewish identity and collaborative
identification with local Jews - has the potential to strengthen and
enhance the survivability of European Jewry at large.
Author(s): Almog, Yael
Date: 2018
Date: 2017
Abstract: Одной из примет нашего времени стало по­явление так называемых «новых этнических диаспор», которые стали итогом массовых межгосударственных миграций – как прямых, так и возвратных – особенно интенсивных после Второй мировой войны. Члены этих диаспор, в отличие от мигрантов предыдущего поколения, не спешат растворять­ся в социокультурной среде принимающих сообществ, а достаточно долго, иногда на протяжении поколений, сохраняют многообразные социальные, культурные, идентификационные и даже политические связи со странами исхода.

Еврейский мир также не остался в стороне от этих процессов. Важным со­бытием последних десятилетий стало появление двух новых транснациональ­ных еврейских диаспор: израильской и русско-еврейской. Обе эти группы, не­сомненно, стали заметным фактором современной еврейской жизни и важным элементом многокультурной мозаики внутри еврейских коллективов стран пребывания и их обществ в целом.

При том, что еврейской эмиграции из Израиля и возникшей за его преде­лами «израильской диаспоре» (термин, который в научный оборот ввел Стивен Гольд) посвящена довольно обширная научная литература, а «всемирное рус­ско-еврейское сообщество» также стало объектом ряда фундаментальных работ3, общий компонент этих диаспор – эмигрантские сообщества русскоязычных израильтян – пока очень малоизучен.

Речь идет как о тех уроженцах (бывшего) СССР, которые в составе изра­ильской миграции оказались в странах Запада, так и в особенности об участни­ках «возвратной миграции» на постсоветское пространство. В академической литературе существует некоторое количество информации о русскоязычных израильтянах в разных странах Запада, и крайне немного – об израильтя­нах в странах бывшего СССР. Что же касается украинского сегмента этой диаспоры, то его до недавнего времени исследователи почти вообще не изуча­ли. (Единственным известным нам исключением является исследование изра­ильтян в Одессе, которое провела украино-британский антрополог Марина Са­прицкая.) Исследование, которое легло в основу этой статьи, было призвано заполнить этот пробел.

Его совместно провели Центр еврейского образования в диаспоре им. Лук­штейна (Университет Бар-Илан, Израиль) и Институт иудаики НаУКМА при поддержке Министерства алии и абсорбции Израиля и Евроазиатского еврей­ского конгресса. В ходе этого исследования в два «раунда» (в начале 2009 и в конце 2011 гг.) методом стандартизированного интервью было опрошено соо­тветственно 167 и 147 респондентов из числа израильтян, с разной степенью по­стоянства живущих в Украине6. При этом нам представлялось верным сравнить сообщества русскоязычных израильтян в Украине с сопоставимыми с ними по базовым параметрам контрольными группами, прежде всего – с израильтяна­ми, живущими и/или работающими в России.


One of the distinctive features of our times is the appearance of the so-called “new ethnic diasporas” resulting from mass state migrations—both direct and reverse—which especially intensified after the Second World War. Unlike previous generations of migrants, the members of these diasporas are not in a hurry to assimilate into the socio-cultural environment of the receiving societies. Instead, they continue to maintain—sometimes for several generations—a multifarious social and cultural identity and even political ties with their countries of origin.

The Jewish world did not remain on the sidelines of this process. An important development in recent decades is the appearance of two new transnational Jewish diasporas: Israeli and Russian-Jewish. Both these groups undoubtedly became a noticeable factor of contemporary Jewish life and an important element in the multicultural mosaic within Jewish communities of the host countries and within host societies at large.

Although the Jewish emigration from Israel and the “Israeli diaspora” (a term introduced by Steven Gold) has received considerable attention in the scholarly literature and the “global Russian-Jewish community” has become the subject of a series of fundamental works, the common component of these diasporas—Russian-speaking Israelis—remains understudied.

The reference points here are both natives of the former USSR who came to the West as part of the emigration from Israel and participants of the “reverse migration” to the post-Soviet states. The academic literature contains a certain amount of information about Israelis in the countries of the West and very little about Israelis in the countries of the former USSR. The Ukrainian segment of this diaspora was practically ignored by scholars until recently. The only exception we are aware of is the research project on Israelis in Odessa carried out by the Ukrainian-British anthropologist Marina Sapritsky. The research on which this article is based aimed to fill this important gap.

The project was implemented by the Lukshtein Center of Jewish Education in the Diaspora (Bar-Ilan University, Israel) and the Judaica Institute of the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (Ukraine) with the support from the Ministry of Aliyah and Absorption and the Eurasian Jewish Congress. In the course of this study, researchers held two rounds of interviews in 2009 and 2011 with 167 and 147 respondents from among Israelis who reside in Ukraine more or less permanently. We wanted in this process to compare the communities of Russian-speaking Israelis in Ukraine with similar control groups, primarily with Israelis working and living in Russia.
Author(s): Moshkovitz, Yuval
Date: 2014
Abstract: This is a psychosocial research project investigating ‘national identity’ amongst middle class Jewish-Israelis in Britain. Its aim is to map key contents and highlight social categories that subjects draw on in their construction of ‘national identity’ and to study how they negotiate these categories and contents when narrating a story of ‘who they are’ as Israelis in Britain. The first part of the thesis provides historical and theoretical background to the study of national identities, with a focus on Jewish-Israeli identity in the context of Zionism. An empirical study is then presented, in which twelve Israelis living in London were interviewed in depth about their views on Israeli national identity, what it meant personally to them to be ‘an Israeli’, and what it meant to be ‘an Israeli in London’. Interviews were transcribed and a critical narrative approach was used to analyze the resulting texts, taking account of reflexive interview processes as well as exploring links with the broader cultural and political context. The findings reveal the elasticity and fluidity of ‘Israeli identity’. Subjects drew on a shared cultural reservoir - Zionist images, preconceptions and signifiers - to describe their personalized experience of belonging to or alienation from an acceptable notion of ‘Israeliness’ while living abroad. ‘Israeli identity’ was constructed against stereotypical images of ‘the others’ which, at times, applied racist discourse. Subjects constructed ‘Israeliness’ differently depending on the context they referred to (e.g. Israeli or British society). Each context had its distinct ‘others’. Within the British context Israeliness was constructed against the images of ‘the local Jews’, the ‘English’ and the ‘local Arabs and Muslims’. Constructing an Israeli identity was also influenced by the social position that subjects were implicated in, in relation to their class, ethnicity, gender, or occupation. This also shaped their experience of dislocation in Britain. Most of the participants conformed with a mainstream perspective on Israeli nationalism and refrained from criticizing it. This was interpreted as a discourse reflecting their privileged socio-cultural position in Israel and their commitment to a Zionist ethos which condemns emigration. Such a portrayal of Israeliness both initiated and contributed to a sense of unsettledness characteristic of this middle-class group. Subjects moved back and forth between two identificatory positions (‘Ha’aretz’ and ‘Israel’) as their points of identification constantly changed. The research contributes to the analysis of nationalism phenomena and associated concepts such as diaspora and belonging among a middle class group of migrants. It outlines cultural, material and political forces that sustain nationalism yet also demonstrates ways through which subjects negotiate or resist the discourses and social categories offered to them for the construction of a ‘national identity’.
Author(s): Graham, David
Date: 2015
Abstract: Israelis constitute the largest foreign-born group of Jews living in the UK, and, as such, they garner considerable interest both in Britain and in Israel. In Britain, the presence of Israeli Jews constitutes a potential boon to the Jewish community, although any increase in their numbers can also place a potential strain on existing resources. In Israel, the decision to move abroad is rarely seen as a completely neutral choice, so understanding more about who migrates and in what numbers, makes an important contribution to contemporary Israeli discourse.

This report, entitled “Britain’s Israeli Diaspora,” uses UK Census data to paint a portrait of the diverse Israeli population in Britain. Whilst it includes a fair number of stereotypical, born-and-bred, accented Israelis who are recent migrants to the UK, it also contains a considerable proportion of people who hold dual Israeli-British citizenship, have been living in Britain for many years and appear to be well-integrated into British society.

There is clear evidence to show that the Israeli population of the UK has grown over time, increasing by an estimated 350% between 1971 and 2011, and whilst it is still small, it now stands at its highest ever recorded level. Moreover, in the decade between 2001 and 2011, a greater number of Israelis moved to Britain than British Jews moved to Israel, at a ratio of three to two.

Many of the Israelis who have moved to the UK recently are in their mid-20s to mid-40s, and are highly educated, and whilst most are secular and relatively few choose to engage in Jewish communal religious life, approximately half of those with children choose to send their children to Jewish schools. At the same time, it is important to note that the Israeli population in the UK includes a sizeable proportion of strictly Orthodox Jews (about 16%), and a not insignificant proportion of non-Jews (9%).

Based on these data, it is difficult to determine the forces that may be driving Israeli migration. Whilst one might be tempted to argue that political or economic considerations are key, the most compelling evidence points to rather more prosaic factors – most notably, partnering with, or marrying, someone from Britain.
Author(s): Hart, Rona
Date: 2004
Abstract: This ethnographic study delineates the experiences of immigrant families
living in London as they engage with local schools. The findings chapters of
the dissertation explore issues of access, by following the parents as they
enter London's educational marketplace and as they choose a school for
their children. The study portrays the process of educational choice from
their perspective as newcomers, highlighting their positioning in the
educational marketplace and the significance of their skills and resources as
educational consumers.
The findings reveal eight types of capitals that these families draw on as
they engage with the education market. These are: cultural properties, social
resources, identities, symbolic assets, psychological empowerment,
cognitive capacities, economic means and statutory positioning. The
analyses highlight the development that occurred in the choosers'
consumerist skills over time, suggesting that there may be a way to
empower disadvantaged choosers to obtain improved positions as
educational consumers.
A central theme in this study is the occurrence of a communal pattern of
schooling among this group of families. Searching for the factors that
occasion segregation in education, the focus of the research shifted to
explore the role of the choosers' networks. The findings suggest that by
using various control mechanisms, these networks engendered a continual
pattern of schooling resulting in segregation and closure.
'Choosing schools - choosing idenbties' stands for the main argument of this
study which states that the choice of school, as an act of consumerism,
represents the choosers' collective identities, and at the same time plays a
significant role in reinventing these identities.
Date: 2011
Date: 2001
Abstract: [From http://www.leo-baeck.org/leobaeck/sachbuchallgemein/buch-00905.html]:

Hebräisch in Metropolis
Die Historikerin Fania Oz-Salzberger über die israelische Diaspora in Berlin

"Wie lebt es sich als Israeli in Berlin?" Allein diese Frage, die die israelische Historikerin Fania Oz-Salzberger direkt zu Anfang ihres Buches stellt, führt zu einiger Verwirrung und in ein "Labyrinth voller Rätsel und Unwägbarkeiten."

Die Autorin meint explizit Israelis, nicht etwa deutsche Juden in Berlin. Damit hat sie schon ein erstes Tabu berührt. Denn in Israel selbst wird die Existenz einer israelischen Diaspora geflissentlich übersehen oder gar verneint. Als ob es die vielen hunderttausend Israelis in New York oder Los Angeles nicht geben würde. Nimmt man sie dennoch zur Kenntnis, fallen unschöne Wörter wie "Deserteure" und "Aussteiger". Und jetzt soll sich auch noch Berlin in die Reihe dieser Diaspora-Orte einreihen, wo Israelis mittlerweile zu Tausenden leben? Ausgerechnet die Stadt, in der die Vernichtung des jüdischen Volkes geplant wurde?
Fania Oz-Salzberger selbst hat im Rahmen eines Wissenschaftskollegs ein Jahr in Berlin gelebt und sich in dieser Zeit mit vielen Israelis darüber unterhalten, warum sie ihre Zelte gerade hier aufgeschlagen haben. Die Gründe sind so verschieden wie die Menschen, mit denen sie sprach: Mal war es Liebe, mal waren es berufliche Gründe oder aber die Möglichkeit, an einer der vielen Hochschulen zu studieren. Doch alle berichten einhellig: Berlin läßt niemanden, der in Israel geboren und aufgewachsen ist, kalt.
So mancher stieß hier unerwartet auf familiäre Wurzeln, wie etwa Dorit Brandwein-Stürmer, die israelische Gattin des deutschen Historikers und Ex-Kanzlerberater Michael Stürmer. Oft waren diese Begegnungen mit der Vergangenheit auch recht schmerzhaft, wie bei einem israelischen Banker, der sich auf die Suche nach den Akten über die Deportation seiner Vorfahren machte. Und in den Gesprächen wird eines deutlich: Die Vergangenheit Berlins als Hauptstadt Nazi-Deutschlands kommt in der Wahrnehmung ihrer neuen Wahlheimat bei allen Israelis immer wieder zum Vorschein. Daran können weder die gewonnene Vertrautheit mit der neuen Umgebung oder aber die vielschichtigen engen Bindungen zu ihren Bewohnern etwas ändern. Die oftmals beschworene Normalität deutsch-israelischer Beziehungen bleibt das Wunschdenken der deutschen Seite. "So macht die deutsche Sprache diskriminierende Unterschiede zwischen Israelis und Deutschen. Uns versetzt sie einen Schlag, den Deutschen nicht. Sie wissen nicht, was uns die Worte 'raus' und 'aussteigen', 'Arbeit' und 'frei', 'schnell, schnell' und 'Achtung' antun."
Fania Oz-Salzbergers Buch ist aber weit mehr als nur eine Bestandsaufnahme der israelischen Lebenswelten im Berlin von heute. Es ist zugleich ein äußerst persönliche Züge tragender Annäherungsversuch an die Stadt, an den historischen und ganz realen Ort: Berlin, das war für sie in ihrer Kindheit der Schauplatz von Emil und die Detektive oder Pünktchen und Anton. Damit spricht sie stellvertretend für eine ganze Generation von Israelis, denn die Kindergeschichten Erich Kästners erfreuten sich auch im Israel der fünfziger und sechziger Jahre große Beliebtheit. Und: Berlin galt als Inbegriff der architektonischen Moderne, die nach 1933 ihre konsequente Fortsetzung in den städtebaulichen Konzeptionen Tel Avivs oder Haifas erlebte.
Was den Leser bei der Lektüre des Buches überraschen mag, ist die Tatsache, daß das Phänomen "Israelis in Berlin" älter ist, als der Staat Israel selbst. Schon vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg tauchten in den assimilierten, gut bürgerlichen jüdischen Haushalten in Berlin hebräisch sprechende Kindermädchen aus Eretz-Israel auf. Und die gesamte Prominenz hebräisch schreibender Literaten, angefangen von Chaim Nachman Bialik über Achad Ha'am oder Saul Tschernichowski, weilte für längere Zeit in der deutschen Hauptstadt und hinterließ hier ihre Spuren. Die Route Berlin - Tel Aviv, Haifa, Jerusalem war keine Einbahnstraße.
Auf den ersten Blick scheint Israelis in Berlin ausschließlich für ein israelisches Publikum geschrieben zu sein. Die Fragen nach der israelischen Identität, der Existenz als Israeli im Ausland, all das und vieles mehr stehen an zentraler Stelle. Doch gleich einer Archäologin gelingt es Fania Oz-Salzberger dank ihrer Wahrnehmung und Beschäftigung mit Berlin, die für einen deutschen Leser vielleicht verborgenen Schichten der Stadt freizulegen und ihm dadurch einen neuen und ungewöhnlichen Zugang zu vermitteln. Zudem zeigen ihre Geschichten einmal mehr, wie komplex das deutsch-israelische respektive deutsch-jüdische Verhältnis in Wirklichkeit ist.

von Ralf Balke
Author(s): Gold, Steven J.
Date: 2002
Author(s): Lavi, Eyal
Date: 2012
Abstract: This thesis examines the mediation of the nation-state as a dimension of the diasporic
experience of place. It focuses on the consumption of mass-media about Israel or
originating from it by people residing outside of the country. I understand this
mediation to take place continuously throughout the day, in multiple spaces, through
different technologies. As such, it forms part of the experience of place in mediasaturated
(urban) environments, allowing for a distant nation-state to become
embedded in daily routines. In order to theorise this experience, I draw on MerleauPonty’s
phenomenology, which understands place through embodied perception and
habit, and on studies of diaspora and media, which examine the social meanings and
uses of media among specific transnational groups. This qualitative project is based
on a researcher-absent exercise and extended interviews with British Jews and Israeli
immigrants in London. Analysis reveals that orientation includes four areas of
practice: investing and withdrawing emotions as part of managing ‘care’, searching
for truth, distinguishing between ordinary and extraordinary time, and domesticating
media. Some of these practices may be particular to the case of Israel, but some are
shaped by discourses around insecurity, rather than Zionism itself. Others appear to
be related to experiences of migration and diaspora in general. I argue that these
practices are ‘orientational practices’ in which people endeavour to make sense of
spatial positioning through negotiating distance and controlling media. I theorise
media as ‘orientation devices’ in diasporic everyday life, but ones that are unstable,
contested and reflected upon, and hence never fully habituated. The resulting
experience is one of increased reflexivity about everyday place and, paradoxically,
increased dependency on media for orientation. I conclude by suggesting that
practices of orientation point to a mode of being in place in globalisation that is not
sufficiently addressed by the dominant understanding of ‘belonging’.
Author(s): Kranz, Dani
Date: 2016
Author(s): Kranz, Dani
Date: 2015
Abstract: Einwanderung, Erinnerungspolitik, Israel und die deutsche Geschichte sind Themen, über die in Deutschland regelmäßig diskutiert wird. Berlin, die Hauptstadt des neuen Deutschlands, ist hippe Metropole und Anziehungspunkt für Menschen aus allen Ländern. Was passiert, wenn das alles zusammenkommt, wenn eine Gruppe von Personen diese Themen alle auf einmal repräsentiert? Die Rede ist von den israelischen Einwanderern in Berlin. Im Herbst 2013 diagnostizierten israelische Medien eine neue Auswanderungswelle, die ihren Ausgangspunkt in den sozialen Protesten 2011 und den dabei kritisierten hohen Lebenshaltungskosten in Israel hatte. Daraufhin wurde in beiden Ländern ausführlich über das Phänomen berichtet, dass es viele junge Israelis ausgerechnet nach Berlin, also Deutschland, ziehe. In Israel wurde dies mit einer Mischung aus Besorgnis und Neugier betrachtet, während in Deutschland klar die Neugier überwog. Künstler verarbeiteten die Entwicklung in ihren Werken, wie die israelische Band Shmemel mit ihrem Song „Berlin“.

Trotz oder vielleicht gerade wegen der emotionalen Aufladung des Themas hat die Migration von Israelis nach Berlin fast schon Züge eines Mythos. Empirisch-wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse liegen bisher jedenfalls kaum vor, und die existierenden Studien sind nur schwer zugänglich. Diesem Mangel will dieser Bericht abhelfen und klären, wie viele Israelis es in Berlin überhaupt gibt und wer sie sind. Weiter sollen die Motive für den Umzug dorthin und der Umgang mit der eigenen Identität untersucht werden.