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Author(s): Williams, Amy
Date: 2020
Abstract: To date, scholars have mainly focussed on the history of the Kindertransport. This thesis is the first to examine extensively how the Kindertransport has been remembered in Britain, and to compare British memory of this event with memory in the other English-speaking host nations which took in the refugee children (Kinder), namely America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. ‘Kindertransport’ is understood here as referring not just to the actual rescue of children with mainly Jewish origins from Nazism that took place between 1938 and 1940, but also the effects it had, such as transplantation to strange environments. There is yet to be a true exploration of how the memories of the Kinder and these nations’ memories of the Kindertransport developed. Any comparison of these various host countries must consider the degree to which memory of the Kindertransport is not uniform, and the extent to which it is shaped by factors such as the role of these countries in the Second World War, and – above all – nationally conditioned memory discourses. Increasingly, according to memory scholars, Holocaust memory operates in a transnational, even global network. This thesis will assess this expectation against the empirical evidence. Is it more the case that host nations remember the Kindertransport in essentially national terms, even where they are aware of its transnational history? In order to assess this question, this thesis will examine a representative cross-section of different genres including testimony, museum exhibitions, memorials, and novels. I argue that the Kindertransport is much more nationally focussed and celebratory in Britain than in other host nations, where this memory is more transnational in focus. However, there are signs that national memory in Britain is beginning to develop in a more self-critical direction.
Date: 2009
Abstract: The article is devoted to the formation of historical memory about the past in modern Ukraine and the place the Holocaust takes in this memory. The paper analyses research-academic, pedagogical and memorial aspects of commemoration of the fate of Ukrainian Jews in times of the Holocaust. Much space is allocated to the comparison
of formal (State) and informal (work of NGOs) approaches to research and education on the topic concerned. The main feature of the so called formal approach to Holocaust research lies in “ignoring” scholarly, historiographic papers on the topic, marginalizing the issue. Despite the certain gains in informal Holocaust studies, this topic is still on the margin of popular opinion in the modern Ukrainian society. However the situation is gradually changing. The mentioned situation is in sharp contrast with the recent events in informal Holocaust education in Ukraine. Over the past decade significant results have been gained owing to the activities of scholarly and educational NGOs
in the country, among them Ukrainian Center for Holocaust Studies. One can trace continuous educational seminars for teachers, publication of textbooks and manuals, competitions of students’ research and art works. Many teachers began teaching the concerned topic within their self-developed courses, not waiting for the facilities from
the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. Therefore, the author believes that such high intensity and quality of informal education began to exercise influence on the formal approaches to Holocaust education in Ukraine. And not only on the approaches to the mentioned topic, but also on the tendencies of ethnocentrism and monocultural
and monoethnic views that are, unfortunately, still prevailing in Ukrainian formal education. The gains of informal Holocaust education undermine the given tendencies and pave the way for multicultural education, which defines the future of Ukraine. Modern Ukrainian tendencies for memorialization of the memory about the Holocaust
are somewhat similar to the situation in educational sphere. The similarity lies, first and foremost, in the activities by NGOs and elements of civic society, who, also not waiting for the actions on behalf of the government, find themselves the financial means (mostly abroad) to mark and commemorate the sites of mass execution and
murder of Ukrainian Jews during the Nazi occupation. Though in most cases this is a responsibility of governmental institutions. The author believes, that such attitude on behalf of the government to preservation of the memory about the Holocaust in Ukraine in all the concerned aspects (research-academic, educational, memorial) is
a result of catastrophic lack of understanding or desire to understand that Ukrainian history is not monoethnic but multicultural and that the responsibility for memory about the past includes also the fate of Ukrainian Jews in times of the Holocaust as a constituent part of Ukrainian WWII history.
Date: 2008
Abstract: До сегодняшнего дня в Молдове тема Холокоста на территории Бессарабии, Буковины и Транснистрии, находившихся во время Второй мировой войны под румынской властью, так и не нашла себе места в школьной программе по истории. Это объясняется убежденностью преподавателей в том, что предмет национальной истории должна составлять история этнических молдаван и что изучение Холокоста создает препятствия для сближения национальной идентичности румын и молдаван. Особенное сопротивление этой теме возникло после 2001 г. в контексте конфронтации между историками и коммунистическим правительством, которое стало целенаправленно вводить историю Холокоста в школьную программу. Сталкиваясь с продвижением данной проблематики через Министерство образования, школьные учителя предпочитают поддерживать позицию профессиональных историков, решивших бросить вызов правительству и, соответственно, намеренно сторонятся преподавания и исследования темы Холокоста.
Date: 2015
Abstract: Today, the extermination of Jewish communities by the Nazi regime and its collaborators, namely the Holocaust, forms an integral part of the international political agenda. Although this dealing with the Holocaust appears normal for us today, this was not always the case, but is the result of extensive social and political processes. In the course of this development the awareness of the special relevance of the extermination of about 6 million Jews has increased. Since the 1990s a process has emerged, that can be characterized as the universalization of Holocaust remembrance. The commemoration of the extermination of the European Jews is no longer an exclusive part of the different national cultures of remembrance, but has become an integral part of international memorial policy. An important event in this context has been the “Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust” in the year 2000 where mainly European leaders as well as other high-ranking politicians, historians and teachers engaged with Holocaust education, Holocaust remembrance and Holocaust research. The idea was to establish an international organization that would expand Holocaust education worldwide. The aim of the present dissertation is to show how the Luxembourgian school system deals with this traumatic event that is the Holocaust and how it reacts as a system to expectations towards Holocaust and schooling, to find out how the school system works. The dissertation does not address questions as to show how the Holocaust should be taught in schools nor whether or not the Holocaust should be taught in schools at all. The dissertation analyses the particularities of teaching the Holocaust, as well as its role in the curriculum in a broader understanding of an analysis of parliamentary debates, syllabi, teaching material and the school practice. The latter includes the classroom settings and the so-called alternative teaching material like scholarly resources on the Holocaust like films, visits to museums, to concentration and extermination camps or the use of testimony from Holocaust survivors.
Date: 2020
Abstract: This book addresses the issues of memory (a more suitable word would be Marianne Hirsh’s term of postmemory) of the Holocaust among young Poles, the attitudes towards Jews and the Holocaust in the comparative context of educational developments in other countries. The term “Jews” is, as rightly noted Joanna Tokarska-Bakir (2010) a decontextualized term used here in the meaning of Antoni Sułek (2010) as a collective “symbolic” entity. The focus was on education (transmitting values), attitudinal changes and actions undertaken to preserve (or counteract) the memory of Jews and their culture in contemporary Poland. The study to which the book primarly refers was conducted in 2008 and was a second study on a national representative sample of Polish adolescents after the first one undertaken in 1998. The data may seem remote from the current political situation of stepping back from the tendency to increase education about the Holocaust which dominated after 1989 and especially between 2000 and 2005, nonetheless they present trends and outcomes of specific educational interventions which are universal and may set examples for various geopolitical contexts.

The focus of this research was not primarily on the politics of remembrance, which often takes a national approach, although state initiatives are also brought to the attention of the reader, but rather on grassroots action, often initiated by local civil society organizations (NGOs) or individual teachers and/or students. This study has attempted to discover the place that Jews have (or do not have) in the culture of memory in Poland, where there lived the largest Jewish community in pre-war Europe, more than 90% of which was murdered during the Holocaust. The challenge was to show the diversity of phenomena aimed at integrating Jewish history and culture into national culture, including areas of extracurricular education, often against mainstream educational policy, bearing in mind that the Jews currently living in Poland are also, in many cases, active partners in various public initiatives. It is rare to find in-depth empirical research investigating the ensemble of areas of memory construction and the attitudes of youth as an ensemble, including the evaluation of actions (programmes of non-governmental organisations and school projects) in the field of education, particularly with reference to the long-term effects of educational programmes. The assumption prior to this project was that the asking of questions appearing during this research would stimulate further studies.


The book is divided into three parts: Memory, Attitudes and Actions. All three parts of the book, although aimed at analysing an ongoing process of reconstructing and deconstructing memory of the Holocaust in post-2000 Poland, including the dynamics of the attitudes of Polish youth toward Jews, the Shoah and memory of the Shoah, are grounded in different theories and were inspired by various concepts. The assumption prior to the study was that this complex process of attitudinal change cannot be interpreted and explained within the framework on one single academic discipline or one theory. Education and the cultural studies definitely played a significant role in exploring initiatives undertaken to research, study and commemorate the Holocaust and the remnants of the rich Jewish culture in Poland, but the sociology, anthropology and psychology also played a part in helping to see this process from various angles
Author(s): Oztig, Lacin Idil
Date: 2022
Author(s): Stiles, Emily-Jayne
Date: 2022
Author(s): Kamusella, Tomasz
Date: 2021
Date: 2019
Author(s): Kucia, Marek
Date: 2016
Abstract: Drawing upon developments in cultural and social memory studies and Europeanization theory, this article examines the Europeanization of Holocaust memory understood as the process of construction, institutionalization, and diffusion of beliefs regarding the Holocaust and norms and rules regarding Holocaust remembrance and education at a transnational, European level since the 1990s and their incorporation in the countries of post-communist Eastern Europe, which is also the area where the Holocaust largely took place. The article identifies the transnational agents of the Europeanization of Holocaust memory—the European Union’s parliament, the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, and its Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, as well as the United Nations. It analyzes chronologically the key Holocaust-related activities and documents of these agents, highlighting East European countries’ varied and changing position towards them. It examines synchronically the outcome of the Europeanization of Holocaust memory by these transnational agents—a European memory of the Holocaust—identifying its key components, discussing the main aspects, and illustrating the impact of this process and outcome upon the memory of the Holocaust in the East European countries. The article argues that the Europeanization of Holocaust memory has significantly contributed to the development of Holocaust memory in Eastern Europe, although other agents and processes were also involved.
Author(s): Critchell, Kara
Date: 2014
Abstract: Moving away from traditional encounters with Holocaust education in academic research this study explores the role of Holocaust education in the construction and mediation of British historical consciousness of the Holocaust. Following contextual explorations of the role of two of the most dominant symbols to have emerged within the field of Holocaust education since the establishment of the National Curriculum, the Holocaust survivor and Auschwitz-Birkenau, this study closely analyses the way in which each of these Holocaust icons has been represented and utilised within educational programmes promoted by the Holocaust Educational Trust. It is shown that the educational representations of these symbols contribute to the domestication of Holocaust consciousness within a British narrative, reinforcing positive interpretations of British national identity and the benefits of liberal democracy whilst, simultaneously, distancing the crimes committed during the Holocaust from the British public through representing these acts as the very antithesis of what is deemed to be British. Through such analysis it is demonstrated that Holocaust education, as it exists in Britain today, reflects the British context in which it has evolved whilst illustrating how it has also fundamentally been shaped by this same context. Whilst considering the ways in which these representations both reflect and shape understandings of the Holocaust this study also illustrates that the Holocaust as it exists in popular consciousness, and educational programmes, is being increasingly unmoored from its historical context as the iconic symbols associated with it are becoming gradually dehistoricised as a means of providing relevant “lessons” for contemporary society. As Holocaust educators reach a crossroads in their field and prepare to decide the future shape British Holocaust education will assume this research constitutes a timely contribution to existing knowledge and understanding of how the Holocaust is encountered within the educational sphere and within British society and culture.
Author(s): Critchell, Kara
Date: 2020
Date: 2020
Abstract: Germany’s acceptance of its direct responsibility for the Holocaust has strengthened its relationship with Israel and has led to a deep commitment to combat antisemitism and rebuild Jewish life in Germany. As we draw close to a time when there will be no more firsthand experience of the horrors of the Holocaust, there is great concern about what will happen when German responsibility turns into history. Will the present taboo against open antisemitism be lifted as collective memory fades? There are alarming signs of the rise of the far right, which includes blatantly antisemitic elements, already visible in public discourse. But it is mainly the radicalization of the otherwise moderate Muslim population of Germany and the entry of almost a million refugees since 2015 from Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan that appears to make German society less tolerant and somewhat less inhibited about articulating xenophobic attitudes. The evidence is unmistakable—overt antisemitism is dramatically increasing once more.

The Future of the German-Jewish Past deals with the formidable challenges created by these developments. It is conceptualized to offer a variety of perspectives and views on the question of the future of the German-Jewish past. The volume addresses topics such as antisemitism, Holocaust memory, historiography, and political issues relating to the future relationship between Jews, Israel, and Germany. While the central focus of this volume is Germany, the implications go beyond the German-Jewish experience and relate to some of the broader challenges facing modern societies today.