The report, authored by JPR research Fellow, Donatella Casale Mashiah, demonstrates that the UK Jewish community has turned an important corner in recent years. Following several decades of demographic decline, during which Jewish deaths consistently exceeded Jewish births, births have exceeded deaths in every year since 2006, which implies Jewish demographic growth in the UK, all other factors being equal (e.g. migration, adhesions, renouncements).
The total number of Jewish births per annum in the UK has increased by about 25% over the past decade, peaking in 2011 at 3,869. This has more to do with birth rates in the strictly Orthodox part of the Jewish community than the remainder, although both sectors have seen an increase.
By contrast, the number of Jewish deaths per annum has been falling over time, broadly in line with national trends, due to increasing life expectancy. 2,411 Jewish death were recorded in the UK in 2016, the lowest number on record. The average between 1979 and 2016 was 3,738.
Denominationally, the majority of deaths (68%) in 2018 were ‘central Orthodox’ – i.e. funerals conducted under the auspices of the United Synagogue, the Federation of Synagogues, or independent modern Orthodox synagogues. These were followed, in turn, by Reform at 18%, Liberal at 6%, Sephardi at 4%, Strictly Orthodox at 2% and Masorti at 1%. These proportions are reflective of the relative size of each group in the Jewish population at the oldest age bands.
Beyond the overarching story of the Jewish population that these data reveal, the numbers themselves are also essential for planning purposes. They are of significant value to local authorities, politicians, community leaders, educators and charitable organisations among others, since they can be applied to assess a variety of communal needs, such as childcare facilities, school places, elderly care facilities, religious services and burial grounds.
These findings suggest the existence of additional factors overriding the effects of the social network structure, mainly the need to negotiate a post-migrant identity both within the host society and within the Russian-speaking migrant population. By accepting German as an in-group code and promoting it among younger community members, Russian Germans reclaimed their historically German identity. The Russian Jewish community favored additive bilingualism with full maintenance of L1 as a way to establish distinctiveness from the Russian German group. These findings suggest that the effects of the social network were intertwined with ongoing identity negotiations and distinct ideologies affecting communities’ linguistic choices.
Soviet Union (FSU) especial attention should be given to the Russian Federation,
where most of the Jews who have remained in the FSU are now concentrated.
For such an analysis the first results of the 2002 Russian census should
be studied in detail, as well as the Jewish intercensal demographic decrease by
area/region. Recent emigration dramatically changed the places of residence of
the Jewish population that originated from the FSU. The worldwide size and
distribution of this Jewry will also be discussed.
Jews from the former Soviet Union (FSU) dramatically exacerbated the already unfavorable population
dynamics. During this period, emigration became the main reason for the rapid demographic decline of FSU
Jewry. Most of this movement was directed toward Israel, a very unusual north-to-south geographical
direction, whereas the rest was divided mostly between the US and Germany. Based on the statistics of FSU
countries, as well as statistics of countries of destination, we can develop a rather detailed pic ture of the
Jewish recent mass emigration and population decline.
Еврейский мир также не остался в стороне от этих процессов. Важным событием последних десятилетий стало появление двух новых транснациональных еврейских диаспор: израильской и русско-еврейской. Обе эти группы, несомненно, стали заметным фактором современной еврейской жизни и важным элементом многокультурной мозаики внутри еврейских коллективов стран пребывания и их обществ в целом.
При том, что еврейской эмиграции из Израиля и возникшей за его пределами «израильской диаспоре» (термин, который в научный оборот ввел Стивен Гольд) посвящена довольно обширная научная литература, а «всемирное русско-еврейское сообщество» также стало объектом ряда фундаментальных работ3, общий компонент этих диаспор – эмигрантские сообщества русскоязычных израильтян – пока очень малоизучен.
Речь идет как о тех уроженцах (бывшего) СССР, которые в составе израильской миграции оказались в странах Запада, так и в особенности об участниках «возвратной миграции» на постсоветское пространство. В академической литературе существует некоторое количество информации о русскоязычных израильтянах в разных странах Запада, и крайне немного – об израильтянах в странах бывшего СССР. Что же касается украинского сегмента этой диаспоры, то его до недавнего времени исследователи почти вообще не изучали. (Единственным известным нам исключением является исследование израильтян в Одессе, которое провела украино-британский антрополог Марина Саприцкая.) Исследование, которое легло в основу этой статьи, было призвано заполнить этот пробел.
Его совместно провели Центр еврейского образования в диаспоре им. Лукштейна (Университет Бар-Илан, Израиль) и Институт иудаики НаУКМА при поддержке Министерства алии и абсорбции Израиля и Евроазиатского еврейского конгресса. В ходе этого исследования в два «раунда» (в начале 2009 и в конце 2011 гг.) методом стандартизированного интервью было опрошено соответственно 167 и 147 респондентов из числа израильтян, с разной степенью постоянства живущих в Украине6. При этом нам представлялось верным сравнить сообщества русскоязычных израильтян в Украине с сопоставимыми с ними по базовым параметрам контрольными группами, прежде всего – с израильтянами, живущими и/или работающими в России.
One of the distinctive features of our times is the appearance of the so-called “new ethnic diasporas” resulting from mass state migrations—both direct and reverse—which especially intensified after the Second World War. Unlike previous generations of migrants, the members of these diasporas are not in a hurry to assimilate into the socio-cultural environment of the receiving societies. Instead, they continue to maintain—sometimes for several generations—a multifarious social and cultural identity and even political ties with their countries of origin.
The Jewish world did not remain on the sidelines of this process. An important development in recent decades is the appearance of two new transnational Jewish diasporas: Israeli and Russian-Jewish. Both these groups undoubtedly became a noticeable factor of contemporary Jewish life and an important element in the multicultural mosaic within Jewish communities of the host countries and within host societies at large.
Although the Jewish emigration from Israel and the “Israeli diaspora” (a term introduced by Steven Gold) has received considerable attention in the scholarly literature and the “global Russian-Jewish community” has become the subject of a series of fundamental works, the common component of these diasporas—Russian-speaking Israelis—remains understudied.
The reference points here are both natives of the former USSR who came to the West as part of the emigration from Israel and participants of the “reverse migration” to the post-Soviet states. The academic literature contains a certain amount of information about Israelis in the countries of the West and very little about Israelis in the countries of the former USSR. The Ukrainian segment of this diaspora was practically ignored by scholars until recently. The only exception we are aware of is the research project on Israelis in Odessa carried out by the Ukrainian-British anthropologist Marina Sapritsky. The research on which this article is based aimed to fill this important gap.
The project was implemented by the Lukshtein Center of Jewish Education in the Diaspora (Bar-Ilan University, Israel) and the Judaica Institute of the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (Ukraine) with the support from the Ministry of Aliyah and Absorption and the Eurasian Jewish Congress. In the course of this study, researchers held two rounds of interviews in 2009 and 2011 with 167 and 147 respondents from among Israelis who reside in Ukraine more or less permanently. We wanted in this process to compare the communities of Russian-speaking Israelis in Ukraine with similar control groups, primarily with Israelis working and living in Russia.
By way of illustration, the article presents some of the preliminary demographic and historical results of the study, which challenge conventional wisdom. Among other things, the study reveals the migrant and transitory nature of the Jewish population in the nineteenth century and documents its stabilisation and eventual decrease in the twentieth century, on the basis of birth, marriage and death rates; and its dispersal throughout the country, beyond the major concentrations in Glasgow and Edinburgh. Hopefully, this study will serve as a model for other genealogical research into defined groups, religious or otherwise, at the national level.
This paper is a study of the demography of the contemporary post-Soviet Jewish Diaspora based on various statistical sources collected from many countries where these Jews live. It examines (post-) Soviet Jewish resettlement, and the demographic transformation of FSU Jews in the wake of the recent mass migration, especially in Israel. Based on this analysis, an update for 2010 of the number of the 'core' Jews (by self-identity) originating from the FSU by country was presented, and the total number of people belonging to the post-Soviet Jewish Diaspora worldwide and their distribution was estimated.
Assembling an international array of experts on the Soviet and post-Soviet Jewish diaspora, the book makes room for a wide range of scholarly approaches, allowing readers to appreciate the significance of this migration from many different angles. Some chapters offer data-driven analyses that seek to quantify the impact Russian-speaking Jewish populations are making in their adoptive countries and their adaptations there. Others take a more ethnographic approach, using interviews and observations to determine how these immigrants integrate their old traditions and affiliations into their new identities. Further chapters examine how, despite the oceans separating them, members of this diaspora form imagined communities within cyberspace and through literature, enabling them to keep their shared culture alive.
Above all, the scholars in The New Jewish Diaspora place the migration of Russian-speaking Jews in its historical and social contexts, showing where it fits within the larger historic saga of the Jewish diaspora, exploring its dynamic engagement with the contemporary world, and pointing to future paths these immigrants and their descendants might follow.
Introduction: Homelands, Diasporas, and the Islands in Between
Part I Demography: Who Are the Migrants and Where Have They Gone?
Chapter 1 Demography of the Contemporary Russian-Speaking Jewish Diaspora
Chapter 2 The Russian-Speaking Israeli Diaspora in the FSU, Europe, and North America: Jewish Identification and Attachment to Israel
Chapter 3 Home in the Diaspora? Jewish Returnees and Transmigrants in Ukraine
Part II Transnationalism and Diasporas
Chapter 4 Rethinking Boundaries in the Jewish Diaspora from the FSU
Chapter 5 Diaspora from the Inside Out: Litvaks in Lithuania Today
Chapter 6 Russian-Speaking Jews and Israeli Emigrants in the United States: A Comparison of Migrant Populations
Steven J. Gold
Part III Political and Economic Change
Chapter 7 Political Newborns: Immigrants in Israel and Germany
Chapter 8 The Move from Russia/the Soviet Union to Israel: A Transformation of Jewish Culture and Identity
Chapter 9 The Economic Integration of Soviet Jewish Immigrants in Israel
Part IV Resocialization and the Malleability of Ethnicity
Chapter 10 Russian-Speaking Jews in Germany
Chapter 11 Performing Jewishness and Questioning the Civic Subject among Russian-Jewish Migrants in Germany
Chapter 12 Inventing a “New Jew”: The Transformation of Jewish Identity in Post-Soviet Russia
Part V Migration and Religious Change
Chapter 13 Post-Soviet Immigrant Religiosity: Beyond the Israeli National Religion
Nelly Elias and Julia Lerner
Chapter 14 Virtual Village in a Real World: The Russian Jewish Diaspora Online
Part VI Diaspora Russian Literature
Chapter 15 Four Voices from the Last Soviet Generation: Evgeny Steiner, Alexander Goldstein, Oleg Yuryev, and Alexander Ilichevsky
Chapter 16 Poets and Poetry in Today’s Diaspora: On Being “Marginally Jewish”
Chapter 17 Triple Identities: Russian-Speaking Jews as German, American, and Israeli Writers
Afterword: The Future of a Diaspora
According to a large-scale survey on Jewish people’s experiences and perceptions of anti-Semitism commissioned by the EU's Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA), in three of the nine states surveyed (namely Belgium, France and Hungary), between 40-50% of respondents said they had considered emigrating from their country of residence because they did not feel safe there. Moreover, some 200-300 Jewish families of French origin have recently immigrated to Montreal, and at least 120 families to London.
Beyond the Aliyah of 50,000 French Jews since 1990 (10% of French Jewry), new-immigrant associations claim there are some 20-30,000 additional French Jews who live part of the year in Israel but for convenience – and in order to avoid Israeli bureaucracy – prefer not to take Israeli citizenship.
Despite the trends outlined above, benefiting from relatively high social, professional, and economic personal status, most European Jews will in all likelihood remain in Europe.
Книга предназначена для демографов, социологов, специалистов, занятых проблема-ми интеграции репатриантов в различных сферах и всех интересующихся данной про-блемой. Многие статистические материалы, представленные в книге, публикуются впервые.
социально-демографического развития еврейского населения бывшего СССР
за истекшее столетие, включая динамику численности и расселения по
республикам и городам, этноязыковой состав, половозрастную и семейную
структуру, рождаемость и смертность, уровень образования,
профессиональную структуру, участие в советской политической системе и
эмиграцию в другие страны. В частности, рассматривается влияние
Катастрофы, как на общую численность еврейского населения, так и на его
социально-экономическую структуру. Большое внимание в книге уделяется
представительству евреев среди студентов, специалистов и научных
работников бывшего СССР.
Книга предназначена для демографов, социологов, историков и всех
интересующихся данной проблемой. Многие статистические материалы,
представленные в книге, публикуются впервые.
Budúci rok v Bratislave… Tieto slová sa postupne stali zaklínadlom skupiny židovských emigrantov, ktorí odišli zo Slovenska po 21. auguste 1968. Našli nové domovy v rôznych štátoch a svetadieloch. Postavili tam domy, zasadili stromy, vychovali deti. Napriek všetkému časť ich osobnosti sa spája s krajinou mladosti. Prakticky každý z nich (väčšinou opakovane) už navštívil „svoje mesto“. Stretli sa s príbuznými a priateľmi, obnovili spomienky spojené s minulosťou, ochutnali pochúťky, ktoré možno (hoci nie vždy) jesť aj inde, ale najlepšie chutia tu…
Napriek všetkým pozitívam však nenašli atmosféru svojej mladosti. Chýbali k nej ľudia: vrstovníci so spoločnými skúsenosťami a zážitkami. V Bratislave totiž ostala len hŕstka Židov povojnovej generácie. Väčšina židovských rovesníkov tiež emigrovala.
Práve preto viacerí začali rozmýšľať o Stretnutí tých, ktorí pred rokom 1968 tvorili mladú generáciu židovskej komunity. Niektorým nestačili slová či spomienky a pokúšali sa tieto túžby naplniť. K prvým organizátorom sa pridávali ďalší, náhodná skupina dobrovoľníkov sa postupne menila na kolektív, ktorý spájal spoločný cieľ. Vďaka úsiliu mnohých sa v máji 2005 Bratislava stala dejiskom Stretnutia. Táto kniha hovorí o jeho prípravách, priebehu, sprievodných emóciách a dozvukoch… Patrí všetkým, ktorí pomohli zmeniť sen na realitu.
marriages and of burials and cremations of Jews for 1989 The findings are
presented below. As in past years, marriage and death totals are
subdivided into various synagogue groupings. This is done for analytical
purposes and in order to indicate trends. The statistics for groups show
only which section of the community recorded the marriage or death. They
in no way measure the level of religious observance of individuals
This report, Jews in couples: Marriage, intermarriage, cohabitation and divorce in Britain, written by JPR Senior Research Fellow, Dr David Graham, is the first dedicated study of the topic that has ever been published about Jews in Britain. By assessing intermarriage in the wider context of partnerships more generally, and by drawing on high quality data from JPR’s own survey and from national census data, it is arguably one of the most robust studies of these topics produced anywhere.
Importantly, it estimates that the intermarriage rate in Britain currently stands at 26%, which is dramatically lower than the equivalent figure of 58% for the United States. Moreover, it shows that the rate has only climbed very slowly in Britain since the early 1980s, when it stood at 23%.
Nevertheless, it is unforgiving in its assessment of the effects of intermarriage on Jewish life. It finds that, whereas more or less all children of in-married Jewish couples are raised as Jews, this is the case for only a third of the children of intermarried couples. It also demonstrates that intermarried Jews exhibit far weaker levels of Jewish practice than in-married Jews on all measures investigated.
Beyond intermarriage, the report also explores the topics of divorce, cohabitation and same-sex couples. It finds that Jews are less likely to be divorced than the British population in general, but that the toll that divorce takes on women is notably greater than on men; that there has been a 17% rise over the course of the past decade in the number of Jews cohabiting, and that one in three Jews in their late 20s currently cohabits with their partner; and that just over 2,200 Jews live in same-sex couples, or 1.8% of all Jews in partnerships.
Objective. To describe the demographic characteristics and health care usage patterns of the strictly orthodox Jewish population of Gateshead.
Methods. Registration and claims data were used in combination with encounter data from computerized and manual practice records. Jewish patients were identified and comparisons made between Jewish and non-Jewish populations registered at the same practices.
Results. The orthodox Jewish population was predominantly young (69% aged under 20). The birth rate in orthodox Jewish women aged 20–44 was much higher (294 per 1000) than non-Jewish women. Rates of uptake of cervical screening and childhood immunizations were significantly lower in the orthodox Jewish population. Uptake of breast screening and attendance at diabetic clinics did not differ significantly. The average number of consultations and home visits per annum was higher in Jewish than in non-Jewish patients.
Conclusions. The demographic and health care utilization patterns of orthodox Jewish and non-Jewish patients in Gateshead are different. There are implications for the provision of primary care services, particularly with regard to preventative health care.