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Author(s): Schult, Tanja
Date: 2017
Date: 2007
Author(s): Dekel, Irit
Date: 2016
Date: 2008
Author(s): Benhabib, Seyla
Date: 2015
Abstract: This article is an autobiographical contribution recounting the entanglement of Turkish, Jewish and Armenian memories in contemporary Turkey. The ‘special friendship’ between Turkey and the Sephardic Jews, who were given refuge by the Ottoman Empire after escaping the Inquisition in Spain in 1492, has always been used as evidence of the generosity and toleration of Ottoman and subsequent Turkish rule. Recent historical research shows that these claims are both historically inaccurate and politically instrumental. Nevertheless, the Sephardic-Jewish sense of gratitude towards their Turkish protectors, as well as their continuing sense of vulnerability, is acute. Particularly in the year of the centenary of the Armenian Genocide (2015), the tangled memories of Jews, Turks and Armenians have been on display with official commemorations of the tragedy of the vessel Struma carrying Jewish refugees from Romania to Palestine (1942) and the battle over Gallipoli (1915). The Battle of Gallipoli is presented by the Turkish authorities as the beginning of the Turkish war of independence (1919–23) against imperial powers, thus emphasizing that the Armenian Genocide was part of a complex history, the purpose of which was to liberate Turkey from foreign domination. The article analyses the symbolic connections among these events and concludes by looking at the geopolitics of contemporary Turkish–Israeli relations and their impact on Armenian Genocide recognition attempts in the USA.
Date: 2007
Abstract: The robbery and restitution of Jewish property are two inextricably linked social processes. It is not possible to understand the lawsuits and international agreements on the restoration of Jewish property of the late 1990s without examining what was robbed and by whom. In this volume distinguished historians first outline the mechanisms and scope of the European-wide program of plunder and then assess the effectiveness and historical implications of post-war restitution efforts. Everywhere the solution of legal and material problems was intertwined with changing national myths about the war and conflicting interpretations of justice. Even those countries that pursued extensive restitution programs using rigorous legal means were unable to compensate or fully comprehend the scale of Jewish loss. Especially in Eastern Europe, it was not until the collapse of communism that the concept of restoring some Jewish property rights even became a viable option. Integrating the abundance of new research on the material effects of the Holocaust and its aftermath, this comparative perspective examines the developments in Germany, Poland, Italy, France, Belgium, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

CONTENTS
List of Abbreviations
Preface

Part I: Introduction

Introduction: A History without Boundaries: The Robbery and Restitution of Jewish Property in Europe
Constantin Goschler and Philipp Ther

Part II: The Robbery of Jewish Property in Comparative Perspective

Chapter 1. The Seizure of Jewish Property in Europe: Comparative Aspects of Nazi Methods and Local Responses
Martin Dean

Chapter 2. Aryanization and Restitution in Germany
Frank Bajohr

Chapter 3. The Looting of Jewish Property in Occupied Western Europe: A Comparative Study of Belgium, France, and the Netherlands
Jean-Marc Dreyfus

Chapter 4. The Robbery of Jewish Property in Eastern Europe under German Occupation, 1939–1942
Dieter Pohl

Chapter 5. The Robbery of Jewish Property in Eastern European States Allied with Nazi Germany
Tatjana Tönsmeyer

Part III: The Restitution of Jewish Property in Comparative Perspective

Chapter 6. West Germany and the Restitution of Jewish Property in Europe
Jürgen Lillteicher

Chapter 7. Jewish Property and the Politics of Restitution in Germany after 1945
Constantin Goschler

Chapter 8. Two Approaches to Compensation in France: Restitution and Reparation
Claire Andrieu

Chapter 9. The Expropriation of Jewish Property and Restitution in Belgium
Rudi van Doorslaer

Chapter 10. Indifference and Forgetting: Italy and its Jewish Community, 1938–1970
Ilaria Pavan

Chapter 11. “Why Switzerland?” – Remarks on a Neutral’s Role in the Nazi Program of Robbery and Allied Postwar Restitution Policy
Regula Ludi

Chapter 12. The Hungarian Gold Train: Fantasies of Wealth and the Madness of Genocide
Ronald W. Zweig

Chapter 13. Reluctant Restitution: The Restitution of Jewish Property in the Bohemian Lands after the Second World War
Eduard Kubu and Jan Kuklík Jr.

Chapter 14. The Polish Debate on the Holocaust and the Restitution of Property
Dariusz Stola

Part IV: Concluding Remarks

Conclusion: Reflections on the Restitution and Compensation of Holocaust Theft: Past, Present, and Future
Gerald D. Feldman

Notes on Contributors
Select Bibliography
Index
Date: 2013
Abstract: The ways in which memories of the Holocaust have been communicated, represented and used have changed dramatically over the years. From such memories being neglected and silenced in most of Europe until the 1970s, each country has subsequently gone through a process of cultural, political and pedagogical awareness-rising. This culminated in the ’Stockholm conference on Holocaust commemoration’ in 2000, which resulted in the constitution of a task force dedicated to transmitting and teaching knowledge and awareness about the Holocaust on a global scale. The silence surrounding private memories of the Holocaust has also been challenged in many families. What are the catalysts that trigger a change from silence to discussion of the Holocaust? What happens when we talk its invisibility away? How are memories of the Holocaust reflected in different social environments? Who asks questions about memories of the Holocaust, and which answers do they find, at which point in time and from which past and present positions related to their societies and to the phenomenon in question? This book highlights the contexts in which such questions are asked. By introducing the concept of ’active memory’, this book contributes to recent developments in memory studies, where memory is increasingly viewed not in isolation but as a dynamic and relational part of human lives.

Contents: Introduction: the Holocaust as active memory; Linking religion and family memories of children hidden in Belgian convents during the Holocaust, Suzanne Vromen; Collective trajectory and generational work in families of Jewish displaced persons: epistemological processes in the research situation, Lena Inowlocki; In a double voice: representations of the Holocaust in Polish literature, 1980-2011, Dorota Glowacka; Winners once a year? How Russian-speaking Jews in Germany make sense of WWII and the Holocaust as part of transnational biographic experience, Julia Bernstein; Women’s peace activism and the Holocaust: reversing the hegemonic Holocaust discourse in Israel, Tova Benski and Ruth Katz; ’The history, the papers, let me see it!’ Compensation processes: the second generation between archive truth and family speculations, Nicole L. Immler; From rescue to escape in 1943: on a path to de-victimizing the Danish Jews. Sofie Lene Bak; Finland, the Vernichtungskrieg and the Holocaust, Oula Silvennoinen; Swedish rescue operations during the Second World War: accomplishments and aftermath, Ulf Zander; The social phenomenon of silence, Irene Levin; Index.
Date: 2015
Abstract: Commemorating the seventy-year anniversary of the Holocaust in Hungary, this book focuses on current practices in teaching the Holocaust.

In June 2014, at a conference co-organised by the Tom Lantos Institute, a group of professors, scholars, museum directors, and activists involved in memorial projects met at Central European University (CEU) in Budapest, Hungary, to discuss the future of Holocaust Studies. This subsequent book publication considers the potential of Holocaust memorialization and memory work to serve as a catalyst for addressing discrimination today by exploring different innovative teaching practices in higher education as well as bold and creative civic and institutional initiatives.

The authors who contributed to this book project come from across Europe and North America and their work showcases new directions in Holocaust education and commemoration.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTIONS
Anna-Mária Bíró
Introduction 6
John Shattuck
Introduction 7
Andrea Pető and Helga Thorson
Introduction: The Future of Holocaust Memorialization 8
PART 1
Institutional Perspectives and Challenges 11
Paul Shapiro
Facing the Facts of the Holocaust: The Challenges and the Cost of Failure 12
Karen Jungblut
The Future of Holocaust Memorialization: Institutional Perspectives
and Challenges 16
Holocaust Discourses Now 21
Cecilie Felicia Stokholm Banke
Teaching the Holocaust as Part of Local History: The Case of Denmark 22
Klas-Göran Karlsson
Holocaust History and Historical Learning 29
John C. Swanson
Returning to History: Memory and Holocaust Education 35
PART 2
Benefits and Challenges of Digital Resources 41
Helga Dorner, Edit Jeges, and Andrea Pető
New Ways of Seeing: Digital Testimonies, Reflective Inquiry,
and Video Pedagogy in a Graduate Seminar 42
Elizabeth Anthony
The Digital Transformation of the International Tracing Service Digital
Collection 46
Working against Prejudice and Hate 53
Ildikó Barna
Introducing a New Subject in a Challenging Environment among Students of
Military Sciences, Public Administration, and Law Enforcement in Hungary:
A Case Study 54
Heike Radvan
Facing Current Anti-Semitism, Racism, and Neo-Nazism: Talking about the
Holocaust in Local Initiatives in East Germany 60
Charlotte Schallié
The Case of Feincost Adam©: Confronting Antisemitism
through Creative Memory Work 65
Rethinking Pedagogical Practices
Annamaria Orla-Bukowska
Remembering Righteousness: Transnational Touchstones
in the International Classroom 72
Helga Thorson and Andrea van Noord
Stories from the Past, Creative Representations of the Future:
Inter-Cultural Exchange, the Possibility of Inter-Generational Communication,
and the Future of Holocaust Studies 80
Local Initiatives in Commemorating the Holocaust
Barbara Kintaert
Shedding Light on the Past: Digging for Information and
Grassroots Memorialization
88
Borbála Klacsmann
Memory Walk: History through Monuments 100
Gabor Kalman
Filming the Past for the Present 105
About the Authors 1
Date: 2013
Abstract: Despite the Holocaust’s profound impact on the history of Eastern Europe, the communist regimes successfully repressed public discourse about and memory of this tragedy. Since the collapse of communism in 1989, however, this has changed. Not only has a wealth of archival sources become available, but there have also been oral history projects and interviews recording the testimonies of eyewitnesses who experienced the Holocaust as children and young adults. Recent political, social, and cultural developments have facilitated a more nuanced and complex understanding of the continuities and discontinuities in representations of the Holocaust. People are beginning to realize the significant role that memory of Holocaust plays in contemporary discussions of national identity in Eastern Europe.

This volume of original essays explores the memory of the Holocaust and the Jewish past in postcommunist Eastern Europe. Devoting space to every postcommunist country, the essays in Bringing the Dark Past to Light explore how the memory of the “dark pasts” of Eastern European nations is being recollected and reworked. In addition, it examines how this memory shapes the collective identities and the social identity of ethnic and national minorities. Memory of the Holocaust has practical implications regarding the current development of national cultures and international relationships.

Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Preface and Acknowledgments
Introduction
John-Paul Himka and Joanna Beata Michlic
1. "Our Conscience Is Clean": Albanian Elites and the Memory of the Holocaust in Postsocialist Albania
Daniel Perez
2. The Invisible Genocide: The Holocaust in Belarus
Per Anders Rudling
3. Contemporary Responses to the Holocaust in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Francine Friedman
4. Debating the Fate of Bulgarian Jews during World War II
Joseph Benatov
5. Representations of the Holocaust and Historical Debates in Croatia since 1989
Mark Biondich
6. The Sheep of Lidice: The Holocaust and the Construction of Czech National History
Michal Frankl
7. Victim of History: Perceptions of the Holocaust in Estonia
Anton Weiss-Wendt
8. Holocaust Remembrance in the German Democratic Republic--and Beyond
Peter Monteath
9. The Memory of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Hungary
Part 1: The Politics of Holocaust Memory
Paul Hanebrink
Part 2: Cinematic Memory of the Holocaust
Catherine Portuges
10. The Transformation of Holocaust Memory in Post-Soviet Latvia
Bella Zisere
11. Conflicting Memories: The Reception of the Holocaust in Lithuania
Saulius Sužied<edot>lis and Šarūnas Liekis
12. The Combined Legacies of the "Jewish Question" and the "Macedonian Question"
Holly Case
13. Public Discourses on the Holocaust in Moldova: Justification, Instrumentalization, and Mourning
Vladimir Solonari
14. The Memory of the Holocaust in Post-1989 Poland: Renewal--Its Accomplishments and Its Powerlessness
Joanna B. Michlic and Małgorzata Melchior
15. Public Perceptions of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Romania
Felicia Waldman and Mihai Chioveanu
16. The Reception of the Holocaust in Russia: Silence, Conspiracy, and Glimpses of Light
Klas-Göran Karlsson
17. Between Marginalization and Instrumentalization: Holocaust Memory in Serbia since the Late 1980s
Jovan Byford
18. The "Unmasterable Past"? The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Slovakia
Nina Paulovičová
19. On the Periphery: Jews, Slovenes, and the Memory of the Holocaust
Gregor Joseph Kranjc
20. The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Ukraine
John-Paul Himka
Conclusion
Omer Bartov
Contributors
Index
Date: 2011
Author(s): Almog, Yael
Date: 2018
Date: 2008
Abstract: Во многих европейских государствах и в США политика памяти о Холокосте ― один из краеугольных аспектов программ по толерантности и созданию гражданского общества. В странах Восточной Европы (в частности, в Польше и Венгрии1, а в последние годы ― в Румынии и Хорватии) отношение к Холокосту и увековечение мест памяти стали предметом общественных дискуссий и нашли отражение в государственных образовательных программах, а также в создании современных музеев и образовательных центров. Основные тенденции и особенности политики памяти об уничтожении советских евреев в годы нацистской оккупации привлекли внимание историков на постсоветском пространстве практически сразу же после создания независимых государств, которые в годы войны оказались захваченными нацистами и их пособниками (в Молдове этот процесс с участием государственных структур начался только несколько лет назад). Особенно активно дискуссии по отношению к памяти о Холокосте и участию в нем местных националистов ведутся в Украине и Литве. При государственной поддержке проводятся ежегодные научные конференции по Холокосту в Латвии. Национальный День Холокоста, приуроченный к 27 января ― дате освобождения лагеря смерти Освенцим, отмечают в Эстонии. Свои Национальные дни Холокоста, приуроченные к важным датам геноцида местных евреев, отмечают в Латвии и Литве. В Украине на государственном уровне отмечается День трагедии в Бабьем Яре.

Данная статья продолжает наши исследования проблем исторической памяти о Холокосте в Советском Союзе и странах бывшего СССР, где лишь частично затрагивалась проблема осознания Холокоста и его уроков в современной России2. Мы остановимся на нескольких сюжетах: взаимодействие общественных организаций и власти в вопросах сохранения памяти о Холокосте в России; отражение темы Холокоста в художественном и документальном кино, литературе и искусстве; исследовательские и образовательные проекты; программы по увековечению памяти жертв Холокоста на территории РФ.