Abstract: Drawing on original interviews conducted between 2016 and 2018, this article explores understandings of Muslim-Jewish relations among Jews who immigrated from Morocco to France after 1945. These interviews suggest that the weight of currently circulating meta-discourses can lead to dissonances between individuals’ personal memories and the collective memories that they invoke in regard to Jewish-Muslim relations. As these interviews were conducted as part of a larger study of graduates of the schools of the Alliance Israelite Universelle in the MENA who immigrated to France, Canada and the United States after 1945, the author places these French findings in a larger comparative context, considering how the memories and perspectives of Moroccan Jews who immigrated to France converge and diverge from those who emigrated to North America.
Topics: Immigration, North African Jewry, Main Topic: Other, Methodology, Memory, Artefacts and Material Culture, Anthropology
Abstract: This short dialogue presents the theoretical framework used by the two authors – a visual artist and a social anthropologist of Judaism – as the starting point for the development of a scientific partnership. The aim of the collaboration is to explore the potential of “research-creation” (Giacco et al. 2020) to find alternative ways of representing ‘difficult stories’, like those of Jewish migrants and refugees from the Middle East and North Africa. Specifically, the authors are experimenting with creative visualisations inspired by maps, in all their various forms and in all meanings of the word.
Mind the map: charting unexplored territories of in-visible migrations from North Africa and the Middle East to Italy
Topics: Immigration, Main Topic: Other, North African Jewry, Sephardi Jews, Jewish Space, Jewish Neighbourhoods, Cities and Suburbs
Abstract: Visibility and invisibility represent crucial categories of analysis in migration studies. However, the multiple manifestations of in-visibility can make it difficult to precisely define them. This article suggests reconsidering these categories not so much in terms of ‘what they are’ but rather ‘when they occur’. By encompassing the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels of social interaction and analysis, in-visibility proves to be a viable category to explore the case of Middle Eastern and North African Jewish migrations to Milan, Italy–an area that still remains ‘uncharted territory’ for scholars of Sephardi and Mizrahi studies.
Translated Title: Returnees Or Emigrants: A Socio Anthropological Analysis of "Russian" Israelis in Odessa
Topics: Aliyah, Israel-Diaspora Relations, Israeli Expatriates, Immigration, Emigration, Main Topic: Demography and Migration
Abstract: This article explores the recent trend of return migration from Israel to countries of the former Soviet Union. The author analyses the current debates on the subject and, based on ethnographic fieldwork in Odessa, Ukraine conducted in 2005-2007, delves into the everyday experiences of «Russian» Israelis who have resettled in Odessa for personal and professional reasons. It focuses on their reasons for relocation and experiences of settling in their old/new environments, specifically their relationship to organized Jewish life and a sense of belonging. It argues that most returnees do not envision their relocation as a permanent decision and many do return to Israel or travel back and forth. In Odessa their experiences and connections to local Jewish life vary but for the most part returnees are concerned with improving their standard of living and see their relocation as a means of achieving that goal. It is too early to understand the full scope of «Russian» Israeli presence in the FSU, but we can already see that their future moves will most likely be determined by the personal and professional opportunities they encounter and family circumstances they face. The transnational orientations and open-ended journeys of «Russian» Israelis in Odessa complicate concepts of «Home» and «Diaspora» often applied to Israel and the Jewish people. On the one hand, leaving Israel constitutes Odessa as home; on the other hand, strong ties to Israel, displayed among many returnees, speak of Israel as a place of belonging. And yet other cases point to other realities where Russian Israelis explore other options or remain on the move. Placing the material in the wider context of Diaspora studies the author argues that «Home» and «Diaspora» are not fixed categories and can no longer be seen in a simplified manner of ideological constants.
Translated Title: Jews of Saxony and of Berlin - Working out of Jewishness in former East Germany today
Topics: Immigration, Jewish Identity, Jewish Community, Jewish Revival, Main Topic: Identity and Community, Post-1989
Abstract: En cette fin de XXe, début de XXIe siècles, l'Europe a connu de multiples bouleversements sociaux, dont la chute du bloc soviétique. Une approche anthropologique des juifs d'ex-RDA aujourd'hui constituait dans ce cadre un sujet d'analyse fort intéressant. Considérées dans les pratiques effectives de ses acteurs, les Gemeinden juives de Saxe et de Berlin, communautés institutionnelles allemandes, nous ont permis d'appréhender le mécanisme spécifique de construction d'une identité. La judéité se meut actuellement au travers de la négociation de plusieurs variables différentes, telles que la religiosité, l'ethnicité ou la mémoire. Une analyse transversale, s'appuyant sur le mécanisme d'assignation interne et externe concomitants,permet de mettre en exergue, dans leurs formulations actuelles d'une part et dans leurs incohérences ou inadaptations d'autre part, les différents outils conceptuels à disposition dans ce mécanisme d'élaboraton. Ainsi, peut-on évoquer un retour à la religion pour les juifs immigrés de l'ex-Union soviétique aujourd'hui en ex-RDA ? La notion de communauté est-elle pertinente dans la désignation des juifs d'ex-RDA ? Comment comprendre la gestion du passé historique de l'Allemagne, après 50 ans de communisme, pour les juifs qui y résident actuellement ? Autant de questions trames de cette thèse, auxquelles nous tentons de répondre ici, par une analyse la plus fine possible de la réalité sociale juive existante aujourd'hui en ex-RDA.
Contemporary Jewish Communities in Three European Cities: Challenges of Integration, Acculturation and Ethnic Identity
Topics: Main Topic: Identity and Community, Jewish Identity, Jewish Continuity, Jewish Community, Immigration, Integration, Antisemitism
Abstract: Contemporary Jewish identity, integration and acculturation in Europe has become an urgent topic in view of the current wave of antisemitism and reliable research on the present state of Jewish identity is scarce. Lilach Lev Ari has chosen three ethnically diverse communities – Paris, Brussels, and Antwerp – that can shed a light on the identity and acculturation of the Jewish minority in Europe. To understand patterns of social integration of native-born and immigrant Jews in the three host societies she applies the correlational quantitative method and has conducted semi-structured interviews. The study can promote further understanding of Jewish continuity within the non-Jewish host societies in a situation, when there is a concern about the resilience and strength of the Jewish communities vis-à-vis new waves of antisemitism.
Ausgeschlossen dazugehören. Russischsprachige Jüdinnen aus vaterjüdischen Familien im Prozess der Migration nach 1990
Translated Title: Excluded from belonging. Russian-speaking Jewish women from father-Jewish families in the process of migration after 1990
Topics: Main Topic: Identity and Community, Jewish Women, Jewish Identity, Russian-Speaking Jews, Intermarriage: Children of Intermarried Couples, Immigration, Jewish Community
Abstract: Der Artikel befasst sich mit der Frage der sogenannten Vaterjuden, die in der Folge der Einwanderung russischsprachiger Jüdinnen und Juden seit den 1990er Jahren für die jüdische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland an Bedeutung gewonnen hat. Porträtiert werden drei vaterjüdische Frauen, die im Zuge der Migration erfahren haben, wie ihre jüdischen Zugehörigkeiten redefiniert werden. Der Text fragt danach, welche Handlungsspielräume sich die jungen
Frauen erschließen und welche Rolle in diesem Prozess (trans)nationalen jüdischen Organisationen zukommt, die sich seit den 2000er Jahren etabliert haben
Frauen erschließen und welche Rolle in diesem Prozess (trans)nationalen jüdischen Organisationen zukommt, die sich seit den 2000er Jahren etabliert haben
“One Million Antisemites?” Attitudes toward Jews, the Holocaust, and Israel: An Anthropological Study of Refugees in Contemporary Germany
Topics: Antisemitism: Muslim, Anthropology, Immigration, Attitudes to Israel, Attitudes to Jews, Jewish - Muslim Relations, Main Topic: Antisemitism
Abstract: This article analyzes the attitudes of 25 refugees from Syria, Afghanistan, and Iraq, now living in Germany, toward Jews, the Holocaust, Israel, and the Middle East conflict. It reveals both anti-Jewish and anti-Israel sentiments among many of the respondents, as well as a lack of knowledge about the Holocaust, and a wide range of attitudes between individual participants. Some of the factors influencing attitudes include everyday knowledge in the countries of origin, Arab nationalism, as well as specific religious and ethnic identities. The findings are discussed in relation to other recent studies, and against the backdrop of German media discourse, current debates about an “imported” antisemitism among refugees and migrants, and the relationship between experiences of racial discrimination and anti-Jewish attitudes.
Topics: Jewish Community, Jewish Organisations, Main Topic: Identity and Community, Representation, Russian-Speaking Jews, Immigration
Abstract: This book explores the transformative impact that the immigration of large numbers of Jews from the former Soviet Union to Germany had on Jewish communities from 1990 to 2005. It focuses on four points of tension and conflict between existing community members and new Russian-speaking arrivals. These raised the fundamental questions: who should count as a Jew, how should Jews in Germany relate to the Holocaust, and who should the communities represent? By analyzing a wide range of source material, including Jewish and German newspapers, Bundestag debates and the opinions of some prominent Jewish commentators, Joseph Cronin investigates how such conflicts arose within Jewish communities and the measures taken to deal with them. This book provides a unique insight into a Jewish population little understood outside Germany, but whose significance in the post-Holocaust world cannot be underestimated.
Spezifika der jungen Generation jüdischer Einwanderer aus der ehemaligen Sowjetunion in Berlin. Vorteile des raumpraxeologischen und ethnographischen Zugangs
Translated Title: Specifics of the young generation of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Berlin. Advantages of spatial practice and ethnographic access
Abstract: In this paper I critically examine the conflation of Turk with Muslim, explore the Turkish experience of Nazism, and examine Turkey's relation to the darkest era of German history. Whereas many assume that Turks in Germany cannot share in the Jewish past, and that for them the genocide of the Jews is merely a borrowed memory, I show how intertwined the history of Turkey and Germany, Turkish and German anti-Semitism, and Turks and Jews are. Bringing together the histories of individual Turkish citizens who were Jewish or Dönme (descendants of Jews) in Nazi Berlin with the history of Jews in Turkey, I argue the categories “Turkish” and “Jewish” were converging identities in the Third Reich. Untangling them was a matter of life and death. I compare the fates of three neighbors in Berlin: Isaak Behar, a Turkish Jew stripped of his citizenship by his own government and condemned to Auschwitz; Fazli Taylan, a Turkish citizen and Dönme, whom the Turkish government exerted great efforts to save; and Eric Auerbach, a German Jew granted refuge in Turkey. I ask what is at stake for Germany and Turkey in remembering the narrative of the very few German Jews saved by Turkey, but in forgetting the fates of the far more numerous Turkish Jews in Nazi-era Berlin. I conclude with a discussion of the political effects today of occluding Turkish Jewishness by failing to remember the relationship between the first Turkish migration to Germany and the Shoah.
German Guilt, White Guilt: The Politics of Reforestation and the Return of the Gardening State. Response to Hannah Tzuberi, »Reforesting Jews: The German State and the Construction of 'New German Judaism'«
Topics: Jewish - Non - Jewish Relations, Jewish Revival, Main Topic: Other, Post-1989, Religion and State, Immigration, Diversity
Abstract: This response puts Tzuberi's analysis into a broader comparative context. First, the post-1990 attempt to create Jews in the image of the liberal-secular German nation-state met considerable resistance by the Central Council of Jews in Germany. In addition, the majority of post-Soviet Jews showed no interest in liberal Jewish theology or the fantasy of reviving the German-Jewish past. Second, the milieu of Judaizing Germans (core architects of German-Jewish revivalism) shows a strong resemblance to other attempts of escaping colonial whiteness, including patterns of what has been called »ethnic fraud.« Third, in comparison to other cases of minority repatriation, the German practice of expiatory demographic engineering was relatively cost-intensive, but contributed considerably to the country's »nation re-branding« after reunification. Fourth, the German politics of reforestation vis-à-vis its Jewish community points to the rise of a post-migratory »gardening state,« heavily invested in regulating its diverse population through a policy mix of migration, education and surveillance.
Abstract: Proposal to grant Spanish nationality to Sephardic Jews – History of Sephardic Jews in Iberia – Sephardim and the Portuguese nationality code – The EU and the nationality laws of the member states – Impact of Union law on the acquisition of Iberian nationalities by Sephardic Jews – European Convention on Nationality – Sephardim from third countries – Micheletti – Nottebohm
Abstract: In 2015, Spain approved a law that offered citizenship to the descendants of Sephardi Jews expelled in 1492. Drawing on archival, ethnographic, and historical sources, I show that this law belongs to a political genealogy of philosephardism in which the “return” of Sephardi Jews has been imagined as a way to usher in a deferred Spanish modernity. Borrowing from anthropological theories of “racial fusion,” philosephardic thinkers at the turn of the twentieth century saw Sephardi Jews as inheritors of a racial mixture that made them living repositories of an earlier moment of national greatness. The senator Ángel Pulido, trained as an anthropologist, channeled these intellectual currents into an international campaign advocating the repatriation of Sephardi Jews. Linking this racial logic to an affective one, Pulido asserted that Sephardi Jews did not “harbor rancor” for the Expulsion, but instead felt love and nostalgia toward Spain, and could thus be trusted as loyal subjects who would help resurrect its empire. Today, affective criteria continue to be enmeshed in debates about who qualifies for inclusion and are inextricable from the histories of racial thought that made earlier exclusions possible. Like its precursors, the 2015 Sephardic citizenship law rhetorically fashioned Sephardi Jews as fundamentally Spanish, not only making claims about Sephardi Jews, but also making claims on them. Reckoning with how rancor and other sentiments have helped buttress such claims exposes the recalcitrant hold that philosephardic thought has on Spain's present, even those “progressive” political projects that promise to “return” what has been lost.
Translated Title: Apart: The realities of identity and integration hurdles of immigrants of Jewish origin in Bingen am Rhein
Modalities of cosmopolitanism and mobility: parental education strategies of global, immigrant and local middle-class Israelis
Topics: Class, Immigration, Israeli Expatriates, Main Topic: Other, Globalisation, Parenthood, Education
Abstract: In this study, we explore how different forms of family mobility shape parental education strategies of three middle-class groups (moored Israeli professionals, immigrants from Israel to the UK and global middle class Israeli families). By focusing on families from the same nationality, we show how different practices of mobility differentiate between these middle-class fractions. Building on Andreotti’s framework for ‘global mindedness’ we suggest that orientations to cosmopolitanism also differentiate between these groups – from tourism (moored middle class), to empathy (immigrant middle class), to visiting (global middle class). By drawing on this conceptualisation, it is possible to understand why, despite the considerable uncertainty that constant mobility generates for children’s education and futures, global middle-class parents appear to assuredly navigate processes of securing and transmitting advantage.
Translated Title: Lingonberries and potatoes, Stockholm and Czernowitz: Materials in a Jew's life story
Which side are you on? Zum schwierigen Verhältnis von Antisemitismus und Rassismus in der Migrationsgesellschaft.
Translated Title: Which side are you on? On the difficult relationship between anti-Semitism and racism in the migration society.
Einstellungen Geflüchteter zu Juden und Israel: Die Analyse Gruppenbezogener Menschenfeindlichkeit als methodisch-ethische Herausforderung für die Flucht- und Flüchtlingsforschung
Translated Title: Attitudes of refugees to Jews and Israel: The analysis of group-related enmity as a methodological and ethical challenge for research on refugees
Topics: Anti-Zionism, Antisemitism: Muslim, Attitudes to Israel, Attitudes to Jews, Interviews, Immigration, Main Topic: Antisemitism, Refugees, Racism
Abstract: Auf Grundlage einer in Berlin durchgeführten qualitativen Studie stellt der Artikel die Einstellungen von 25 Geflüchteten aus Syrien, dem Irak und Afghanistan zu Juden, Jüdinnen und Israel dar. Er diskutiert regionale und ideologische Einflussfaktoren und bietet Erklärungen für existente antisemitische und antizionistische Ressentiments an. Darauf aufbauend werden für die Flucht-/Flüchtlingsforschung verallgemeinerbare methodische und ethische Herausforderungen bei der Analyse von Gruppenbezogener Menschenfeindlichkeit unter von Rassismus betroffenen gesellschaftlichen Minderheiten diskutiert. In der Konsequenz zeigt der Beitrag die Notwendigkeit einer integrativen Analyse auf, welche Antisemitismus-, Flüchtlings- und Rassismusforschung zusammenbringt.
„Was mir fehlt, ist, dass man einfach zusammen politisch arbeiten kann“ Zwischen Rassismus und Paternalismus: Einstellungen Geflüchteter zu Juden* und Israel in der postmigrantischen Gesellschaft
Translated Title: “What I am missing is that you just get together politically can work" Between Racism and Paternalism: Attitudes of Refugees to Jews and Israel in the post-migrant society
"там, на снегах севера, капли моей крови". Исторические и идеологические корни израильской диаспоры в россии и ссср
Topics: Russian-Speaking Jews, Israeli Expatriates, Immigration, Main Topic: Demography and Migration, Jewish History
Abstract: Jewish emigration from Israel of the recent decades brought the creation of the communities of Israeli passport holders in the various countries of the world, including Russia and other post-Soviet states. Although this fact is commonly accepted as a totally new phenomenon, the returned migration of Russian and other Jews, who first immigrated to their historical Homeland - the Land of Israel/Palestine, and in a period of time came back to Russia has centuries-long history. In the 17th - 19th centuries this trend included Jerusalem and other Palestine Jewish communities' envoys, educators and fundraisers, who visited Russian and East European Jewish communities and sometimes stayed there for years, as well as Russian Jewish pilgrims to the Holy Land, who on returning were often respected as «representatives» of the Land of Israel and its Jewry. Some members of First, Second and Third Zionist Aliyot (waves of Jewish ideological repatriation) to the Land of Israel/Palestine of the late 19th and early 20th centuries created another substantial group of «Israeli Returnees» to Russia and the USSR. The article shows that typical patterns of immigrants from the Palestine to Russia and the early USSR are very close to, or even similar with «ideological re-immigrants», envoys, labor migrants, «economic refugees», and other relevant subgroups among current Israeli diaspora in Russia and the CIS.
Translated Title: Israelis in Russia: Identity and social demography
Topics: Jewish Identity, Russian-Speaking Jews, Israeli Expatriates, Immigration, Main Topic: Demography and Migration
Abstract: The number of academic studies that focus on emigration from Israel as social and cultural phenomenon is very substantial. However, very few of them deal with the «Russian» component of «Israeli Diaspora», especially those USSR/CIS-born Israeli citizens who made a «return migration» to the big urban centers of the former Soviet Union. This article, which is based on a unique field study of Israeli immigrants in Moscow and St. Petersburg, aims to fill this gap. The study showed a considerable social and demographic diversity of the population of Israeli passport holders in Russia. However, the real structure of this group clearly intersects with basic motives of their immigration to Russia, which enabled us to identify six sub-categories within this entity. It is also clear that for majority of these categories of immigrants, Israeli and Jewish elements in their identity are predominant over Russian ones. All that is true regardless the time spent by these people in Israel before their emigration to Russia and their future plans.
Importierter Antisemitismus? Zum Zusammenhang von Migration, Islam und Antisemitismus in Deutschland
Translated Title: Imported Anti-Semitism? On the connection between migration, Islam and anti-Semitism in Germany
Antisemitismus im Kontext von Willkommens- und Ablehnungskultur Einstellungen Geflüchteter zu Juden, Israel und dem Holocaust
Translated Title: Anti-Semitism in the context of a culture of welcome and rejection. Attitudes of refugees towards Jews, Israel and the Holocaust
Antisemitismuskritik im Kontext migrationsgesellschaftlicher und geschlechterreflektierender Bildung
Translated Title: Anti-Semitism criticism in the context of migration society and gender-reflective education
Zwischen Abgrenzen und Anerkennen. Überlegungen zur pädagogischen Begegnung von antisemitischen Einstellungen bei deutschen Jugendlichen muslimischer/ arabischer Herkunft
Translated Title: Between demarcation and recognition. Reflections on the educational encounter of antisemitic attitudes among German young people of Muslim / Arab origin
Recollection and Relocation in Immigration: Russian-Jewish Immigrants “Normalize” Their Anti-Semitic Experiences
Topics: Antisemitism, Interviews, Immigration, Main Topic: Antisemitism, Memory, Jewish Identity, Russian-Speaking Jews
Abstract: This study conceptualizes the relationship between recollection of the past and relocation in the context of immigration. Combining symbolic interactionist and narrative paradigms, it explores how immigrants' representations of past experiences inform their identity construction and the process of entering the host society. Our interpretive analysis of personal narratives related spontaneously by eighty-nine Russian-Jewish immigrants in Israel and Germany reveals that they choose to “normalize” their anti-Semitic experiences by representing them as secondary, expected, and “normal.” They do so via four narrating tactics of normalization: obscuring, self-exclusion, vindication, and essentializing stigma. Each tactic devalues the cultural depiction (grand narrative) of anti-Semitic experiences as transformative and traumatic. By normalizing their past, the immigrants deconstruct and resist the authority and moral commands of the national narrative they encounter in both societies. Putting forward normalization as an alternative interpretation, the immigrants claim ownership of their biography and cultural identity.
Die "Normalisierung" antisemitistischer Erfahrungen: Junge russisch-jüdische Migranten erinnern ihre Kindheit in der Sowjetunion
Translated Title: The "normalization" of anti-Semitic experiences: Young Russian-Jewish migrants remember their childhood in the Soviet Union
Zwischen Integration und Ausgrenzung: Jüdische Zuwanderer aus der ehemaligen Sowjetunion in Deutschland
Translated Title: Between integration and exclusion: Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Germany
Abstract: Israelis form a unique case in the field of diaspora studies. When the State of Israel was founded in 1948 it was seen as the longed-for end to the wandering and oppression which had characterized the Jewish diaspora over the centuries. For various reasons, however, about ten percent of the Israeli population chooses to live abroad despite the condemnation of those who see emigration as a threat to the ideological, demographic, and moral viability of Israel itself. The rejection of emigration from Israel is a central assumption in all forms of Zionism as a corollary of the «negotiation of diaspora» which was a central tenet of Israeli Zionist education. During the recent years many educated young people, relatively recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union, have emigrated to the West, and also emigration (which could not be described as returning migration) to Russia is now fairly widespread. The employment market in Russia is flexible, and free market policies lead to competition for talented young graduates who enjoy breathtaking opportunities and high salaries, in comparison to Israel. These migration waves create a new phenomenon - the Russian-speaking transnational post-Israeli diaspora. These people feel free to choose, on purely instrumental grounds, their target society - Israel, when conditions seem favorable, Russia, if it seems to offer more, and for the same reasons, the United States or other Western countries. The Russian-speaking post-Israeli immigrants do not aspire to «get home», but rather to reach a place where they can «build a home». The problem of emigration from Israel is far more serious than suggested by previously published data, which concentrated on the extent of emigration, the countries chosen, and the motivation for leaving. Emigrants are not a representative sample of the population. The proportion of well educated individuals among emigrants is significantly greater than this proportion in the overall population. The emigration of the most talented citizens and the slump in immigration is a problem in itself, but it must also be understood as a symptom of a general failure by the State of Israel to create a society capable of attracting and keeping the best and brightest of the Jewish people.
Translated Title: The Global Demography of the Post-Soviet Jewish Diaspora
Topics: Demography, Immigration, Aliyah, Diaspora, Main Topic: Demography and Migration, Russian Emigration, Russian-Speaking Jews
Abstract: This article is a study of the population dynamics of the post-Soviet Jewish diaspora based on the various statistical sources collected from the many countries where these Jews live. It examines (post-) Soviet Jewish resettlement, and analyzes the annual volume of migration streams to the three main destinations - Israel, the USA and Germany. The findings clearly show the decisive role of the push factor in this migration movement. A very large differentiation in age structure of the migrants to their three main destinations was found which points to many sizable discrepancies in adaptation processes in these receiving countries, and different prospects for future development of these segments of the contemporary post-Soviet Jewish diaspora. Out-migration from Israel of FSU immigrants was studied based on official Israeli data and statistics of FSU countries. According to our findings based on recent data, emigration from Israel is largely dependent on the dynamics of the country's business cycle. Finally, an update for 2010 of the number of «core» Jews (by self-identification) originating from the FSU was presented by country, and the total number of people belonging to the post-Soviet Jewish diaspora worldwide and their distribution was estimated.
Translated Title: Russian Jews in the System of Transnational Relations
Topics: Russian Emigration, Russian-Speaking Jews, Main Topic: Other, Diaspora, Diaspora Relations, Aliyah, Integration, Immigration
Abstract: В статье рассматриваются некоторые понятия и термины, связанные с такими явлениями, как миграции, диаспора, постсоветские диаспоры, транснациональные сообщества. Опираясь на различные социологические исследования, автор доказывает, что современные российские евреи не являются классической диаспорой, а также так называемой «новой еврейской диаспорой». В настоящее время они представляют часть русскоязычного транснационального сообщества, базирующегося на системе различных связей. В то же время автор подчеркивает, что такое сообщество имеет временный характер, поскольку иммигранты во втором и третьем поколении все более полно интегрируются в принимающих обществах, в том числе в израильском.
Topics: Main Topic: Culture and Heritage, Jewish Heritage, Jewish Museums, Jewish - Non - Jewish Relations, Assimilation, Immigration, National Identity
Abstract: The Danish Jewish Museum in Copenhagen presents the Jewish community as a religious minority that fully integrated into the country by relinquishing its wider context in Jewish history and its transnational ties. Thus the Museum’s discourse on diaspora and immigration can be examined as an example to be studied within the discourses on Jewish identity and Jewish–non-Jewish relationships. Furthermore, the Museum is Danish and takes part in the discourse on Danish identity, especially in its relation to minorities and immigrants. The Museum is viewed in this article through its function as a liminal space, a place of transformation, which aims at the deconstruction and reconstruction of the identities of its visitors from a possibly uninformed and unaware public towards more openness and diversity. The museum is analysed as a ‘text’ to describe how it defines the Jewish and Danish identities of Danish Jews according to religion and nation.
Means of transport and storage: suitcases and other containers for the memory of migration and displacement
Topics: Main Topic: Culture and Heritage, Museums, Jewish Heritage, Immigration, Holocaust, Memory, Oral History and Biography
Abstract: Several exhibitions in recent years – in the ‘Deutsches Auswandererhaus’ Bremerhaven and other museums in Germany, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States – have used suitcases (and ‘the suitcase’) as a central symbol and metaphor for the migration process. Based on a variety of examples, the article discusses the idea and the use of memory containers – and their function as archives – in the context of emigration, transmigration, and immigration. Suitcases are the most obvious material objects relating to these processes and the connected cultural practices. They are concrete objects, but beyond that they have been used as symbols and metaphors for the experience of travel and of dislocation. Suitcases often contained, and therefore are connected to, other items of memory storage: photographs and personal documents (letters, diaries about the migration experience – documents that have been termed, in a different context, ‘Schreibakte auf der Schwelle’ – acts of writing on the threshold); manuscripts, farewell letters (written on the boat, in border stations, in port cities), memorial and yizkor books, songs and poems, self-drawn maps which show the stations of the journey. An analysis of such ‘things’ – material objects which often carried an emotional value – and their representation in museums and exhibitions opens up a wide and rich field of research for the ethnography of migration.
Translated Title: The place of Judaism in the present
Topics: Main Topic: Other, Jewish Space, Jewish Community, Jewish Identity, Holocaust, Holocaust Memorials, Holocaust Commemoration, Immigration, Jewish Revival, Post-1989
Abstract: Eine Sammlung von Beiträgen zur Konferenz „Der Ort des Judentums in der Gegenwart, 1989–2002“. Die Autoren begeben sich in ein Feld, das Diana Pinto erstmals 1996 als „Jewish Space“ bezeichnet hat. Sie beschäftigen sich mit der Existenz des Staates Israel, der neuen Einwanderung aus der ehemaligen Sowjetunion in die westlichen Länder, dem wieder erwachten Interesse europäischer Öffentlichkeiten an jüdischer Kultur, den Formen von Erinnerungspolitik in Gedenkstätten und Mahnmalen und mit der öffentlichen Debatten über die Instrumentalisierung des Gedenkens. Auch die Intifada in Israel und Palästina und bereits überwunden geglaubte antisemitische Denkstrukturen in Europa werden betrachtet. Blick auf das jüdische Leben in Europa nach der Shoah und nach den politischen Umwälzungen am Ende der achtziger Jahre.
Russian Food Stores and their Meaning for Jewish Migrants in Germany and Israel: Honor and ‘Nostalgia ’
Topics: Diaspora, Comparisons with other communities, Israeli Expatriates, Immigration, Main Topic: Other
Abstract: In Pillars of Salt, Lianne Merkur offers an account of early 21st century immigration as experienced by Israelis in Berlin and Toronto. Commonly portrayed as contrary to the territorial emphasis of national integrity, these individuals and communities appear to explore a sense of belonging that evaluates and incorporates both foreign and familiar elements. Social media allows for an alternative space to balance between new home and homeland, studied here as developing simultaneously in multiple sites. The author makes use of innovative methodologies to document the participants’ own perspectives expressed online, at events or on paper. She thereby challenges established norms of interpretation to prove that personal decisions, primarily regarding preferred language or simply self-identification, are the cornerstones of collective character.
Le patrimoine photographique des familles juives. Un révélateur de processus d’acculturation et de sécularisation
Translated Title: The photographic patrimony of Jewish families. A revealing acculturation and secularization
Topics: Family and Household, Holocaust Survivors, Immigration, North African Jewry, Photography, Memory, Oral History and Biography
Abstract: Immigration et mise en œuvre du processus d’extermination nazi ont forgé le destin commun de nombre de familles juives en France. Leur patrimoine photographique est à l’image de ces événements, fait de ruptures et de traces en pointillées. Ces photos surprennent bien des fois, émeuvent et surtout instruisent. De ce déracinement à la fois géographique et culturel, plusieurs d’entre elles en ont conservé la trace. C’est à partir de l’étude croisée de visuels représentant le costume traditionnel dans l’aire maghrébine, choisie pour exemple et, par corollaire, de l’analyse onomastique de ceux qui en sont revêtus, qu’il est possible de distinguer les différentes facettes du processus de mutation et, ainsi, mieux apprécier les étapes de ce qu’il est convenu de qualifier de marche à la modernité, une modernité où acculturation et sécularisation sont largement imbriquées.