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Author(s): Staetsky, L. Daniel
Date: 2017
Abstract: This study takes an in-depth look at attitudes towards Jews and Israel among the population of Great Britain, both across society as a whole, and in key subgroups within the population, notably the far-left, the far-right, Christians and Muslims.

It introduces the concept of the ‘elastic view’ of antisemitism, arguing that as antisemitism is an attitude, it exists at different scales and levels of intensity. Thus no single figure can capture the level of antisemitism in society, and all figures need to be carefully explained and understood.

It finds that only a small proportion of British adults can be categorised as ‘hard-core’ antisemites – approximately 2% – yet antisemitic ideas can be found at varying degrees of intensity across 30% of British society. Whilst this categorically does not mean that 30% of the British population is antisemitic, it does demonstrate the outer boundary of the extent to which antisemitic ideas live and breathe in British society. As such, it goes some way towards explaining why British Jews appear to be so concerned about antisemitism, as the likelihood of them encountering an antisemitic idea is much higher than that suggested by simple measures of antisemitic individuals. In this way, the research draws an important distinction between ‘counting antisemites’ and ‘measuring antisemitism’ – the counts for each are very different from one another, and have important implications for how one tackles antisemitism going forward.

The research finds that levels of anti-Israelism are considerably higher than levels of anti-Jewish feeling, and that the two attitudes exist both independently of one another and separately. However, the research also demonstrates that the greater the intensity of anti-Israel attitude, the more likely it is to be accompanied by antisemitic attitudes as well.

Looking at subgroups within the population, the report finds that levels of antisemitism and anti-Israelism among Christians are no different from those found across society as a whole, but among Muslims they are considerably higher on both counts. On the political spectrum, levels of antisemitism are found to be highest among the far-right, and levels of anti-Israelism are heightened across all parts of the left-wing, but particularly on the far-left. In all cases, the higher the level of anti-Israelism, the more likely it is to be accompanied by antisemitism. Yet, importantly, most of the antisemitism found in British society exists outside of these three groups – the far-left, far-right and Muslims; even at its most heightened levels of intensity, only about 15% of it can be accounted for by them.
Date: 2017
Abstract: How often do incidents of antisemitic violence occur in contemporary Europe, and what trends are
showing? How exposed are Jewish populations in different countries? Who commits these crimes? We
need to answer such questions as precisely as possible in order to effectively combat and prevent
antisemitism in general and violent antisemitism in particular, but we lack the knowledge to do so because
systematic studies of the subject are few and far between. As a step towards filling this research gap, the
current report presents some tentative findings about violent antisemitism in a sample of European
countries and proposes directions for further research.

Combining incident data based on police reporting with a 2012 survey on antisemitism carried out by
the European Union’s Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA), this report tentatively compares the levels of
antisemitic violence in different countries. The seven-country sample contains comparable data for France,
UK, Germany and Sweden only. Among these countries, Jews’ exposure to antisemitic violence appears to
have been highest in France, lower in Sweden and Germany, and lowest in the United Kingdom.
Figures for Norway, Denmark and Russia are not directly comparable because of differing data
sources. However, Russia clearly stands out with a very low number of incidents considering Russia’s
relatively large Jewish population. Russia is also the only case in which there is little to indicate that Jews
avoid displaying their identity in public.

Available data on perpetrators suggest that individuals of Muslim background stand out among
perpetrators of antisemitic violence in Western Europe, but not in Russia, where right-wing extremist
offenders dominate. Attitude surveys corroborate this picture in so far as antisemitic attitudes are far more
widespread among Muslims than among the general population in Western Europe.
The findings presented here are tentative. More and better data as well as more research are needed in
order to form a more accurate picture of the nature and causes of antisemitic violence, a prerequisite for
determining relevant countermeasures.
Date: 2017
Abstract: Hvor ofte forekommer antisemittiske voldshendelser i dagens Europa, og hvilken vei går utviklingen?
Hvor utsatt er de jødiske befolkningene i ulike land? Og hvem står bak ugjerningene? Effektiv forebygging
og bekjempelse er avhengig av at slike spørsmål besvares så presist som mulig, men vi mangler den
nødvendige kunnskapen ettersom svært lite forskning er gjort på feltet. Denne rapporten presenterer noen
tentative funn om voldelig antisemittisme i et utvalg europeiske land og foreslår retninger for videre

Ved å bruke hendelsestall basert på anmeldelser i kombinasjon med EUs Fundamental Rights Agency
(FRA) sin spørreundersøkelse om antisemittisme fra 2012, er det mulig å foreta en begrenset og tentativ
sammenlikning av det antisemittiske voldsnivået på tvers av land. I denne rapportens utvalg foreligger
sammenliknbare data kun for Frankrike, Storbritannia, Tyskland og Sverige. Jøders utsatthet for
antisemittisk vold synes å være høyest i Frankrike, mindre i Sverige og Tyskland, og lavest i Storbritannia.
Tall for Norge, Danmark og Russland er ikke sammenliknbare på grunn av mangelfulle data. Vi har
telt 10 hendelser i Norge, 20 i Danmark og 33 i Russland for perioden 2005-2015. Nivået i Russland er
tilsynelatende svært lavt i forhold til vesteuropeiske land og gitt Russlands relativt store jødiske minoritet.
Russland er også det eneste landet der vi ikke har funnet indikasjoner på at jøder unngår å vise sin identitet

Tilgjengelige data tyder på at personer med bakgrunn fra muslimske land skiller seg ut blant dem som
begår antisemittiske voldshandlinger i Vest-Europa, men ikke i Russland, der høyreekstreme aktører
dominerer. Holdningsundersøkelser bygger opp under dette bildet for så vidt som antisemittiske
holdninger er betydelig mer utbredt blant muslimer enn befolkningen generelt i vesteuropeiske land.
Denne rapportens funn er tentative og ment som et oppspill til videre forskning. Bedre data og flere
systematiske studier er nødvendig for å danne et mer presist bilde av fenomenet og dets årsaker, hvilket
igjen er en forutsetning for å kunne bestemme relevante mottiltak.
Author(s): Jikeli, Günther
Date: 2017
Author(s): Katz, Ethan B.
Date: 2015
Abstract: Headlines from France suggest that Muslims have renewed an age-old struggle against Jews and that the two groups are once more inevitably at odds. But the past tells a different story. The Burdens of Brotherhood is a sweeping history of Jews and Muslims in France from World War I to the present. Here Ethan Katz introduces a richer and more complex world that offers fresh perspective for understanding the opportunities and challenges in France today.

Focusing on the experiences of ordinary people, Katz shows how Jewish–Muslim relations were shaped by everyday encounters and by perceptions of deeply rooted collective similarities or differences. We meet Jews and Muslims advocating common and divergent political visions, enjoying common culinary and musical traditions, and interacting on more intimate terms as neighbors, friends, enemies, and even lovers and family members. Drawing upon dozens of archives, newspapers, and interviews, Katz tackles controversial subjects like Muslim collaboration and resistance during World War II and the Holocaust, Jewish participation in French colonialism, the international impact of the Israeli–Arab conflict, and contemporary Muslim antisemitism in France.

We see how Jews and Muslims, as ethno-religious minorities, understood and related to one another through their respective relationships to the French state and society. Through their eyes, we see colonial France as a multiethnic, multireligious society more open to public displays of difference than its postcolonial successor. This book thus dramatically reconceives the meaning and history not only of Jewish–Muslim relations but ultimately of modern France itself.
Date: 2013
Author(s): Markens, Henri
Date: 2009
Author(s): Erlanger, Simon
Date: 2008
Abstract: The Muslim population in Switzerland has increased rapidly from 16,353 in 1970 to an estimated 400,000 persons today, while the general population grew from around six million to 7.6 million. The Jewish community today is some 18,000 strong, a number that has not changed since the 1950s. Whereas the Jewish community, given its small size and its age profile, is likely to shrink and lose influence, the Muslim community can be expected to become more influential. Already up to eight percent of the population in the large cities is Muslim. Muslims in Switzerland are younger and less well educated than the average, whereas the Jewish community is older than average and the best-educated group in the country.
The Muslim community in Switzerland is marked by extreme religious and ethnic diversity and hence, also, by a variety of attitudes toward Jews and Israel. There has so far been no openly anti-Jewish mass movement among Muslims with multiple hate crimes committed such as in France. Kurds, Turks, and Bosnians tend to be more secular and friendlier toward Jews than Arabs from North Africa and the Middle East.
There has been some cooperation between the Jewish and Muslim communities with the former even providing support to the latter. Certain Muslim groups want to learn from the established Jewish community how to gain legal, political, and social acceptance in Switzerland.
Muslims have not been the driving force behind the Swiss version of the new Europe-wide anti-Semitism. However, there is a growing radicalization of disaffected Muslim youth, with Islamism gaining ground among certain groups.
Author(s): Trigano, Shmuel
Date: 2003
Date: 2009
Abstract: Über den gesellschaftlichen Umgang mit Minderheiten in Deutschland - aus historischer ebenso wie aus zeitgenössisch-aktueller Perspektive.

Internationale Wissenschaftler analysieren die Präsenz von Juden und Muslimen in Deutschland und erarbeiten die Parallelen und Unterschiede der beiden Minderheiten in der Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. Erstmals werden sowohl juristische wie auch politische und kulturelle Dimensionen dieses Fragenkomplexes gemeinsam analysiert. Dabei gerät das Verhältnis von Mehrheit und Minderheit und ihrem jeweiligen Selbstverständnis - nicht nur in Deutschland, sondern im modernen Nationalstaat mit der für ihn charakteristischen Spannung zwischen Partikularismus und Universalismus überhaupt - in den Blick.


José Brunner und Shai Lavi

Am Eingang zur Moderne

S. N. Eisenstadt, Jerusalem
Minorities, the Formation and Transformation of Nation-States, and Intercivilizational Relations - Jewish and Christian Minorities in Germany

Shulamit Volkov, Tel Aviv
Jewish Emancipation, Liberalism and the Challenge of Pluralism in Modern Germany

Elimelech (Melech) Westreich, Tel Aviv: The Response of Jewish Law to Modern Science and State Laws in German-Speaking Countries in the Nineteenth Century

Yossef Schwartz, Tel Aviv: On Two Sides of the Judeo-Christian Anti-Muslim Front - Franz Rosenzweig and Muhammad Asad

Islam in Deutschland vor 1945

Aischa Ahmed, Berlin
»Die Sichtbarkeit ist eine Falle« - Arabische Präsenzen, Völkerschauen und die Frage der gesellschaftlich Anderen in Deutschland (1896/1927)

David Motadel, Cambridge
Islamische Bürgerlichkeit - Das soziokulturelle Milieu der muslimischen Minderheit in Berlin 1918-1939

Ursula Wokoeck, Jerusalem/Beer-Sheva
Wie lässt sich die Geschichte der Muslime in Deutschland vor 1945 erzählen?

Geregelte Freiheiten

Nikola Tietze, Hamburg
Polyphonie der Religionssemantiken - Muslimische Religionspraxis in bundesdeutscher Rechtsprechung sowie Staats- und Verwaltungspolitik

Shai Lavi, Tel Aviv
Unequal Rites - Jews, Muslims and the History of Ritual Slaughter in Germany

Schirin Amir-Moazami, Frankfurt/Oder
Islam und Geschlecht unter liberal-säkularer Regierungsführung - Die Deutsche Islam Konferenz

Imaginäre Identitäten und deutsche Realitäten

Gilad Margalit, Haifa
On Being Other in Post-Holocaust Germany - German-Turkish Intellectuals and the German Past

Karen Körber, Marburg
Puschkin oder Thora? Der Wandel der jüdischen Gemeinden in Deutschland

Uriya Shavit, Tel Aviv
»Sheikh Google« - The Role of Advanced Media Technologies in Constructing the Identity of Muslim-Arab Germans


Zvi Tauber, Tel Aviv
Jakob Hessing, Der Traum und der Tod. Über das Werk Heinrich Heines, übersetzt von Katja Manor, Bnei-Brak 2008

Yfaat Weiss, Jerusalem
David Bankier, Hitler, die Schoah und die deutsche Gesellschaft. Mittäterschaft und Mitwissen, Jerusalem 2007

Dan Tamir, Zürich
Gilad Margalit, Guilt, Suffering and Memory: Germany Remembers Its Dead of the Second World War, Haifa 2007

Moshe Zuckermann, Tel Aviv
Hanna Yablonka, Abseits der Gleise. Die Misrachim und die Schoah, Tel Aviv 2008


Tamar Gazit: Life under Nazi Rule
The Jewish Community of Breslau, 1933-1941, Based on Documents and the Diaries of Dr. Willy Cohn

Sharon Livne
Education and Reeducation: Victim and Perpetrator in Youth and Children’s Newspapers in Postwar Germany (1945-1952)
Translated Title: Jews, Muslims and the Republic
Date: 2017
Date: 2004
Abstract: Never since the end of World War II have anti-Jewish sentiments gained such currency in France among so many different social groups. Never have these sentiments been so publicly expressed and met so little intellectual and political resistance as they have since the year 2000. As the number of anti-Jewish incidents escalates, the anti-racist demonstrations that ordinarily would respond to them are nowhere in sight. Important questions therefore need to be put now about the shockingly common acceptance of anti-Semitic attitudes and behavior. In this important book, Mr. Taguieff surveys the landscape of contemporary anti-Semitism, describing its leading figures, the role of the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians, the Islamic influence in promoting anti-Zionism, and the blindness, complacency, or connivance of various institutions, groups, and individuals. The new wave of anti-Semitism spreading around the world, the author shows, is based on a polemical and fanciful amalgam of Jews, Israelis, and "Zionists" as representatives of an evil power. In the eyes of the new anti-Jews, the world's ills can be explained by Israel's existence. The chief accusation, purveyed especially by international Islamic circles and the heirs to Third Worldism, is that "Zionism," far from being a respectable nationalism like that of the Palestinians, is actually a form of colonialism, imperialism, and racism. The old European anti-Semitism, Mr. Taguieff notes, was a particular kind of racism, directed against Jews. The new worldwide anti-Semitism seeks to turn the charge of racism against the Jews.
Author(s): Wieviorka, Michel
Date: 2005
Abstract: Agressions antisémites, profanations de cimetières, violences verbales: le XXIe siècle est-il celui du retour de l'antisémitisme en France?

Michel Wieviorka, entouré d'une équipe de chercheurs, propose la première appréciation rigoureuse et approfondie de l'antisémitisme en France aujourd'hui. Depuis que la rencontre du négationnisme et de l'extrême droite a contribué à relativiser la Shoah, atteignant ainsi le rôle de garde-fou qu'elle jouait contre l'antisémitisme, les inquiétudes se sont considérablement étendues. L'antisémitisme trouve-t-il en France des sources renouvelées, comme on l'affirme? Et si c'est le cas, quelles sont-elles? Combinant avec clarté enquêtes et analyses, faits brûlants d'actualité et rappels historiques, l'ouvrage aborde de front ces questions.L'antisémitisme contemporain serait lié à l'existence d'une importante population musulmane, ou issue de l'immigration maghrébine? L'équipe de Michel Wieviorka a enquêté dans un quartier populaire sensible d'une ville lourdement atteinte par la crise de l'industrie des années 1980 et 1990: Roubaix. L'antisémitisme serait favorisé par la tendance au communautarisme des Juifs de France? L'ouvrage analyse l'évolution de l'importante population juive de Sarcelles. L'antisémitisme devrait beaucoup à la rencontre de l'islamisme et d'idéologies gauchistes ou néogauchistes? Certaines universités constitueraient des espaces privilégiés pour que ces deux courants confluent? L'enquête se poursuit au coeur d'établissements universitaires. L'antisémitisme trouverait dans le climat actuel des raisons de prospérer? Les chercheurs sont allés en Alsace ou les profanations de cimetières juifs sont depuis longtemps une spécificité, et ou l'existence d'une droite radicale puissante donne à penser que la haine des Juifs peut trouver là un débouché politique.L'antisémitisme serait désormais vivace à l'école? Cet essai se penche sur l'institution scolaire, et sa capacité à affronter des défis nouveaux susceptibles d'en faire un espace qui non seulement accueille, mais aussi coproduit l'antisémitisme. «La Tentation antisémite»: deux ans d'enquête pour une réponse nuancée et concrète.

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