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Abstract: When older people move from where they live to go elsewhere, if the distances are short it is called relocation, or if the move is over state or national borders, migration. Push factors are dissatisfaction with the present residence, or incapacities; leading to short-distance moves to be near, or to cohabit with, adult children, in order to receive support. These individuals are the ‘old-old’ and ‘oldest-old’, mostly single, poorer, and less healthy. A pull factor is when people want to access a better lifestyle and an increased standard of living. These long-distance migrants tend to be ‘young-old’, healthier, financially secure, newly retired, and married. This thesis explores the migration and relocation of older Orthodox Jews from Gateshead, and studies the priorities and criteria that influence the decision-making process, as well as triggers and barriers to leaving. Being a member of this community, I conducted this research as an insider using constructivist grounded methodology. I conducted 33 in-depth interviews with older people who have migrated or not, including nine with adult children. The migrants ranged from ‘young-old’ to ‘oldest-old’, were married, generally in good health and well-rooted in their community, with extensive social and work attachments in Gateshead. This represents a unique migration in that they are not moving for care, or out of necessity or dissatisfaction, nor are they aiming to increase their standard of living, but to live near and help their children. The decision-making process is both complex and multi-layered. The older people ordered their priorities and considered how their decisions would affect them and their wider network, and taking into account all their resources, select the option that best met everyone’s needs. Decisions were influenced by interdependency with children, neighbours, friends and work colleagues. This interdependency, in which work and volunteering played significant roles, was mediated by reciprocity, the desire not to be a burden, and to remain independent and autonomous. The children facilitated anything that aided these priorities. It was also clear that the demarcation of 65 years as the beginning of an ‘old age’ marked by dependency and infirmity is both arbitrary and inaccurate. Policy makers should recognise the contributions older people can and do make to families and communities. Facilitating and supporting these contributions would improve the health and well-being of older people.
Date: 2012

The countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are the home today for a substantial number of Jews, many of whom live in poor, economically disadvantaged communities. Throughout the FSU, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) has supported the development of Hesed welfare and Jewish community centers to assist in the provision of services to Jews in need and to support the renewal of Jewish life after years of suppression. The present report is designed to review the current economic, health, and social conditions of these elderly Jews in need in the FSU and to compare their circumstances, as best possible, to their counterparts who live in western countries such as the United States.

Data from a large number of sources are reviewed and analyzed, including national statistics, national and local surveys, and client-level data. The data indicate clearly that, in view of demographic composition, as well as economic and social conditions, elderly Jews in the FSU have tremendous needs for supportive services funded by philanthropy compared to their peers in the United States. The comparisons also highlight the disparities in available care among those most in need.

There is a clear need for external support for basic health and social services for elderly Jews in the FSU. Twenty years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, there is not an adequate safety net for the elderly. The situation is in flux and there are unique challenges associated with understanding service delivery in societies that are in transition. The available data on pensions and living circumstances make clear that the economic situation for elderly in the FSU who seek Hesed services is dire. Faced with increasing costs for basic needs such as utilities and food, along with health services including essential medicines, quality care and homecare, the pension amounts that Hesed clients rely on are inadequate to meet their needs.

Date: 2020
Abstract: Erinnern oder Vergessen? Auch Jahrzehnte nach der Shoah sind die Erfahrungen, die Bilder und die Leiden, die sich mit der Erinnerung an die nationalsozialistischen Verbrechen aufdrängen, keineswegs Geschichte geworden. Die Formen und Praktiken des Gedenkens in Deutschland haben sich mit dem Abstand zum historischen Geschehen verändert und lassen einen Übergang vom sozialen Gedächtnis zu einem kulturellen Gedenken erkennen. Gleichwohl unterscheiden sich die Formen deutscher Gedenkkultur von der jüdischen Erinnerungspraxis. Die vielfältigen traumatischen Erlebnisse der jüdischen Überlebenden der Shoah bestimmen deren Lebenswelt, haben Auswirkungen auf ihre jeweiligen Identitätskonzepte und Handlungsmuster und übertragen sich auf die nachfolgenden Generationen.
Die hier versammelten Beiträge geben unter anderem Einblicke in den wissenschaftlichen Diskurs über die Konsequenzen des individuellen und gesellschaftlichen Verarbeitens der Erinnerungen an den Nationalsozialismus und die Shoah sowie der daraus resultierenden Traumata; thematisieren den professionellen Umgang mit Überlebenden mit Blick auf deren Selbstkonzepte und ihre jeweiligen biografischen Narrative; fragen nach der Praxisrelevanz des Wissens um Prozesse des Erinnerns und Vergessens in der Betreuung von Überlebenden und deren Angehörigen; weisen auf den Zusammenhang zwischen den erlittenen Traumata, den Lebensumständen nach der Befreiung und den jeweiligen biografischen Erzählungen hin; schließlich verdeutlichen sie, was das gesellschaftlich bedingte kollektive Vergessen oder die Umdeutung der Geschichte für die Überlebenden und ihre Familien bedeutet.

Mit Beiträgen von: Katja von Auer ǀ Julia Bernstein ǀ Jackie Feldman ǀ Kurt Grünberg ǀ Tilmann Habermas ǀ Jens Hoppe ǀ Ulrike Jureit ǀ Doron Kiesel ǀ Salomon Korn ǀ Norma Musih ǀ Miriam Victory Spiegel ǀ Noemi Staszewski ǀ Gabriel Strenger ǀ Moshe Teller ǀ Ricarda Theiss ǀ Susanne Urban ǀ Lukas Welz ǀ Lea Wohl von Haselberg


Kurt Grünberg: Danach – Vergessen, Erinnern, Tradieren. Extremes Trauma und Kultur im postnationalsozialistischen Deutschland
Tilmann Habermas: Die Veränderung von Lebensgeschichten im Laufe des Lebens
Jackie Feldman/Norma Musih: Kollektive Erinnerung, digitale Medien und Holocaust-
Jens Hoppe: Erinnern und Vergessen bei Überlebenden der Shoah. Anmerkungen
eines Historikers zu „Holocaust Oral Histories“
Salomon Korn: Kultur der Erinnerung
Gabriel Strenger: Erinnerung und Vergessen im biblischen Kontext
Susanne Urban: Fließende Erinnerungen. Reflexionen über die Befassung mit Zeitzeugen
Miriam Victory Spiegel: Nicht geheilte Wunden: Die Rolle von Erinnerung und Denkmälern
Julia Bernstein/Katja von Auer „Sie reagieren nur so, weil Sie jüdisch sind“. Diskursive Auseinandersetzungen mit den Auswirkungen der Shoah im Bildungskontext der Sozialen Arbeit
Moshe Teller: Papa, mir geht’s heute nicht besonders gut … Holocaust-Überlebende
und ihre Kinder: eine klinische Perspektive
Noemi Staszewski/Ricarda Theiss: Zeitzeugentheater. Potenziale transgenerationaler Projekte
Lukas Welz: Erinnern und Vergessen verantworten. Über die Notwendigkeit einer emanzipierten Erinnerung an die Shoah für die Betroffenen und die Gesellschaft
Lea Wohl von Haselberg: Zwischen Erinnern und Vergessen – Notizen zu Shoah und Film
Ulrike Jureit: Einsichten und Erkenntnisse
Author(s): Jong-min, Jeong
Date: 2020
Author(s): Jong-min, Jeong
Date: 2017
Abstract: What have those living with dementia lost? If they have lost aspects of their mind and self, who are they now? Are they 'normal'? Prevailing medical, therapeutic and sociopsychoanalytic interventions and studies on dementia, largely influenced by Tom Kitwood's person-centred approach, have focused mainly on revealing and evaluating the remaining intact bodily abilities and functions beyond loss. In contrast to this predominant understanding of dementia, my decade-long involvement in a Jewish Care Home as a volunteer and researcher has raised ontological, epistemological and practical critiques, acknowledging that we are never beyond loss but always alongside it, and that we simply do not know how to dwell well with it. Although the expressive and performative words, gestures and behaviours of those with dementia are often regarded as inarticulate, repetitive and nonsensical, these are the lived worlds of dementia that those affected feel, experience and live through, whilst continuously making relations and familiarising themselves with people, things, and their surroundings. This demands a paradigm shift in the ontological, epistemological and practical horizon within the study of dementia. Critically developing Canguilhem's notion of the normal and the abnormal, Ingold's dwelling perspective and Deleuze's concept of becoming, I redefine dementia not as a fixed mode of being but as a continuous process of becoming-dementia through an attentive engagement with one's immediate surroundings. In more detail, this study explores the ways in which people challenge the taken-for-granted concepts of loss and abnormality in five different dementia contexts: ethics, repetition, time, agency and emplacement. By rejecting medical preconceptions or categorisations, this study focuses on uncovering what loss does in everyday life rather than asking what loss means or what people lose. In particular, this study emphasises bodily movement, sensory perception and affect, not because of the language deterioration during dementia trajectories but because of a new way of understanding and new reality that those affected practise in daily life. Consequently, this study illustrates the immanent potential of the anthropological view for thinking and dwelling with those living with dementia alongside their limits and implications. This study is thus an autobiographical ethnographic testimony of my past decade living, learning, volunteering, studying and most importantly co-dwelling with those living with dementia. This is a collaborative co-production created with those involved, as without the participation of those affected and the co-presence of significant others, my work could not be done. Accordingly, there is neither a beginning nor end to this study, but a moving forward and generating dementia becoming as the lives of those affected and those who care for them unfold.
Date: 2018
Abstract: Jede Vertreibung, Migration oder Flucht hinterlässt ihre Spuren in den Biografien der betroffenen Individuen und in der Geschichte ihrer Familien.
Psychosoziale Dienste berichten demzufolge, dass eine stetig wachsende Zahl von ratsuchenden Shoah-Überlebenden und deren Angehörige unter psychischen Problemen leidet, die mit ihren migrationsbedingten Erfahrungen in einen Zusammenhang gestellt werden können.
Unter welchen Umständen und mit welcher Intensität sich einschneidende biografische Erfahrungen traumatisierend und mit auffälligen Symptomen auswirken, hängt sowohl von der Persönlichkeitsstruktur und den affektiven Reaktionsmustern des Individuums ab als auch von den gesellschaftlichen Bedingungen des Landes, in dem sich die Betreffenden niederließen, um einen biografischen Neuanfang zu wagen.
Die vorliegende Dokumentation versammelt die zentralen Beiträge einer internationalen Konferenz, auf der unterschiedliche Narrative und historische Rahmenbedingungen der verschiedenen Flucht- und Migrationswellen von jüdischen Überlebenden der Shoah nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg aufgearbeitet und deren Auswirkungen auf die aktuellen Lebensbedingungen im Alter beleuchtet wurden.

Aus dem Inhalt

Gad Arnsberg Wer sind wir? Die Vielfalt jüdischen Selbstverständnisses in Deutschland nach 1945. Ein historischer Überblick | Jens Hoppe Erfahrungen von deutschen Juden, die die NS-Verfolgung in Deutschland oder im Exil überlebt haben. Eine historische Einbettung | Hans Jakob Ginsburg Doppelte Fremde: Jüdische Zuwanderer aus Osteuropa in der Bundesrepublik nach 1945 | Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber Leben nach der Shoah: Psychoanalytische Überlegungen ausgehend von der Autobiografie des Psychoanalytikers und Traumaforschers Henri Parens | Gerda Netopil und Klaus Mihacek Psychotrauma im Alter. Eine Analyse des psychosozialen Modells ESRA | Amit Shrira Altern im Schatten transgenerativer Weitergabe der Holocaust-Erfahrungen | Julia Bernstein Multiple Traumatisierung ex-sowjetischer Juden vor und nach der Immigration | Martin Auerbach, Elise Bittenbinder und Lukas Welz Ein Zwiegespräch über Trauma, Flucht und Migration gestern und heute als Fortführung des Dialogs aus dem „PresentPast“-Projekt von AMCHA | Esther Weitzel-Polzer Chaos und Muster. Die Entwicklung einer transkulturellen Organisation am Beispiel eines jüdischen Altenpflegeheims in Deutschland | Andrea Schiff Stolpersteine im Umgang mit traumatisierten alten Menschen. Pflegewissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse für die Pflegepraxis | Jim Sutherland Shoah, Flucht und Migration aus britischer Perspektive. Die Arbeit des Vereins Association of Jewish Refugees (AJR) | Sara Soussan „Ehre Vater und Mutter“ — Der Anspruch des fünften Gebots im Spannungsfeld von Altwerden, Krankwerden und Verletztwerden | Doron Kiesel „Schnee von gestern“ — ein Film von Yael Reuveny | Christian Wiese Einsichten und Erkenntnisse

Author(s): Somers, Ali
Date: 2018
Author(s): Somers, Ali
Date: 2019
Date: 2013
Abstract: Předložená studie analyzuje situaci v oblasti péče poskytované přeživším
šoa a ostatním obětem nacisticko-fašistické perzekuce na území Itálie (dále jen
studie) a vznikla na žádost a pro potřeby Evropského institutu odkazu šoa, o. p. s.
(dále jen ESLI), jemuž má sloužit především jako podpůrný nástroj pro
formulování jeho krátko-, středně- a dlouhodobých strategií v oblasti péče o
přeživší šoa a ostatní oběti nacisticko-fašistické perzekuce.
Tato studie v mnohém inspirativně a metodologicky vychází ze studie
Situace v oblasti péče poskytované přeživším holocaustu a ostatním obětem
nacistické perzekuce na území České republiky provedené výzkumným týmem
pod vedením PhDr. Dariny Sedláčkové (Praha: ESLI, 2012).
V úvodní kapitole je definována cílová skupina, na niž se studie
zaměřuje, jsou zde představena základní metodologická východiska, užívané
termíny a rozsah mapované péče. V závěru této části jsou uvedeny předpokládané
tendence ve vývoji potřeb výše definovaných cílových skupin.
Druhá kapitola obsahuje ucelený přehled platné italské legislativy
související s oblastí sociálního a důchodového zabezpečení a státní a
regionální/místní sociální podpory a obsahuje i souhrnný přehled specifických
opatření přijatých italským státem ke zlepšení životní situace cílových skupin,
eventuálně jejich pozůstalých. Kapitola je doplněna informacemi o
odškodňovacím programu Claims Conference na území Itálie.
Třetí kapitola prezentuje asociace a organizace, které sdružují přeživší
šoa a další oběti nacisticko-fašistické perzekuce v Itálii, popřípadě jejich pozůstalé.
Zmíněny jsou také organizace spojující účastníky národního boje za osvobození.
Čtvrtá kapitola analyzuje současný stav poskytování sociální péče
přeživším šoa a ostatním obětem nacisticko-fašistické perzekuce v Itálii z pohledu
praxe a jsou zmíněny regionální diverzity v poskytování sociální péče.
V poslední a závěrečné kapitole jsou shrnuta zjištěná fakta a jsou vedena
doporučení na zlepšení fungování systému sociální péče poskytované přeživším
druhé světové války a nacisticko-fašistické perzekuce. Tato doporučení vycházejí z reálných návrhů a praktických potřeb a mohla by efektivně vylepšit sociální
pozici cílové skupiny.
Součást studie tvoří rovněž příloha s přehledem relevantních italských
Vzhledem ke skutečnosti, že v průběhu vypracovávání studie postupně
docházelo k úpravám penzijního systému a k přechodu na nový, je na tyto
skutečnosti na patřičném místě upozorněno.
Autorka studie používá primárně italskou odbornou terminologii a
názvosloví a až v závorce uvádí český překlad. Je si však vědoma toho, že překlady
nejsou vždy zcela přesné, a to z toho důvodu, že v českém jazyce není vždy možné
najít přesný ekvivalent termínů.
Zároveň autorka také upozorňuje na skutečnost, že italský důchodový a
sociální systém je natolik složitou soustavou, že pro tuto studii byly vybrány
relevantní informace a data. Mimo fokus této práce byly ponechány nepodstatné
skutečnosti, stejně jako nejsou zmíněny například sociální příspěvky, jež již
v současné době nejsou v platnosti
Date: 2015
Author(s): Woolfson, Shivaun
Date: 2013
Abstract: Once regarded as a vibrant centre of intellectual, cultural and spiritual Jewish life, Lithuania was home to 240,000 Jews prior to the Nazi invasion of 1941. By war's end, less than 20,000 remained. Today, 4,000 Jews reside there, among them 108 survivors from the camps and ghettos and a further 70 from the Partisans and Red Army. Against a backdrop of ongoing Holocaust denial and a recent surge in anti-Semitic sentiment, this thesis presents the history and experiences of a group of elderly survivors in modern-day Vilnius through the lens of their stories and memories, their special places and their biographical objects. Incorporating interdisciplinary elements of cultural anthropology, social geography, psychology, narrative and sensory ethnography, it is informed, at its core, by an overtly spiritual approach. Drawing on the essentially Hasidic belief that everything in the material world is imbued with sacred essence and that we, as human beings, have the capacity through our actions to release that essence, it explores the points of intersection where the individual and the collective collide, illuminating how history is lived from the inside. Glimpses of the personal, typically absent from the historical record, are afforded prominence here: a bottle of perfume tucked into a pocket before fleeing the ghetto, a silent promise made beside a mass grave, a pair of shoes fashioned from parachute material in the forest. By tapping the material for meaning, a more embodied, emplaced, experiential level of knowing, deeper and richer than that achieved through traditional life history (oral testimony and written documents) methods, can emerge. In moving beyond words and gathering a bricolage of story, legend, artefact, document, monument and landscape, this research suggests a multidimensional historiography that is of particular relevance in grasping the lived reality of survivors in Lithuania where only the faintest traces of a once thriving Jewish heritage now remain.
Author(s): Woolfson, Shivaun
Date: 2014
Date: 2011
Abstract: Objectives. In Belgium, dominant ideological traditions – Christianity and non-religious humanism – have the floor in debates on euthanasia and hardly any attention is paid to the practices and attitudes of ethnic and religious minorities, for instance, Jews. This article aims to meet this lacuna.

Design. Qualitative empirical research was performed in the Orthodox Jewish community of Antwerp (Belgium) with a purposive sample of elderly Jewish (non-)Hasidic and secularised Orthodox women. In-depth interviews were conducted to elicit their attitudes towards (non-)voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide.

Results. The research reveals diverse views among women in the community on intentionally terminating a patient's life. Absolute rejection of every act which deliberately terminates life is found among the overwhelming majority of (religiously observant) Orthodox (Hasidic and non-Hasidic) women, as they have an unconditional faith and trust in God's sovereign power over the domain of life and death. On the other hand, the views of secularised Orthodox women – mostly irreligious women, who do not consider themselves Orthodox, thus not following Jewish law, yet say they belong to the Orthodox Jewish community –show an acceptance of voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide but non-voluntary euthanasia is approached more negatively. As they perceive illness and death as merely profane facts, they stress a patient's absolute right towards self-determination, in particular with regard to one's end of life. Among non-Hasidic Orthodox respondents, more openness is found for cultivating a personal opinion which deviates from Jewish law and for the right of self-determination with regard to questions concerning life and death. In this study, these participants occupy an intermediate position.

Conclusion. Our study reveals an interplay between ethical attitudes on euthanasia and religious convictions. The image one has of a transcendental reality, or of God, has a stronger effect on one's (dis)approval of euthanasia than being (ir)religious.
Author(s): Shternshis, Anna
Date: 2011
Abstract: In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:
A few days after arriving in New York during the spring of 1990, Anatolii S. (born in 1920, Ukraine), put on his jacket, decorated with the numerous military medals that he had earned during his service in the Soviet Army during World War II, and went into a nearby synagogue, hoping to find out about the benefits available to him as a Jewish veteran of the war that "helped to save America from fascism." He showed his documents to the local clerk, who only gestured for him to put his hat back on and to pray with the prayer book. Unable to open the book correctly, and most importantly, unwilling to pray, Anatolii realized that neither his participation in the war, nor his knowledge of Yiddish, made him a true member of this community. Being accustomed to displays of public respect and economic benefits from his status as a war veteran, Anatolii now had to embrace his new status in a society that did not regard him any differently from any other non-English speaking, elderly Jewish immigrant from Russia.

Anatolii, like the other approximately 26,000 Soviet Jewish veterans who migrated to Germany, Israel, Canada, and the United States in the 1990s, was certainly welcome to attend synagogues and Jewish community centers in his new country, but his understanding of what it meant to be a Jew differed profoundly from the majority of members in these communities. Anatolii and his peers (Soviet veterans) regarded their participation in the war as the most important part of their Jewish identity, and they were often shocked to find out how little the war meant to the Jewish identity of the local populations they encountered. Unsatisfied with the status quo, many Soviet veterans launched their own organizations, where being Jewish and proud of Soviet accomplishments did not seem contradictory. Moreover, the definitions of "Soviet" and "Jewish" shifted, merged, and eventually formed the foundation of a specific culture, with its own leaders, traditions, rituals, and language.

In this article, I look into the modes of survival of Soviet language and ideology among veterans, and analyze what these modes tell us about the patterns of immigrant adaptation. I concentrate on three centers of veterans' activities: New York, Toronto, and Berlin, and discuss similarities and differences in the adaptations of veterans in these communities. I will discuss how the culture of each city and country influenced what the veterans select from Soviet rhetoric to describe their present lives.

The second goal of this study is to challenge existing scholarship, which treats elderly migrants as passive and apathetic. Nursing Studies and Gerontology dominate research in this area (rather than the field of immigrant studies) and as a result we know much more about cases of extreme isolation, deprivation, and depression among elderly immigrants in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Western Europe than about the contribution elderly migrants make to the social and cultural systems in their new societies. While the vulnerability of this group is undeniable, I perceive studying foreign retirees solely as victims or disadvantaged entities as an "ageism" bias which denies proper recognition and acceptance of the achievements and life experiences of the elderly, as it sees them solely through the prism of their ailing bodies. Soviet Jewish veterans, as a group, serve as an ideal case study of how elderly immigrants fight such perceptions, both consciously and subconsciously, not only by creating their own organizations, but also by establishing an awareness of their legacies in their new home countries.

Data and Methodology
This study is based on 233 in-depth interviews with Soviet veterans of World War II conducted between 1999 and 2007 in Toronto, Berlin, and New York. I used a snowball sample, where the initial respondents—located through veterans' organizations and ads placed in Russian-language media—suggested other potential interviewees. The interviews consisted of open-ended questions about respondents' experiences throughout their lives. Russian-language newspaper articles published in immigrant papers also served as useful sources for public expressions of veterans' opinions about political, cultural, and social issues in their new countries.
Author(s): Švob, Melita
Date: 2006
Abstract: The initiative for Survey is given by Research and Documentation centre for
Holocaust victims and survivors in Zagreb, with support by Jewish community
Zagreb, Claims conference research funds and JOINT.
This is the second social Survey on the same population of Jewish community in
Zagreb. First survey which was realized before ten years – in 1995, had a great
success by providing with relevant data social and humanitarian work in Community,
what was important at that time, after the war in ex-Yugoslavia.
With the present research in 2005, we wish to obtain a key informant survey to
facilitate community social work, with respects to the needs of the Jewish elderly and
the implication of the aging in the Jewish community.
Objectives of the survey is to describe actual and recent situation and needs for the
elderly members of community older than 65 years, and to renew and support social
work, voluntaries actions and solidarity in the Jewish communities.
In the last ten years, between two surveys, we can perceive several mayor changes
in demographic, social, economical and health situation of the elderly, mainly
holocaust survivors:
‰ Increased proportion of elderly persons in the Jewish population in Croatia
‰ Increased proportion of persons, aged 75 years and more in the population of
‰ The rise in the number of persons aged 75 and more, increase the number of
disabled elderly
‰ Restrictions of public basic medical care and decline of public social welfare
‰ Worsening of the economical situation and lowering standard of living
‰ Changes in the role of the Jewish family in caring for the elderly
‰ Lack of the data in community on the needs of the elderly
Author(s): Kasstan, Ben
Date: 2015
Date: 2015
Abstract: An innovative study looking at UK census data through the lens of the household – or Jewish family – shows that only a quarter of all Jewish homes are comprised of the stereotypical married couple with children, and two out of three Jewish households in Britain have no children living in them at all. It further demonstrates that an estimated 17,600 Jews aged 65 or above live alone, the majority of whom are women.

The report, entitled Jewish families and Jewish households: Census insights into how we live, is the latest in a series of reports published by JPR that draw on data from the 2011 Census to understand key aspects of contemporary Jewish life in Britain. It is the most comprehensive report on these data published so far, and reveals a number of important insights, hitherto unknown.

Amongst these, it demonstrates that a third of all Jewish households have people living within them who are either not Jewish, or whose Jewish status is unclear. On the face of it, this represents little change over the decade since 2001, but close examination of the data indicate that there has been an increase in the number of Jews living with people who say they have no religion, alongside a decrease in the number of Jews living with people who have a different religion.

The report also investigates differences in household make-up between Jews and other religious and ethnic minorities, and demonstrates that Jews are far less likely than average to cohabit or to live in single parent families – a finding which indicates that the traditional Jewish family is holding up relatively well in the face of general changes in family formation habits in Britain. On the other hand, a higher proportion of Jewish households have people aged 65 or over living alone in them than British households in general, or for that matter, the households of almost every other minority group in the UK.

In addition, household data from the census provide valuable insights into the lives of students and young adults, revealing that there are more Jewish students based in Gateshead than any other city in the UK. Nottingham and Birmingham follow quite closely behind, and both Oxford and Cambridge feature among the top seven locations for Jewish students. One in five young adults aged 25-29 still live with their parents, and the proportion in that age group living alone declined by about a third between 2001 and 2011, probably due to issues around affordability.