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Date: 2016
Abstract: This article explores contemporary images of Jews and Muslims in Norway by using qualitative empirical data, namely the answers to an open-ended question that was included in a quantitative survey on attitudes towards Jews and other minorities in Norway, conducted in 2012. The target group for the survey consisted of Norwegian residents aged 18 and above. A total of 1522 people answered the questionnaire. The results of the survey can be considered as representative of the Norwegian population with respect to age, gender, education and geographical distribution.

Respondents were asked what they regarded to be the reasons for existing negative attitudes towards Jews and Muslims respectively. This article analyzes whether the perceptions reflected in the respondents’ answers represent stereotypical views and partly include traces of conspiracy beliefs. The article also discusses these perceptions within the broader perspective of Norwegian society, asking in which ways the data reflects ideas of inclusion and exclusion.

The analysis exposes differences regarding traditional stereotypes and prejudices against the two minorities and the ways in which these prejudices are linked to (perceived) contemporary conflicts and tensions – both within Norwegian society and internationally. Negative attitudes towards Jews are often explained with reference to the role played by Israel in the Middle East conflict, and almost never with specific reference to Norwegian society. The material contains few examples describing Jews as scapegoats for current social problems in Norway. On the contrary, respondents’ answers indicate social distance. Approximately half of the answers claim that negative attitudes towards Jews are due to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The images of Jews presented in connection with this conflict are predominantly negative and characterized by topics such as oppression, ruthlessness and power. The analysis shows how these statements serve to reduce complexity by effectively equating “Jews” with “Israelis”. As a consequence Jews seem to be excluded from the notion of the Norwegian national collective.

The statements about Muslims show that they are regarded to be citizens and as such part of Norwegian society, but with characteristics perceived as problematic and threatening. Respondents often connected negative attitudes towards Muslims with a “foreign culture”. Many statements describe Muslims as oppressive to women, as harboring undemocratic attitudes or as criminals.

The data shows how people develop generalizations, describing something as “typically Muslim” or “typically Jewish”, reflecting current debates and media coverage. Such generalizations derive their strength from placing the speaker in a morally superior position. In the present material these attitudes represent the antithesis of an implicit notion of the Norwegian community as a liberal, egalitarian and peace-loving society. Despite the differences, a clear picture emerges that the characterizations of both Jews and Muslims seem to serve a common function: to provide a contrast to this national self-image. Such polarized notions of “us” and “them”, however, undermine the values generally constructed as “Norwegian”: when “the other” bears problematic features that we do not want to acknowledge in ourselves or our communities, we lose the ability to critically reflect on who we are. While maintaining an idealized notion of “us”, we become increasingly dependent on a rejection and denial of the “other”.
Date: 2016
Abstract: Denne rapporten presenterer HL-senterets undersøkelse av hvorvidt og hvordan antisemittisme kommer til uttrykk i et utvalg
norske medier. Undersøkelsen har tatt utgangspunkt i et begrenset og strategisk utvalg saker fra redigerte nyhetsmedier og
kommentarfelt fra nettaviser og én av de utvalgte nyhetsmedienes Facebook-sider. Det er gjort kvantitative innholdsanalyser
av totalt 824 artikler og 2689 kommentarer. Det er også gjort en rent kvalitativ gjennomgang av cirka 250 Twitter-meldinger tilknyttet
emneknaggen «jøde», fra perioden 14. juli 2010 – 28. mai 2016.

Undersøkelsen viser at negative og problematiske utsagn og ytringer om jøder eksisterer i både de redigerte nyhetsmediene
og kommentarfeltene. Samlet sett er likevel slike ytringer, og spesielt eksplisitte antisemittiske utsagn, relativt lite utbredt i
det undersøkte materialet. Fremstillinger av jødene som en kollektiv størrelse og ansvarliggjøring av jøder for staten Israels politikk
er de problematiske uttrykksformene som har høyest forekomst i det undersøkte materialet. Den vanligste formen for
slike ytringer er generaliserende sammenblandinger av jøder som gruppe og staten Israel, og oppfordringer om at jøder som
gruppe skal ta tydelig avstand fra israelske handlinger. I blant refereres det også til «amerikanske jøder» eller «norske jøder»
som en enhet med felles meninger, interesser og mål. Det er videre en viss forekomst av ytringer som sammenlikner Israels
politikk overfor palestinerne med den nazistiske jødeforfølgelsen og negative utsagn som spiller på forestilte negative trekk ved
jødisk religion. I enkelte av kommentarfeltene forekommer tradisjonelle konspiratoriske antisemittiske forestillinger.

De problematiske enkeltutsagnene i redigerte nyhetsmedier er mest utbredt i leserbrev, kronikker og debattinnlegg som er
skrevet av eksterne bidragsytere, mens de kommer sjeldnere til uttrykk i redaksjonelle kronikker, ledere og nyhetsartikler tilknyttet
medienes egne medarbeidere. Slike ytringer utløser imidlertid i de fleste tilfeller konkrete tilsvar og reaksjoner, og blir dermed sjeldent
stående uimotsagt. Problematiske og til dels jødefiendtlige ytringer er noe mer utbredt i artikler som også inneholder uttalte
Israel-kritiske standpunkter. Samtidig har et tydelig flertall av de Israel-kritiske artiklene overhodet ikke forekomst av problematiske/
negative utsagn om jøder. Mange av de problematiske ytringene i de redigerte mediene er utslag av upresis og ubevisst språkbruk,
og sjeldent et uttrykk for antisemittiske intensjoner. Eksplisitte antisemittiske ytringer forekommer i svært liten grad i denne delen
av mediene.

Enkelte av de jødefiendtlige ytringene tenderer til å være mer eksplisitt uttrykt i kommentarfeltene.På samme måte som i de redigerte
nyhetsmediene har negative/problematiske ytringer om jøder i kommentarfeltene noe høyere forekomst i sammenheng med Israel-kritiske standpunkter. Det er imidlertid kommentarfeltene under saker om antisemittisme og Holocaust som utmerker seg ved å ha
høyest forekomst av problematiske og jødefiendtlige ytringer. Slike saker aktiverer også et klart flertall av de groveste konspiratoriske
antisemittiske ytringene. Selv om denne type ytringer er relativt lite utbredt også i de undersøkte kommentarfeltene, viser mangfoldet
blant de groveste antisemittiske uttrykkene en bemerkelsesverdig kontinuitet i det antisemittiske tankegodset.
Twitter-meldingene tilknyttet emneknaggen «jøde» skiller seg fra det øvrige undersøkte materialet. Selv om et mindretall
av meldingene spiller på antisemittiske klisjeer, er koplingen av denne emneknaggen til penger og moralske avvik innenfor
økonomi og profitt et gjennomgående trekk.Slike meldinger refererer ikke til faktiske eller forestilte jøder, men viser bl.a. til venners
gjerrighet, overdreven sparsomhet og kollegers lave arbeidsmoral. #jøde blir altså brukt som en metafor for slette karaktertrekk,som uvilje mot å betale gjeld, uærlig profittog latskap. Slike ytringer refererer til klassiske forestillinger i den moderne antisemittismen,og inngår i en historisk norsk satirisk tradisjon.

Date: 2016
Author(s): Perry-Hazan, Lotem
Date: 2016
Date: 2016
Abstract: This is the first empirical study to explain the contested uses and meanings of ‘Yid’ in English football fan culture. A pertinent socio-political issue with important policy and legal implications, we explain the different uses of ‘Yid’, making central the cultural context in which it is used, together with the intent underpinning its usage. Focusing upon Kick It Out’s The Y-Word campaign film (which attempted to raise awareness of antisemitism in football by advocating a ‘zero tolerance’ policy approach to ‘Yid’), the complex relationship of Tottenham Hotspur with Judaism is unpacked. The origins of this complexity stem from Tottenham traditionally attracting Jewish fans due to nearby Jewish communities. As a consequence, Tottenham is perceived as a ‘Jewish’ club and their fans have suffered antisemitic abuse from opposing supporters who have disparagingly referred to them as ‘Yids’. In response, Tottenham fans have, since the 1970s, appropriated and embraced the term by identifying as the ‘Yid Army’. Critical analysis of fan forum discourse suggests that many Tottenham fans thought The Y-Word film failed to sufficiently understand or demarcate between the multiple meanings and intentions associated with use of ‘Yid’ as both an ethnic epithet and term of endearment. We call for an appreciation of the nature of language that acknowledges the fluidity and temporality of linguistic reclamation and ‘ownership’ in future policies to combat antisemitism.
Date: 2016
Abstract: ה-SPCJ) שירות להגנת הקהילה היהודית) מפרסם דו"ח סטטיסטי על האנטישמיות בצרפת בשנת
2015
איסוף המידע בנושא המעשים האנטישמיים בצרפת מתבצע על-ידי ה-SPCJ בשיתוף פעולה הדוק עם
משרד הפנים הצרפתי
האנטישמיות בצרפת בשנת 2015 הייתה גבוהה באופן קיצוני, אלימה ביותרו ,נבעה ממקורות
צרפתיים פנימיים:
ב-2015 בוצעו בצרפת 808 מעשים אנטישמייםמ .ספר זה כולל אך ורק את המעשים שבעקבותיהם •
הוגשה בפועל תלונה למשטרה. מדובר במספר גבוה ביותר.
בשנת 2015 נלקחו 29 בני ערובה (גברים, נשים, ילדים ותינוקות) בסופרמרקט "היפר כשר". האירוע •
התרחש ב-9 בינואר 2015 .במהלך האירוע הוצאו להורג 4 בני אדם.
לראשונה הגיעה האנטישמיות בצרפת לרמה גבוהה באופן קיצוני, ללא כל קשר לסכסוך מזוין • כזה
או אחר במזרח התיכון.
בשנת 2015 שוב ספגו היהודים, המהווים פחות מ-%1 מאוכלוסיית צרפת, %40 מן המעשים •
הגזעניים שבוצעו בצרפת בכלל, ו-%49 מן התקיפות האלימות על רקע גזעני.
בשנת 2015 קיבלה משטרת צרפת בממוצע 2 דיווחים על מעשים אנטישמיים מדי יום. •
בשנת 2015 נרשם מספר גדול של עדויות מפי כאלה שנפלו קורבן למעשים אנטישמיים אולם בחרו •
שלא להגיש תלונה במשטרה על העלבונות האנטישמיים שהוטחו בהם, על האיומים שספגו או על
התקיפות ה"קלות" שבוצע נגדם, וזאת חרף העובדה שחודשים ספורים קודם לכן הוצאו יהודים
להורג רק בשל היותם יהודים.
עולה בהתמדה מספרם של יהודי צרפת הבוחרים להגר למדינות אחרות או המתכננים לעשות זאת. •
חלק ניכר מיהודי צרפת שוב אינו מצליח להבין איזה מקום תופסים היהודים באומה הצרפתית,
וחש שבנוסף לאי-הביטחון הפיזי שבו הם שרויים, המדינה כבר איננה מבינה אותם
Date: 2016
Abstract: Le SPCJ publie les statistiques et analyses de l’antisémitisme en France en 2015
Le recensement des actes antisémites commis sur le territoire français
réalisé par le SPCJ se fait en étroite coopération avec le Ministère de l’Intérieur.
L’antisémitisme en France en 2015 est extrêmement élevé, hyper-violent et endogène :
‣ 808 actes antisémites commis en France en 2015 ayant donné lieu à un dépôt de plainte.
Un nombre extrêmement élevé.
‣ En 2015, 29 personnes (hommes, femmes, enfants, bébés) sont prises en otage dans un
supermarché cacher le 9 janvier 2015. 4 personnes y sont exécutées.
‣ Pour la première fois, l’antisémitisme en France atteint un niveau extrêmement élevé
indépendamment de tout conflit armé au Proche Orient.
‣ En 2015, une fois de plus, les Juifs, qui représentent moins de 1% de la population totale,
sont la cible à eux seuls de 40% des actes racistes commis en France et de 49% des
violences racistes aux personnes.
‣ En France, en 2015, en moyenne, 2 actes antisémites sont recensés par la police chaque
jour.
‣ En 2015, de très nombreux témoignages de victimes d’actes antisémites évoquent leur
réticence à déposer plainte pour des insultes antisémites, des menaces ou des violences
légères alors que certains, quelques mois plus tôt, se sont fait exécuter, car Juifs.
‣ Le nombre de Juifs qui quittent ou envisagent de quitter la France pour rejoindre d’autres
pays ne fait qu’augmenter. Une grande partie des Juifs en France ne comprend plus sa
place dans la Nation, se sent incomprise au-delà même de son insécurité physique.
Date: 2016
Abstract: TEV Foundation and its associated research center, The Brussels Institute, are new additions in the struggle against anti-Semitism. Their activities include the scientific research and monitoring
of anti-Semitism and related prejudices—confronting and surmounting ignorance. Since 2013, the Institute has issued monthly and yearlyreports on anti-Semitism. The reports cover two types of actions: hate crimes and hate-motivated incidents, defined by OSCE as follows:

• hate crime: a criminal offense motivated by bias or prejudice towards particular groups of people
• hate-motivated incident: an offense motivated by bias or prejudice towards particular groups of people which may not reach the threshold of a criminal offense

The extensive monitoring of anti-Semitic hate crimes requires the simultaneous use of several types of sources. The events must be recorded and categorized based on their characteristics.

The annual report summarizes the data from the monthly reports by types of incident and presents the legal cases. Based on standard international methodology, in our monthly and annual reports we categorize hate crimes as actions, events, atrocities or manifestations with proven antiSemitic intention or content that are directed towards Jewish people and their institutions or property. The seven form of hate crimes are: murder, serious physical offense, assault, vandalism, threat, hate speech and discrimination.
Of these, the amount of hate speech is clearly the highest since 2013; other recorded forms were vandalism, assault and threat. Other forms have not been reported.

Since 2013, TEV Foundation has provided an annual, comprehensive survey on Hungarian society’s attitudes towards Jews. The third questionnaire-based survey, conducted in
November 2015, shows that the proportion of anti-Semitism slightly increased last year. The summary of the results shows that one-third of the population harbors (to varying extents) the most
common and clichéd anti-Semitic stereotypes.

The survey examined the respondent’s opinions and attitudes towards Jews, the frequency and strength of anti-Semitic prejudices, perceptions, and associations of anti-Semitism. The sample size was 1200 respondents, aged 18 and older. The respondents were questioned in person. We based our survey methods on the ideas and questionnaires developed by the sociologist András Kovács. We used updated, extended versions of
questionnaires that have been used repeatedly since 1995, allowing us to juxtapose data from different years.

We also discuss an encouraging legal action: punishment for denial of the Holocaust by a Mrs. Z. V., the result of action taken by the TEV Foundation.
Date: 2016
Author(s): Muller, Guy
Date: 2016
Abstract: De CIDI Monitor Antisemitische Incidenten registreerde in 2015 meer antisemitische incidenten op Nederlandse scholen dan in de afgelopen tien jaar, terwijl het totale aantal incidenten juist daalde. CIDI dringt aan op maatregelen om het antisemitisme op scholen terug te dringen. In totaal registreerde CIDI in 2015 126 incidenten; dat was 26 procent minder dan in het piekjaar 2014, maar nog steeds boven het ‘normale’ niveau. De daling van het totale aantal incidenten wordt vooral verklaard door minder gescheld op straat en door de afname van het aantal haatmails; andere soorten incidenten bleven gelijk of stegen.

Het aantal antisemitische incidenten op scholen is in tien jaar niet zo hoog geweest als in 2015. CIDI registreerde 16 incidenten op ‘scholen’, van de basisschool tot op de universiteit. Het is voor het derde jaar op rij dat incidenten in en rond scholen stijgen. CIDI-directeur Hanna Luden spreekt van een “zorgelijke trend”: “Antisemitische incidenten brengen de veilige leeromgeving van leerlingen in gevaar en een stijging voorspelt weinig goeds voor de toekomst”, aldus Luden.

Ook antisemitische spreekkoren in het voetbal acht CIDI zorgelijk. Het aantal incidenten in de categorie ‘sport’ verdubbelde. CIDI telde 10 incidenten in 2015, tegen 5 het jaar daarvoor. Vrijwel alle incidenten in de sport doen zich voor rond het voetbalveld. Anders dan gedacht, gaat het in ruim de helft van de gevallen niet om scheldkoren bij wedstrijden tegen AJAX. In 2016 hebben de eredivisieclubs een betere aanpak afgesproken met de KNVB en Eredivisie CV: CIDI vindt dat hier streng op moet worden toegezien.

Het aantal incidenten met bekenden in de ‘directe omgeving’ steeg fors. Dit waren er 36 in 2015, het hoogste aantal sinds 2011 en 20% meer dan het voorgaande jaar (30). Het gaat hier om incidenten met bijvoorbeeld collega’s, buren, of medeleerlingen.

Voor het overige blijven incidenten met vandalisme en geweld relatief hoog. In 2015 werd in 5 gevallen fysiek geweld gebruikt (slechts 1 minder dan het jaar daarvoor). Zo werd in Arnhem een Joodse jongen tijdens het uitgaan door een groepje daders uitgescholden voor “kankerjood”, tegen de grond geduwd, en geslagen. In Amsterdam werd een vrouw antisemitisch uitgescholden en bij de keel gegrepen, en in Enschede brak een man op meerdere plekken zijn pols tijdens een ruzie met een leverancier die “Sieg heil” naar hem schreeuwde. In geen van die gevallen is een dader gevonden of vervolgd.

CIDI dringt aan op maatregelen om het antisemitisme op scholen te voorkomen en bestrijden. Er dient een antidiscriminatie-leertraject op te worden gezet, dat alle leerlingen al vanaf jonge leeftijd doorlopen en waarin ook Nederlandse kernwaarden als democratie, inclusie en respect voor elkaar worden bijgebracht.
Date: 2016
Abstract: The International Institute for Jewish Genealogy in Jerusalem is attempting the first-ever demographic and genealogical study of a national Jewry as a whole, from its inception to the present day. This article describes the project, its aims, methodology and preliminary results. We use specially developed data retrieval methods that enable the access of available online sources, and we demonstrate that the extensive datasets we have generated are amenable to multidisciplinary analysis and interpretation. Utilising detailed information from the Scottish Census in 1841 till the 1911 Census (the most recent available under access regulations) and vital records from the middle of the nineteenth century to date, plus newly digitised Scottish newspaper and court records, a new and clearer picture of Scottish Jewry emerges. In presenting demographic and historical results already available from the study, we challenge some conventional perceptions of Scottish Jewry and its evolution.

By way of illustration, the article presents some of the preliminary demographic and historical results of the study, which challenge conventional wisdom. Among other things, the study reveals the migrant and transitory nature of the Jewish population in the nineteenth century and documents its stabilisation and eventual decrease in the twentieth century, on the basis of birth, marriage and death rates; and its dispersal throughout the country, beyond the major concentrations in Glasgow and Edinburgh. Hopefully, this study will serve as a model for other genealogical research into defined groups, religious or otherwise, at the national level.
Date: 2016
Abstract: Following the unprecedented number of antisemitic incidents in the summer
of 20141, the Scottish Government funded the Scottish Council of Jewish
Communities (SCoJeC) to carry out a small-scale inquiry into ‘What’s changed
about being Jewish in Scotland’ since our 2012 inquiry into the experience of
‘Being Jewish in Scotland’.
Our principal findings were:
- 38 respondents to our survey (32%) explicitly talked about a
heightened level of anxiety, discomfort, or vulnerability, despite not
having been directly asked.
- 20 respondents (17%) – many more than in 2012 – told us that they
now keep their Jewish identity secret.
- As a result there is less opportunity for Jewish people to develop
resilient and supportive networks and communities.
- 76% of respondents said that events in the Middle East have a
significant impact on the way they are treated as Jews in Scotland.
- 80% of respondents said that the events in the Middle East during
summer 2014 had negatively affected their experience of being
Jewish in Scotland.
- 21 respondents (18%) mentioned the raising of Palestinian flags
by some Local Authorities as having contributed to their general
sense of unease.
- 16 respondents (13%) told us that they no longer have confidence in
the impartiality of public authorities, including the police.
- Several respondents said that, for the first time, they were
considering leaving Scotland.
- Antisemitism in social media was a much greater concern than in
our 2012 inquiry.
- 12 respondents (11%) told us they found it difficult to find anything
good to say about being Jewish in Scotland.
Commenting on the preliminary findings of our inquiry into What’s Changed About
Being Jewish in Scotland, Neil Hastie, head of the Scottish Government Community
Safety Unit, said: “The emerging themes from this report are particularly valuable;
as is the data on how the international context can impact very palpably on the
experience of being Jewish in Scotland. There is much in this for us (and Ministers)
to consider.”
We are disturbed by the extent to which this inquiry shows that Jewish people’s
experience in Scotland has deteriorated as a result of the wider community’s
attitudes towards events in the Middle East. But despite the negativity and level
of discomfort expressed by many respondents, and the fact that some are, for
the first time, wondering whether they should leave Scotland, the vast majority of
Scottish Jews are here to stay, and we therefore welcome the Scottish Government’s
willingness to listen to the concerns of Jewish people in Scotland to ensure their
safety and well-being
Author(s): Sapiro, Philip
Date: 2016
Abstract: The use of geodemographic analysis has a long history, arguably stretching back to Charles Booth's Descriptive Map of London's Poverty, produced in 1886 and the published classification of areas has invariably been based on all residents. The work described in this paper, however, is novel in the use of geodemographic analysis to focus on a single minority group within a national census. This paper describes the development of a methodology which allows geodemographic analysis to be applied to unevenly distributed minority sub-populations, overcoming two particular issues: finding a suitable geographic base to ensure data reliability; and developing a methodology to avoid known weaknesses in certain clustering techniques, specifically distortion caused by outlier cases and generation of sub-optimal local minimum solutions. The approach, which includes a visual element to final classification selection, has then been applied to establish the degree to which the Jewish population in an area is similar in character to, or differs from, Jews living in other areas of England and Wales, using data from the 2011 census. That group has been selected because of the maturity of its presence in Britain — study of this group may point the way for examination of other, more recently arrived, sub-populations. Previous studies have generally assumed homogeneity amongst ‘mainstream’ Jews and have not considered spatial variation, separating out only strictly orthodox enclaves. This paper demonstrates that there are indeed distinct socio-economic and demographic differences between Jewish groups in different areas, not fully attributable to the underlying mainstream social geography, whilst also identifying a strong degree of spatial clustering; it also establishes the practicality of applying geodemographic analysis to minority groups.
Translated Title: Antisemitism Report 2015
Date: 2016
Abstract: In 2015, SIG and GRA registered 14 anti-Semitic incidents in German-speaking Switzerland.
This is significantly less than in 2014: in that year 66 incidents were registered. As in previous
years, in 2015 the actual quantity of anti-Semitic hatred on the internet was not recorded;
however there was a noticeable tendency towards less anti-Semitic hatred than in the previous
year.
As in 2014, two anti-Semitically motivated physical attacks were registered in the reporting year.
On one occasion, Jewish adolescents were physically attacked in Zurich by adolescents of the
same age - in the second case, it was neo-Nazis who also attacked a Jew in Zurich.
However, this drop in the number of registered incidents should not be taken as a sign of any
corresponding reduction in the level of anti-Semitic sentiment.
The study "Living Together in Switzerland", conducted on behalf of the centre for anti-racism and
published early in 2015, reveals that the spread of anti-Semitic sentiment across the broad
spectrum of society is, at around 10% of the Swiss population, relatively stable. This sentiment
often remains hidden and emerges in surges, sparked off by 'trigger events' such as conflict
between Israel and Palestinians. This was particularly apparent in 2014. While the Israeli military
deployment in Gaza was a response to rocket attacks on Israel, the number of anti-Semitic
incidents accelerated, only to drop quickly again afterwards. A further point to make is that
criticism of Israel's policies is not regarded explicitly as a form of "anti-Semitic incident", whereas
statements such as "all Jews should be gassed" are.
In 2015, there was no military escalation with Israeli involvement such as in 2014 and also no
other trigger events. This could well be the main reason for the lower number of registered
incidents. As in previous years, the actual number of incidents is most probably higher, because
many incidents go unreported.
In autumn 2015, there were numerous knife attacks by Palestinians on Jewish Israelis in Israel.
This also led to anti-Semitic comments in Switzerland, for example on Facebook, which glorified
the perpetrators as heroes. However, there was no heightened activity, as in 2014 during the
Gaza War, when Facebook hatred-mongers whipped each other up and tried to outdo each
other.
In 2014, SIG and GRA brought 25 criminal charges against individuals making hate statements
about Jews on Facebook. In the cases were it was possible to unmask the perpetrators, they
were found to have breached the anti-racism penal code. However, many cases against
unidentifiable Facebook hatred-mongers had to be abandoned. Also, other institutions and
private individuals brought dozens of other charges. SIG and GRA do not know the outcomes of
these proceedings.
2/2
It cannot be ruled out that these charges and media reports about them in 2014 led to fewer and
less drastic hate statements against Jews on Swiss Facebook pages in 2015 than in previous
years. In summer 2015, hate statements on the net became a broad subject of media attention in
connection with the refugee crisis. This debate, too, could have led to the sensitization of many
people. Today, it may well be true that more people than in the past are aware that racist and
anti-Semitic hatred in the internet can be a criminal offence.
The fact that 2015 also saw not only written and verbal attacks but also physical assaults on
Jews shows that anti-Semitic sentiment can still lead to physical violence on occasion.
Such as, in summer 2015, more than 20 neo-Nazis turned up in Zurich-Wiedikon and attacked an
orthodox Jew. They insulted him, spat at him, and jostled him. This may well have had a more
serious outcome, but for the energetic interventions of passers-by and the police. Another
incident took place at a football pitch in Zurich. Young footballers from a Jewish football
association were insulted anti-Semitically, jostled and finally beaten by other young people. The
perpetrators only left their victims in peace when passers-by got involved. The perpetrators then
fled the scene unidentified.
Date: 2016
Date: 2016
Abstract: Focusing on three contemporary grassroots initiatives of preserving Jewish heritage and commemorating Jews in Belarus, namely, the Jewish Museum in Minsk, Ada Raǐchonak’s private museum of regional heritage in Hermanovichi, and the initiative of erecting the monument of Eliezer Ben-Yehuda in Hlybokae, the present article discusses how local efforts to commemorate Jews and preserve Jewish heritage tap into the culture of political dissent, Belarus’s international relations, and the larger project of redefining the Belarusian national identity. Looking at the way these memorial interventions frame Jewish legacy within a Belarusian national narrative, the article concentrates in particular on the institution of the public historian and the small, informal social networks used to operate under a repressive regime. Incorporating the multicultural legacy of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth into the canon of Belarusian national heritage and recognizing the contribution of ethnic minorities to the cultural landscape of Belarus, new memory projects devoted to Jewish history in Belarus mark a caesura in the country’s engagement with its ethnic Others and are also highly political. While the effort of filling in the gaps in national historiography and celebrating the cultural diversity of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania overlaps in significant ways with the agenda of the anti-Lukashenka opposition, Jewish heritage in Belarus also resonates with the state authorities, who seek to instrumentalize it for their own vision of national unity.
Editor(s): Gitelman, Zvi
Date: 2016
Abstract: In 1900 over five million Jews lived in the Russian empire; today, there are four times as many Russian-speaking Jews residing outside the former Soviet Union than there are in that region. The New Jewish Diaspora is the first English-language study of the Russian-speaking Jewish diaspora. This migration has made deep marks on the social, cultural, and political terrain of many countries, in particular the United States, Israel, and Germany. The contributors examine the varied ways these immigrants have adapted to new environments, while identifying the common cultural bonds that continue to unite them.

Assembling an international array of experts on the Soviet and post-Soviet Jewish diaspora, the book makes room for a wide range of scholarly approaches, allowing readers to appreciate the significance of this migration from many different angles. Some chapters offer data-driven analyses that seek to quantify the impact Russian-speaking Jewish populations are making in their adoptive countries and their adaptations there. Others take a more ethnographic approach, using interviews and observations to determine how these immigrants integrate their old traditions and affiliations into their new identities. Further chapters examine how, despite the oceans separating them, members of this diaspora form imagined communities within cyberspace and through literature, enabling them to keep their shared culture alive.

Above all, the scholars in The New Jewish Diaspora place the migration of Russian-speaking Jews in its historical and social contexts, showing where it fits within the larger historic saga of the Jewish diaspora, exploring its dynamic engagement with the contemporary world, and pointing to future paths these immigrants and their descendants might follow.

Introduction: Homelands, Diasporas, and the Islands in Between
Zvi Gitelman
Part I Demography: Who Are the Migrants and Where Have They Gone?
Chapter 1 Demography of the Contemporary Russian-Speaking Jewish Diaspora
Mark Tolts
Chapter 2 The Russian-Speaking Israeli Diaspora in the FSU, Europe, and North America: Jewish Identification and Attachment to Israel
Uzi Rebhun
Chapter 3 Home in the Diaspora? Jewish Returnees and Transmigrants in Ukraine
Marina Sapritsky
Part II Transnationalism and Diasporas
Chapter 4 Rethinking Boundaries in the Jewish Diaspora from the FSU
Jonathan Dekel-Chen
Chapter 5 Diaspora from the Inside Out: Litvaks in Lithuania Today
Hannah Pollin-Galay
Chapter 6 Russian-Speaking Jews and Israeli Emigrants in the United States: A Comparison of Migrant Populations
Steven J. Gold
Part III Political and Economic Change
Chapter 7 Political Newborns: Immigrants in Israel and Germany
Olena Bagno-Moldavski
Chapter 8 The Move from Russia/the Soviet Union to Israel: A Transformation of Jewish Culture and Identity
Yaacov Ro’i
Chapter 9 The Economic Integration of Soviet Jewish Immigrants in Israel
Gur Ofer
Part IV Resocialization and the Malleability of Ethnicity
Chapter 10 Russian-Speaking Jews in Germany
Eliezer Ben-Rafael
Chapter 11 Performing Jewishness and Questioning the Civic Subject among Russian-Jewish Migrants in Germany
Sveta Roberman
Chapter 12 Inventing a “New Jew”: The Transformation of Jewish Identity in Post-Soviet Russia
Elena Nosenko-Shtein
Part V Migration and Religious Change
Chapter 13 Post-Soviet Immigrant Religiosity: Beyond the Israeli National Religion
Nelly Elias and Julia Lerner
Chapter 14 Virtual Village in a Real World: The Russian Jewish Diaspora Online
Anna Shternshis
Part VI Diaspora Russian Literature
Chapter 15 Four Voices from the Last Soviet Generation: Evgeny Steiner, Alexander Goldstein, Oleg Yuryev, and Alexander Ilichevsky
Mikhail Krutikov
Chapter 16 Poets and Poetry in Today’s Diaspora: On Being “Marginally Jewish”
Stephanie Sandler
Chapter 17 Triple Identities: Russian-Speaking Jews as German, American, and Israeli Writers
Adrian Wanner
Afterword: The Future of a Diaspora
Zvi Gitelman

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