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Date: 2019
Abstract: What can the internet tell us about antisemitism in the United Kingdom? It has been shown that people are remarkably honest when they search for information online. Their Google searches and queries reveal interests, prejudices and hatreds that they might keep hidden from friends, family members, neighbours, surveys and even from themselves. They have been shown to share their health secrets, sexual preferences, and hostility towards other groups. We decided to put this to the test to see what the Google searches made by people in the United Kingdom could tell us about attitudes towards Jewish people in this country and in general towards Jews. Unsurprisingly perhaps, we found that, every year, people in this country express antisemitic thoughts through their internet searches. People make some Google searches that are disturbing, including searches such as “I hate Jews,” and “Why are Jews evil?”, along with other searches expressing violent intentions towards Jews. Others post on anonymous hate sites such as the far right Stormfront website, expressing their antisemitic feelings about various Jewish Members of Parliament and celebrities. By analysing this data, we can get a better sense of the where, when, who and what of antisemitism in Britain today. For example,we looked at whether the voting patterns of towns and cities affect the number of antisemitic searches in those places. We found that searches looking for information on the Holocaust being a hoax rise about 30 per cent every year on Holocaust Memorial Day. We learnt that Jewish women in public life or positions of power are the subject of more antisemitic searches than Jewish men in similar positions. We found evidence of the rise in popularity of antisemitic conspiracy theories, such as the discredited myth relating to the role of the Rothschild family in running the world. And we found that sometimes heightened media focus on Jews or Israel, even if it is positive, can still lead to an increase in online searches for antisemitic content. We also found strategies that technology companies and civil society organisations can use to fight hatred. For example, our research shows that, when Google changed its autocomplete formula to eliminate antisemitic search suggestions, this lowered the number of people searching for antisemitic material (which also means that, before removing those antisemitic search prompts, Google was directing people to make antisemitic searches who might otherwise not have done so). This is the story of the hidden hate that our report reveals.
Date: 2018
Abstract: In welchen Manifestationen tritt Antisemitismus im digitalen Zeitalter in Erscheinung? Wie, wo und von wem werden judenfeindliche Inhalte artikuliert und verbreitet?Welche Stereotype werden kodiert, welche Argumente benutzt? Welche Rolle spielen Emotionen und irrationale Affektlogik beim aktuellen Einstellungs- und Verbalantisemitismus? Inwiefern hat das Internet die Verbreitung und Intensivierung von Antisemitismen akzeleriert und forciert? Wie lassen sich die modernen Ausprägungen
des Judenhasses wissenschaftlich beschreiben, einordnen und erklären?

Die von der DFG vier Jahre lang geförderte Langzeitstudie zur Artikulation, Tradierung, Verbreitung und Manifestation von Judenhass im World Wide Web1 hat diese Fragen im Rahmen der empirischen Antisemitismusforschung systematisch und datenreich
untersucht.

Weltweit, so scheint es seit Jahren, nimmt die Artikulation und Verbreitung von Antisemitismen, insbesondere über das Web 2.0, stark zu. Diese Entwicklung in der virtuellen Welt korreliert in der realen Welt mit judenfeindlichen Übergriffen und Attacken, Drohungen und Beleidigungen sowie dem „neuen Unbehagen d.h. Furcht und Sorge in den jüdischen Gemeinden Deutschlands und Europas.

Dieser Eindruck, der sich bislang nur durch Einzelfälle dokumentiert sah (und deshalb zum Teil bezweifelt oder als subjektives „Gefühl“ in Frage gestellt wurde), wird nun durch die empirischen Daten der vorliegenden Langzeitstudie wissenschaftlich bestätigt.

Durch die Spezifika der Internetkommunikation (Reziprozität, aktive Netzpartizipation, Schnelligkeit, freie Zugänglichkeit, Multimodalität, Anonymität, globale Verknüpfung) und die steigende Relevanz der Sozialen Medien als meinungsbildende Informationsquelle in der Gesamtgesellschaft hat die schnelle, ungefilterte und nahezu grenzenlose Verbreitung judenfeindlichen Gedankengutes allein rein quantitativ ein Ausmaß erreicht, das es nie zuvor in der Geschichte gab. Die Digitalisierung der Informations-und Kommunikationstechnologie hat „Antisemitismus 2.0“ online schnell, multipel, textsortenspezifisch diffus und multimodal multiplizierbar gemacht. Jeden Tag werden Tausende neue Antisemitismen gepostet und ergänzen die seit Jahren im
Netz gespeicherten und einsehbaren judenfeindlichen Texte, Bilder und Videos. Im 10-Jahres-Vergleich hat sich die Anzahl der antisemitischen Online-Kommentare zwischen 2007 und 2018 z.T. verdreifacht. Es gibt zudem kaum noch einen Diskursbereich
im Netz 2.0, in dem Nutzer_innen nicht Gefahr laufen, auf antisemitische Texte zu stoßen, auch wenn sie nicht aktiv danach suchen.
Date: 2017
Author(s): Faro, Laurie M.C.
Date: 2014
Abstract: In April 2005, the Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online. This
monument is an Internet monument dedicated to preserving the memory of more than 100,000 men,
women and children, Dutch Jewish victims of the Shoah. As of September 2010, the interactive
Jewish Monument Community website has been linked to the website of the Digital Monument. The
main objective of the monument, and its community, is to reconstruct the picture of the Jewish
community in the Netherlands on the eve of their destruction by “returning” to each individual
victim his or her identity. With this monument, and its companion Community website, a new
approach to commemoration is introduced, characterized by the application of new concepts in
design, memorial space, and communication. My research on the practices engaged in, and the
meaning of this Digital Monument and the associated Community, has been a qualitative and
explorative exercise within the interdisciplinary field of memory studies and ritual studies.
Questionnaires, ninety in total, were returned by first-, second- and third-generation users and by
other users without any family connection to victims remembered on the monument.
The results of my research show that although practices are mostly limited in time they evoke deeply
felt emotions raised by the enormous number of names, the ages at which people were killed, and the
stories behind the victims. My research also shows that the characteristics Foot, Warnick & Schneider
put forward as being typical of web-based memorializing – co-production of memory and voice – are
indeed distinguishing features of the Digital Monument and its associated Community (Foot, Warnick
& Schneider 2006, 88–91). By sharing with the Community their own personal remembrances,
stories, pictures or other digitized objects, users are in effect co–producing the remembrance of the
Shoah. Each individual may decide, 24/7 and from all over the world, what they consider is
important to voice within the Community; the memorial refrains from taking sides or imposing
closure upon the audience’s interpretation of the memory of the Shoah. Expressing oneself in public
– in this case in a virtual environment – appears to have a healing effect (Casey 2004, 17–44; Savage
2009, 261–295).
Date: 2010