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Author(s): Meng, Michael
Date: 2011
Abstract: After the Holocaust, the empty, silent spaces of bombed-out synagogues, cemeteries, and Jewish districts were all that was left in many German and Polish cities with prewar histories rich in the sights and sounds of Jewish life. What happened to this scarred landscape after the war, and how have Germans, Poles, and Jews encountered these ruins over the past sixty years? In the postwar period, city officials swept away many sites, despite protests from Jewish leaders. But in the late 1970s church groups, local residents, political dissidents, and tourists demanded the preservation of the few ruins still standing. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1989, this desire to preserve and restore has grown stronger. In one of the most striking and little-studied shifts in postwar European history, the traces of a long-neglected Jewish past have gradually been recovered, thanks to the rise of heritage tourism, nostalgia for ruins, international discussions about the Holocaust, and a pervasive longing for cosmopolitanism in a globalizing world. Examining this transformation from both sides of the Iron Curtain, Michael Meng finds no divided memory along West–East lines, but rather a shared memory of tensions and paradoxes that crosses borders throughout Central Europe. His narrative reveals the changing dynamics of the local and the transnational, as Germans, Poles, Americans, and Israelis confront a built environment that is inevitably altered with the passage of time. Shattered Spaces exemplifies urban history at its best, uncovering a surprising and moving postwar story of broad contemporary interest.
Date: 2013
Abstract: Despite the Holocaust’s profound impact on the history of Eastern Europe, the communist regimes successfully repressed public discourse about and memory of this tragedy. Since the collapse of communism in 1989, however, this has changed. Not only has a wealth of archival sources become available, but there have also been oral history projects and interviews recording the testimonies of eyewitnesses who experienced the Holocaust as children and young adults. Recent political, social, and cultural developments have facilitated a more nuanced and complex understanding of the continuities and discontinuities in representations of the Holocaust. People are beginning to realize the significant role that memory of Holocaust plays in contemporary discussions of national identity in Eastern Europe.

This volume of original essays explores the memory of the Holocaust and the Jewish past in postcommunist Eastern Europe. Devoting space to every postcommunist country, the essays in Bringing the Dark Past to Light explore how the memory of the “dark pasts” of Eastern European nations is being recollected and reworked. In addition, it examines how this memory shapes the collective identities and the social identity of ethnic and national minorities. Memory of the Holocaust has practical implications regarding the current development of national cultures and international relationships.

Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Preface and Acknowledgments
Introduction
John-Paul Himka and Joanna Beata Michlic
1. "Our Conscience Is Clean": Albanian Elites and the Memory of the Holocaust in Postsocialist Albania
Daniel Perez
2. The Invisible Genocide: The Holocaust in Belarus
Per Anders Rudling
3. Contemporary Responses to the Holocaust in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Francine Friedman
4. Debating the Fate of Bulgarian Jews during World War II
Joseph Benatov
5. Representations of the Holocaust and Historical Debates in Croatia since 1989
Mark Biondich
6. The Sheep of Lidice: The Holocaust and the Construction of Czech National History
Michal Frankl
7. Victim of History: Perceptions of the Holocaust in Estonia
Anton Weiss-Wendt
8. Holocaust Remembrance in the German Democratic Republic--and Beyond
Peter Monteath
9. The Memory of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Hungary
Part 1: The Politics of Holocaust Memory
Paul Hanebrink
Part 2: Cinematic Memory of the Holocaust
Catherine Portuges
10. The Transformation of Holocaust Memory in Post-Soviet Latvia
Bella Zisere
11. Conflicting Memories: The Reception of the Holocaust in Lithuania
Saulius Sužied<edot>lis and Šarūnas Liekis
12. The Combined Legacies of the "Jewish Question" and the "Macedonian Question"
Holly Case
13. Public Discourses on the Holocaust in Moldova: Justification, Instrumentalization, and Mourning
Vladimir Solonari
14. The Memory of the Holocaust in Post-1989 Poland: Renewal--Its Accomplishments and Its Powerlessness
Joanna B. Michlic and Małgorzata Melchior
15. Public Perceptions of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Romania
Felicia Waldman and Mihai Chioveanu
16. The Reception of the Holocaust in Russia: Silence, Conspiracy, and Glimpses of Light
Klas-Göran Karlsson
17. Between Marginalization and Instrumentalization: Holocaust Memory in Serbia since the Late 1980s
Jovan Byford
18. The "Unmasterable Past"? The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Slovakia
Nina Paulovičová
19. On the Periphery: Jews, Slovenes, and the Memory of the Holocaust
Gregor Joseph Kranjc
20. The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Ukraine
John-Paul Himka
Conclusion
Omer Bartov
Contributors
Index
Date: 2017
Abstract: Представленная книга документированных исследований А. Бураковского исторически охватывает 30-летний период развития социально-политической жизни Украины начиная с распада СССР и до 2016 года включительно. Книга содержит 10 глав и соответствуещее теме книги вступительное слово профессора истории Ивана Химки (John-Paul Himka). События в ней разворачиваются на фоне всех «майданов», начиная от первого — НРУ, и заканчивая «евромайданом», при президентах Л. Кравчуке, Л. Кучме, В. Ющенко, В. Януковиче — вплоть до революционного перехода власти в независимой Украине к ее 5-му президенту П.Порошенко. Все события в книге разворачиваются на фоне эволюции развития как украинского, так и еврейского возрождения, и их жесткого взаимовлияния. При этом автор, будучи долгое время в центре тех и других событий, большое внимание уделяет трансформации еврейско-украинских отношений, главным образом, уже в независимой Украине.
Editor(s): Blobaum, Robert
Date: 2005
Author(s): Gershenson, Olga
Date: 2015
Abstract: In 2012, a new Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center opened in Moscow – an event unthinkable during the Soviet regime. Financed at the level of $50 million, created by an international crew of academics and museum designers, and located in a landmark building, the museum immediately rose to a position of cultural prominence in the Russian museum scene. Using interactive technology and multimedia, the museum's core exhibition presents several centuries of complex local Jewish history, including the Second World War period. Naturally, the Holocaust is an important part of the story. Olga Gershenson's essay analyzes the museum's relationship to Holocaust history and memory in the post-Soviet context. She describes the museum's struggle to reconcile a Soviet understanding of the “Great Patriotic War” with a dominant Western narrative of the Holocaust, while also bringing the Holocaust in the Soviet Union to a broader audience via the museum. Through recorded testimonies, period documents, and film, the museum's display narrates the events of the Holocaust on Soviet soil. This is a significant revision of the Soviet-era discourse, which universalized and externalized the Holocaust. But this important revision is limited by the museum's choice to avoid the subject of local collaborators and bystanders. The museum shies away from the most pernicious aspect of the Holocaust history on Soviet soil, missing an opportunity to take historic responsibility and confront the difficult past.
Author(s): Zisere, Bella
Date: 2010
Abstract: La chute du régime communiste et l'indépendance de la Lettonie ont déclenché de nombreux changements politiques à l'intérieur de ce pays, qui ont concerné dans un large mesure la communauté juive. Cette période a en effet été marquée par une émigration massive de Juifs, en particulier en Israël et aux Etats-Unis, ainsi que par l'émergence d'une vie communautaire, interdite à l'époque soviétique, principalement grâce au soutien d'associations juives internationales comme Joint et l'Agence juive. La désoviétisation de la Lettonie a également contribué à un réexamen de son histoire, y compris de ses aspects les plus difficiles, comme le génocide juif, au cours duquel près de 90% de la communauté locale a été exterminée. Par conséquent, pour l'ensemble des Juifs lettons, le contexte a été radicalement transformé : ils sont passés du statut de Juifs soviétiques, victimes du régime, séparés du reste de la société et auxquels on refusait le droit de se souvenir - toute allusion au génocide juif étant interdite en URSS - et même de quitter les frontières du pays, à celui de citoyens bénéficiant d'une place assurée dans la société, avec un passé douloureux reconnu, voire mis en avant, par les institutions politiques. En Lettonie, la mise en place de la politique commémorative s'impose dans le cadre de la démocratisation et de l'intégration européenne, mais est compliquée par le croisement entre la mémoire traumatique des Lettons chrétiens, liée aux répressions soviétiques en 1940, et celle de Juifs lettons, refusant la mise en parallèle entre les Soviétiques et les Nazis. Les immigrés postsoviétiques, quant à eux, se retrouvent confrontés à leur société d'accueil, ce qui leur impose de s'adapter encore plus rapidement aux mêmes transformations sociales.
Author(s): Heitlinger, Alena
Date: 2009
Date: 2002
Abstract: Mindennapi életünk milliárdnyi eseménye alussza Csipkerózsika álmát lelkünk mélyrétegeiben, mindaddig, amíg valamilyen 'sorsesemény' felszínre nem hozza azokat, és ezzel mintegy átstrukturálja életünk megszokott szerkezetét. Ezek az események a maguk idejében nem alkottak jelent vagy jövőt meghatározó élményt. Ahogy a szerzők ezt megfogalmazzák: 'Ez a múlt tehát olyan múlt, amely soha nem volt jelen'. A rendszerváltozás olyan 'sorseseménynek' számít, amely képes volt átstrukturálni a múltat, az egykor jelentésnélküliként megélt események a megváltozott jelenben új struktúrába szerveződtek, ettől jelentésük megváltozott, jelent formáló, jövőt meghatározó jelentést kaptak, ahogy a szerzők ezt - talán túl tömören fogalmazva - írják: 'a sorsesemény olyan jelenre utal, amely soha nem volt jövő. Értelmezésünkben e soha-nem-volt-jövő jelenből tekintünk vissza e soha-nem-volt-jelen múltra, s előre a soha-nem-lesz-jelen, illetve soha-nem-lesz-múlt jövőre'. A magyarországi zsidó identitást, illetve annak a rendszerváltozás utáni változását, 'átstrukturálódását' vizsgálta Kovács Éva és Vajda Júlia. Két csoport körében végezték - az erre a célra kidolgozott interjú-készítési módszerrel, a 'narratív interjús technika' alkalmazásával - vizsgálataikat a kilencvenes évek elején alakult zsidó iskolákba beíratott gyermekekkel és szüleikkel - akik részben vallásos, részben vallásukat már elhagyott zsidók, de ugyanúgy van közöttük katolikus, vagy éppen vegyes felekezetű család is. A lefolytatott beszélgetések szociológiai, szociálpszichológiai elemzése a választások indítékait, az identitás hátterét tárják fel.
Author(s): Heitlinger, Alena
Date: 2011
Abstract: When traumatic historical events and transformations coincide with one’s entry into young adulthood, the personal and historical significance of life-course transitions interact and intensify. In this volume, Alena Heitlinger examines identity formation among a generation of Czech and Slovak Jews who grew up under communism, coming of age during the de-Stalinization period of 1962-1968. Heitlinger’s main focus is on the differences and similarities within and between generations, and on the changing historical and political circumstances of state socialism/communism that have shaped an individual’s consciousness and identity—as a Jew, assimilated Czech, Slovak, Czechoslovak and, where relevant, as an émigré or an immigrant. The book addresses a larger set of questions about the formation of Jewish identity in the midst of political upheavals, secularization, assimilation, and modernity: Who is a Jew? How is Jewish identity defined? How does Jewish identity change based on different historical contexts? How is Jewish identity transmitted from one generation to the next? What do the Czech and Slovak cases tell us about similar experiences in other former communist countries, or in established liberal democracies? Heitlinger explores the official and unofficial transmission of Holocaust remembering (and non-remembering), the role of Jewish youth groups, attitudes toward Israel and Zionism, and the impact of the collapse of communism. This volume is rich in both statistical and archival data and in its analysis of historical, institutional, and social factors. Heitlinger’s wide-ranging approach shows how history, generational, and individual biography intertwine in the formation of ethnic identity and its ambiguities.
Author(s): Leventhal, Robert
Date: 2011
Abstract: In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:
The influx of Jewish émigrés from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) since 1990 has altered the shape of Jewish life in Germany, and profoundly influenced the 105 Jewish communities of the Federal Republic. Between 1990 and 2005, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) had admitted 219,604 Jewish émigrés from the FSU, and could boast that it has the "fastest-growing Jewish population in the world." The restriction of the flow of Jewish émigrés from the FSU in 2005 as a direct result of new German immigration laws radically changed this situation. The intense immigration of Jews from the former Soviet States between 1990 and 2005 followed by a rather abrupt reversal in immigration policy reshaped the sense of Jewish community, memory, and identity in Germany. These shifts have placed pressure on both German-Jewish relations and relations within the Jewish communities. Certain basic assumptions concerning German-Jewish relations have been called into question on an unprecedented scale: the overwhelmingly positive view of Germany as an immigration destination for Jews; what it means to be Jewish in Germany; the very idea of a singular unitary Jewish community (Einheitsgemeinde) under the umbrella of the Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland (Central Council of Jews in Germany) in post-Wall Germany; and, perhaps most significantly, the absolute, and hitherto unquestioned centrality of the Nazi Judeocide for the self-understanding of German Jews. Recent developments threaten both the unity of the Jewish communities themselves as well as the tremendous gains made in the ongoing, genuine public discussion of and confrontation with the Nazi past since the 1980s.

In this article, I suggest the sociocultural construction of a new Jewish identity or culture within the Jewish community in Germany and what might be referred to as a post-Holocaust sense of community, memory, and cultural identity within the Russian Jewish community, one that finds a powerful resonance in contemporary German culture more generally. The Jewish Museum of Munich, which was founded to be a museum of Jewish life in Munich and specifically not a Holocaust museum, is an example of precisely this sense of post-Holocaust identity formation and memory. The museum to be built in Cologne—scheduled to open in 2011 and designed by the same architects who designed Munich's museum, Wandel Hoefer Lorch & Hirsch—is another case in point. The simultaneous emergence of a new Russian Jewish émigré majority culture within the Jewish minority of Germany, and what I refer to as a "post-Holocaust sensibility," coincides with a broader marginalization and fragmentation of Jewish identity in Germany despite the growth in sheer numbers over the past two decades.

The approximately 10,000 Jews of Munich serve as both an exemplary model and as a demonstrative case-study of shifting Jewish identities in contemporary Germany. Like other Russian Jewish émigrés within Germany, they have their own complex histories and collective memories forged by years of repression and persecution under Stalinism and post-Soviet discrimination. In Munich, these émigrés have the additional task of becoming part of a Jewish community that has been especially challenged by historical precedents and recent developments within the community itself. Munich is a city of particularly conflicted postwar memory. Russian Jewish émigrés comprise approximately 75% of the Jewish population of Munich, and their integration into German society and the existing Jewish community is decisive if the Jewish community is to survive and grow. The official, stated intention at the outset of the programs enacted in 1991—the HumHAG (humanitärer Hilfsaktionen aufgenommene Flüchtlinge or Refugees Accepted as part of a Humanitarian Aid Program) and the so-called Kontingentflüchtlingsgesetz (Quota Refugees Act), which first made possible the mass immigration of Jews from the FSU into Germany—was ostensibly to rescue the Russian Jews from an oppressive situation, but the subtext was clearly to strengthen Germany's diminishing Jewish community of 28,000.

This study was conducted in the spring of 2007 with the assistance of advanced undergraduates fluent in German in the German Studies Program at the College of William and Mary as well as various members of the Jewish community very close to the situation: Rabbi Steven Langnas, Professor Michael...
Date: 2008
Abstract: Głównym tematem analiz i rozważań są tu wzajemne negatywne stereotypy – Polaków na temat Żydów i Żydów na temat Polaków. Książka przedstawia skomplikowane i bolesne uwarunkowania historyczne, ale też pokazuje pozytywne zmiany zachodzące w relacjach polsko-żydowskich w ostatnich latach. Opierając się na rzetelnych badaniach, autorzy pokazują, że dialog i przezwyciężanie trudnej przeszłości są możliwe.

SPIS TREŚCI

Zbigniew Nosowski
Przedmowa do wydania polskiego

Eli Zborowski
Przedmowa do wydania amerykańskiego

Robert Cherry, Annamaria Orla-Bukowska
Słowo od redaktorów książki

Robert Cherry, Annamaria Orla-Bukowska
Na przekór negatywnym stereotypom.
Postępowanie Polaków podczas wojny a Polska współczesna

I. ANTYPOLSKIE STEREOTYPY

Thaddeus Radzilowski
Antypolskie stereotypy

Mieczysław B. Biskupski
Polska i Polacy w filmowym obrazie Holokaustu

Lawrence Baron
Kino w krzyżowym ogniu polemiki polsko-żydowskiej:
Korczak Wajdy i Pianista Polańskiego

Shana Penn
Prasa amerykańska na temat roli Polski w Holokauście

Robert Cherry
Mierzenie antypolskich uprzedzeń u nauczycieli uczących o Holokauście

II. KONTEKSTY DIALOGU I ZROZUMIENIA

Guy Billauer
Stosunki polsko-żydowskie w Ameryce

Havi Dreyfuss (Ben-Sasson)
Stosunki polsko-żydowskie w dobie Zagłady: zmiana żydowskiego punktu widzenia

Helene Sinnreich
Polska i żydowska historiografia stosunków polsko-żydowskich
podczas drugiej wojny światowej

John T. Pawlikowski OSM
Holokaust: nieustanne wyzwanie dla stosunków polsko-żydowskich

Antony Polonsky
Relacje polsko-żydowskie od roku 1984: refleksje uczestnika

III. WSPÓŁCZESNA POLSKA

Rabin Michael Schudrich
Stosunki polsko-żydowskie w Polsce.
Skąd przychodzimy i dokąd zmierzamy?

Stanisław Krajewski
Ewolucja stosunków katolicko-żydowskich w Polsce po 1989 roku

Joanna Beata Michlic
Czy antysemityzm w dzisiejszej Polsce ma jakieś znaczenie – i dla kogo?

Natalia Aleksiun
Odpowiedź polskich historyków na Jedwabne

Carolyn Slutsky
Marsz Żywych: konfrontacja z antypolskimi stereotypami

Annamaria Orla-Bukowska
Goje w żydowskim interesie.
Wkład etnicznych Polaków w życie polskich Żydów
Date: 2007
Abstract: Since Polish Catholics embraced some anti-Jewish notions and actions prior to WWII, many intertwined the Nazi death camps in Poland with Polish anti-Semitism. As a result, more so than local non-Jewish population in other Nazi-occupied countries, Polish Catholics were considered active collaborators in the destruction of European Jewry. Through the presentation of these negative images in Holocaust literature, documentaries, and teaching, these stereotypes have been sustained and infect attitudes toward contemporary Poland, impacting on Jewish youth trips there from Israel and the United States. This book focuses on the role of Holocaust-related material in perpetuating anti-Polish images and describes organizational efforts to combat them. Without minimizing contemporary Polish anti-Semitism, it also presents more positive material on contemporary Polish-American organizations and Jewish life in Poland. To our knowledge this will be the first book to document systematically the anti-Polish images in Holocaust material, to describe ongoing efforts to combat these negative stereotypes, and to emphasize the positive role of the Polish Catholic community in the resurgence of Jewish life in Poland. Thus, this book will present new information that will be of value to Holocaust Studies and the 100,000 annual foreign visitors to the German death camps in Poland.

Contents:

Part 1 Foreward
Part 2 Preface
Part 3 Introduction: Confronting Negative Stereotypes: Polish Behavior in Wartime and Contemporary Poland
Part 4 Anti-Polish Stereotypes
Chapter 5 Introduction: Anti-Polish Stereotypes
Chapter 6 Poland and the Poles in the Cinematic Portrayal of the Holocaust
Chapter 7 Cinema in the Crossfire of Jewish-Polish Polemics: Wajda's Korczak and Polanski's The Pianist
Chapter 8 American Press Coverage of Poland's Role in the Holocaust
Chapter 9 Measuring Anti-Polish Biases Among Holocaust Teachers
Part 10 Contextual Understanding and Dialogue
Chapter 11 Introduction: Polish-Jewish Relations in America
Chapter 12 Polish-Jewish Relations during the Holocaust: A Changing Jewish Viewpoint
Chapter 13 Polish and Jewish Historiography of Jewish-Polish Relations during World War II
Chapter 14 The Holocaust: A Continuing Challenge for Polish-Jewish Relations
Chapter 15 Polish-Jewish Relations since 1984: Reflections of a Participant
Part 16 Contemporary Poland
Chapter 17 Introduction: Polish-Jewish Relations in Poland: Where Have We Come From and Where Are We Headed?
Chapter 18 The Evolution of Catholic-Jewish Relations after 1989
Chapter 19 Antisemitism in Contemporary Poland: Does It Matter? And For Whom Does It Matter?
Chapter 20 Polish Historians Respond to Jedwabne
Chapter 21 March of the Living: Confronting Anti-Polish Stereotypes
Chapter 22 Gentiles Doing Jewish Stuff: The Contributions of Polish Non-Jews to Polish Jewish Life