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Author(s): Wynn, Natalie
Date: 2017
Author(s): Janicka, Elżbieta
Date: 2015
Abstract: The text refers to the space around the Nathan Rapoport’s Monument to the Fighters and Martyrs of the Ghetto and the Museum of the History of Polish Jews POLIN in Warsaw (Poland). The site of death – at the heart of the former Warsaw Ghetto – has now become a site overloaded with other symbolic messages. Two main symbolic centers (the 1948 Monument and the 2013 Museum) are today encircled by ten other, additional memorials. The message emerging from the content as well as the proportion of commemorations is that Polish solidarity with the Jews was a fact and it stood the test of terror and death brought by the Germans. Although it does not undermine the veracity of the few and isolated exceptions, such a version of events is drastically different from the actual facts. Both symbolic centers are perceived as emblems of Jewish minority narrative. Additional artefacts are a message formulated by the Polish majority. They constitute a kind of symbolic encirclement, block. Emphasizing the dominant majority’s version of the events in this place is in fact a symbolic pre-emptive action. It is meant to silence the unwanted narrative or suppress even the mere possibility that it might emerge. What turns out to be at stake in the dominant Polish narrative about the Holocaust and Polish-Jewish relations is the image of Poland and the Poles. This shows not only the topographic and symbolic situation but also the socio-cultural context of the functioning of the new Museum.
Author(s): Gershenson, Olga
Date: 2015
Abstract: In 2012, a new Jewish Museum and Tolerance Center opened in Moscow – an event unthinkable during the Soviet regime. Financed at the level of $50 million, created by an international crew of academics and museum designers, and located in a landmark building, the museum immediately rose to a position of cultural prominence in the Russian museum scene. Using interactive technology and multimedia, the museum's core exhibition presents several centuries of complex local Jewish history, including the Second World War period. Naturally, the Holocaust is an important part of the story. Olga Gershenson's essay analyzes the museum's relationship to Holocaust history and memory in the post-Soviet context. She describes the museum's struggle to reconcile a Soviet understanding of the “Great Patriotic War” with a dominant Western narrative of the Holocaust, while also bringing the Holocaust in the Soviet Union to a broader audience via the museum. Through recorded testimonies, period documents, and film, the museum's display narrates the events of the Holocaust on Soviet soil. This is a significant revision of the Soviet-era discourse, which universalized and externalized the Holocaust. But this important revision is limited by the museum's choice to avoid the subject of local collaborators and bystanders. The museum shies away from the most pernicious aspect of the Holocaust history on Soviet soil, missing an opportunity to take historic responsibility and confront the difficult past.
Author(s): Zaagsma, Gerben
Date: 2011
Author(s): Woolfson, Shivaun
Date: 2013
Abstract: Once regarded as a vibrant centre of intellectual, cultural and spiritual Jewish life, Lithuania was home to 240,000 Jews prior to the Nazi invasion of 1941. By war's end, less than 20,000 remained. Today, 4,000 Jews reside there, among them 108 survivors from the camps and ghettos and a further 70 from the Partisans and Red Army. Against a backdrop of ongoing Holocaust denial and a recent surge in anti-Semitic sentiment, this thesis presents the history and experiences of a group of elderly survivors in modern-day Vilnius through the lens of their stories and memories, their special places and their biographical objects. Incorporating interdisciplinary elements of cultural anthropology, social geography, psychology, narrative and sensory ethnography, it is informed, at its core, by an overtly spiritual approach. Drawing on the essentially Hasidic belief that everything in the material world is imbued with sacred essence and that we, as human beings, have the capacity through our actions to release that essence, it explores the points of intersection where the individual and the collective collide, illuminating how history is lived from the inside. Glimpses of the personal, typically absent from the historical record, are afforded prominence here: a bottle of perfume tucked into a pocket before fleeing the ghetto, a silent promise made beside a mass grave, a pair of shoes fashioned from parachute material in the forest. By tapping the material for meaning, a more embodied, emplaced, experiential level of knowing, deeper and richer than that achieved through traditional life history (oral testimony and written documents) methods, can emerge. In moving beyond words and gathering a bricolage of story, legend, artefact, document, monument and landscape, this research suggests a multidimensional historiography that is of particular relevance in grasping the lived reality of survivors in Lithuania where only the faintest traces of a once thriving Jewish heritage now remain.
Author(s): Woolfson, Shivaun
Date: 2014
Author(s): Zisere, Bella
Date: 2010
Abstract: La chute du régime communiste et l'indépendance de la Lettonie ont déclenché de nombreux changements politiques à l'intérieur de ce pays, qui ont concerné dans un large mesure la communauté juive. Cette période a en effet été marquée par une émigration massive de Juifs, en particulier en Israël et aux Etats-Unis, ainsi que par l'émergence d'une vie communautaire, interdite à l'époque soviétique, principalement grâce au soutien d'associations juives internationales comme Joint et l'Agence juive. La désoviétisation de la Lettonie a également contribué à un réexamen de son histoire, y compris de ses aspects les plus difficiles, comme le génocide juif, au cours duquel près de 90% de la communauté locale a été exterminée. Par conséquent, pour l'ensemble des Juifs lettons, le contexte a été radicalement transformé : ils sont passés du statut de Juifs soviétiques, victimes du régime, séparés du reste de la société et auxquels on refusait le droit de se souvenir - toute allusion au génocide juif étant interdite en URSS - et même de quitter les frontières du pays, à celui de citoyens bénéficiant d'une place assurée dans la société, avec un passé douloureux reconnu, voire mis en avant, par les institutions politiques. En Lettonie, la mise en place de la politique commémorative s'impose dans le cadre de la démocratisation et de l'intégration européenne, mais est compliquée par le croisement entre la mémoire traumatique des Lettons chrétiens, liée aux répressions soviétiques en 1940, et celle de Juifs lettons, refusant la mise en parallèle entre les Soviétiques et les Nazis. Les immigrés postsoviétiques, quant à eux, se retrouvent confrontés à leur société d'accueil, ce qui leur impose de s'adapter encore plus rapidement aux mêmes transformations sociales.
Author(s): Heitlinger, Alena
Date: 2009
Author(s): Lewkowicz, Bea
Date: 1999
Abstract: This study is an ethnographic account of the Jewish community of Thessaloniki and a description and analysis of oral histories gathered during my fieldwork in 1994. The thesis looks at the intersection of history, memory, and identity by analysing how identities and memories are shaped by historical experiences and how identities shape memories of historical experiences. Thessaloniki has undergone tremendous changes in the twentieth century. The demographic, political, and architectural landscape has radically altered. In the context of my thesis, the most relevant changes concern the ethnic and religious composition of Thessaloniki's population, the city's incorporation into the Greek nation-state (1912), the subsequent introduction of nationalism, and the annihilation of 48,000 Salonikan Jews during the Second World War. The thesis explores how these historical changes and 'events' are represented in individual narratives of Jews in Thessaloniki and in the realm of Jewish communal memory, how these historical changes have affected the formulations of Jewish communal and individual identity and memory, and how Jewish memory relates to the general landscape of memory in contemporary Greece. In chapters one and two, I discuss the theoretical framework and methodology of this thesis. Discussions on ethnicity, nationalism, memory, and certain themes of the 'anthropology of Greece' form the theoretical background of this study. The methodology applied consists of ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviewing. Chapter three presents a historical overview of the history of Thessaloniki and its Jewish community, and discusses the position of minorities in contemporary Greece. I describe the current structure and organisation of the community and look at some demographic developments of the Salonikan Jewish population in chapter four. I then proceed to a detailed account of the interviews which constitutes the main part of the thesis. Chapter five deals with the pre-war past, chapters six and seven with the experience of the war, and chapter eight with the post-war period. In chapter nine I look at perception of boundaries and notions of 'us' and 'them' among Salonikan Jews. In the conclusions, I examine the changes of post-war Jewish memorial practices in the context of the changing 'memory-scape' of the city of Thessaloniki.
Date: 2015
Abstract: The unifying thread of the interdisciplinary volume Jewish and Non-Jewish Spaces in the Urban Context is the fact that Jewish spaces are almost always generated in relation to non-Jewish spaces; they determine and influence each other.
This general phenomenon will be scrutinized and put to the test again and again in a varied collection of articles by international experienced researchers as well as junior scholars using various urban contexts and discourses as data. From the viewpoints of different temporal and regional research traditions and disciplines the contribu­tors deal with the question of how Jewish and non-Jewish spaces are imagined, constructed, negotiated and intertwined. All examples and case studies together create a mosaic of possibilities for the construction of Jewish and non-Jewish spaces in different settings.
The list of examined topics ranges from synagogues to ghettos, from urban neighborhoods to cafés and festivals, from art to literature. This diversity makes the volume a challenging effort of giving an overview of the current academic discussion in Europe and beyond. Although the majority of the contributions are focused on Central and Eastern Europe, a more general tendency becomes apparent in all articles: the negotiation of urban spaces seems to be a complex and ambivalent process in which a large number of participants are involved. In this regard, the volume would also like to contribute to trans-disciplinary urban studies and critical research on spatial relations.
Author(s): Leventhal, Robert
Date: 2011
Abstract: In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:
The influx of Jewish émigrés from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) since 1990 has altered the shape of Jewish life in Germany, and profoundly influenced the 105 Jewish communities of the Federal Republic. Between 1990 and 2005, the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) had admitted 219,604 Jewish émigrés from the FSU, and could boast that it has the "fastest-growing Jewish population in the world." The restriction of the flow of Jewish émigrés from the FSU in 2005 as a direct result of new German immigration laws radically changed this situation. The intense immigration of Jews from the former Soviet States between 1990 and 2005 followed by a rather abrupt reversal in immigration policy reshaped the sense of Jewish community, memory, and identity in Germany. These shifts have placed pressure on both German-Jewish relations and relations within the Jewish communities. Certain basic assumptions concerning German-Jewish relations have been called into question on an unprecedented scale: the overwhelmingly positive view of Germany as an immigration destination for Jews; what it means to be Jewish in Germany; the very idea of a singular unitary Jewish community (Einheitsgemeinde) under the umbrella of the Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland (Central Council of Jews in Germany) in post-Wall Germany; and, perhaps most significantly, the absolute, and hitherto unquestioned centrality of the Nazi Judeocide for the self-understanding of German Jews. Recent developments threaten both the unity of the Jewish communities themselves as well as the tremendous gains made in the ongoing, genuine public discussion of and confrontation with the Nazi past since the 1980s.

In this article, I suggest the sociocultural construction of a new Jewish identity or culture within the Jewish community in Germany and what might be referred to as a post-Holocaust sense of community, memory, and cultural identity within the Russian Jewish community, one that finds a powerful resonance in contemporary German culture more generally. The Jewish Museum of Munich, which was founded to be a museum of Jewish life in Munich and specifically not a Holocaust museum, is an example of precisely this sense of post-Holocaust identity formation and memory. The museum to be built in Cologne—scheduled to open in 2011 and designed by the same architects who designed Munich's museum, Wandel Hoefer Lorch & Hirsch—is another case in point. The simultaneous emergence of a new Russian Jewish émigré majority culture within the Jewish minority of Germany, and what I refer to as a "post-Holocaust sensibility," coincides with a broader marginalization and fragmentation of Jewish identity in Germany despite the growth in sheer numbers over the past two decades.

The approximately 10,000 Jews of Munich serve as both an exemplary model and as a demonstrative case-study of shifting Jewish identities in contemporary Germany. Like other Russian Jewish émigrés within Germany, they have their own complex histories and collective memories forged by years of repression and persecution under Stalinism and post-Soviet discrimination. In Munich, these émigrés have the additional task of becoming part of a Jewish community that has been especially challenged by historical precedents and recent developments within the community itself. Munich is a city of particularly conflicted postwar memory. Russian Jewish émigrés comprise approximately 75% of the Jewish population of Munich, and their integration into German society and the existing Jewish community is decisive if the Jewish community is to survive and grow. The official, stated intention at the outset of the programs enacted in 1991—the HumHAG (humanitärer Hilfsaktionen aufgenommene Flüchtlinge or Refugees Accepted as part of a Humanitarian Aid Program) and the so-called Kontingentflüchtlingsgesetz (Quota Refugees Act), which first made possible the mass immigration of Jews from the FSU into Germany—was ostensibly to rescue the Russian Jews from an oppressive situation, but the subtext was clearly to strengthen Germany's diminishing Jewish community of 28,000.

This study was conducted in the spring of 2007 with the assistance of advanced undergraduates fluent in German in the German Studies Program at the College of William and Mary as well as various members of the Jewish community very close to the situation: Rabbi Steven Langnas, Professor Michael...
Author(s): Rozenberg, Danielle
Date: 2006
Abstract: Après plusieurs siècles d'oubli consécutifs à l'expulsion des juifs d'Espagne, ce pays a redécouvert, voici quelque cent cinquante ans, la diaspora judéo-espagnole et le lien historique avec les descendants des exilés de 1492. Rencontres et évitements ; nostalgie envers une culture survivant hors des frontières et visées néo-coloniales en Méditerranée ; solidarité affichée à l'égard des " Espagnols sans patrie " ; mais refus de rapatriements aux heures sombres des pogroms et de la Shoah ; d'innombrables ambiguïtés ponctuent les étapes du rapprochement hispano- juif, jusqu'au sauvetage des juifs par Franco durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale. La " question juive ", s'est nourrie en Espagne d'affrontements parlementaires à propos de la liberté religieuse, des échos de l'affaire Dreyfus ou encore de l'édition des Protocoles des sages de Sion. Paradoxe : la marginalisation des Chuetas de Majorque, la persistance d'un antijudaïsme populaire, la création, en 1941, d'un Fichier juif se sont conjuguées avec l'exaltation de Sefarad. Aujourd'hui se dessinent de nouveaux enjeux politiques et mémoriels : statut de la judaïcité espagnole issue d'immigrations récentes, réappropriations du legs médiéval, dialogue avec les différentes instances du judaïsme mondial. En focalisant l'éclairage à la fois sur la longue durée et ses principaux temps forts, cet ouvrage entend restituer dans toute sa complexité la lente normalisation des relations hispano-juives contemporaines
Author(s): Rozenberg, Danielle
Date: 2010
Abstract: Después de siglos de olvido, España redescubrió alrededor de 1850 la diáspora sefardí y su vínculo histórico con los descendientes de los exiliados de 1492. El reencuentro estuvo marcado por numerosas ambigüedades: nostalgia por una cultura preservada fuera de las fronteras y ambiciones neocoloniales en el Mediterráneo; afirmaciones de solidaridad con los Españoles sin patria, pero limitaciones a la repatriación en la Península en las horas sombrías de los pogromos (las persecuciones) y la shoah (el holocausto). La «cuestión judía» tuvo también sus dimensiones interiores: debates en las Cortes en torno a la libertad religiosa, antijudaísmo popular, antisemitismo de ciertos sectores religiosos o políticos y al mismo tiempo exaltación del legado de Sefarad. En el contexto actual de la normalización de las relaciones hispano-judías, esta obra pretende restituir el largo proceso contemporáneo de un acercamiento mutuo. Índice INTRODUCCIÓN.-CAPÍTULO I. LA AMNESIA OFICIAL Y LA HERENCIA ESCONDIDA.-La expulsión de los judíos y la transmisión del antijudaísmo.-Un caso límite de exclusión: los chuetas de Palma de Mallorca, judíos a su pesar.-La memoria de Sefarad en los descendientes de los expulsados.- CAPÍTULO II. EL VÍNCULO SEFARDÍ Y LOS INTERESES NACIONALES.-El redescubrimiento de los judeoespañoles.-La afirmación del vínculo sefardí.-Los intereses geopolíticos de España en el Mediterráneo.- CAPÍTULO III. LA CUESTIÓN JUDÍA EN EL ENFRENTA MIENTO DE LAS DOS ESPAÑAS (1860-1939).-El debate en las Cortes sobre la libertad religiosa.-La prensa y el mundo intelectual bajo la Restauración.-Los años de la Segunda República y de la Guerra Civil.-CAPÍTULO IV. LOS PRIMEROS ESTABLECIMIENTOS JUDÍOS EN LA ÉPOCA CONTEMPORÁNEA.-El retorno de los judíos a la Península Ibérica (1860-1939).-La vida judía en la España republicana.-España en guerra: 1936-1939.-CAPÍTULO V. LOS AÑOS FRANQUISTAS EN ESPAÑA.-La Falange y la Iglesia triunfantes.-La vida judía después de 1945: los años de tolerancia r
Author(s): Corbett, Timothy
Date: 2015
Abstract: This thesis presents the first integrated history of Vienna’s four Jewish cemeteries as sites reflecting the construction, negotiation and at times contestation of Jewish communal belonging within Viennese society, embedded in the Viennese cityscape. Through a novel analysis of the sepulchral epigraphy of the thousands of matzevot or grave-memorials contained therein, the development and expression of codes of belonging constructed in the nexus between shifting notions of ‘Jewish’ and ‘Viennese’ culture are illuminated in a longue durée from the medieval into the modern periods. The Shoah, while it does not represent the first instance of the violent erasures of Jewish life and culture in the city, through its magnitude and presence in living memory constitutes a profound rupture in the historic enmeshment of the Jewish community in Viennese society. During the Shoah, the cemeteries became a focal point for the attempted excision or revision of Jewish cultural heritage and its place in Viennese culture, perpetrated by a complex network of agency, with the cemeteries moreover becoming recalibrated as sites of intense Jewish-communal introspection and activity. The cemeteries constituted after the Shoah some of the only sites of Jewish heritage to survive in the physical and memorial landscape, becoming moreover deeply contested sites of memory, within the context of the fledgling re-establishment of Jewish life in the city and the conflicted political and historical discourses in the Second Austrian Republic. This thesis presents the cemeteries as sites of the most profound engagements with Vienna’s long and convoluted Jewish history, comprising moments of great cultural prowess as well as murderous destructivity, embodying the deeply interactive yet conflicted relationship between the City of Vienna and its successive Jewish communities.
Date: 2009
Abstract: TABLE OF CONTENTS
7 Jacek Purchla, "A world after a Catastrophe" - in search of lost memory

Witnesses in the space of memory

13 Miriam Akavia, A world before a Catastrophe. My Krakow family between the wars
21 Leopold Unger, From the "last hope" to the "last exodus"
29 Yevsei Handel, Minsk: non-revitalisation ofJewish districts and possible reasons
43 Janusz Makuch, The Jewish Culture Festival: between two worlds

Jewish heritage - dilemmas of regained memory

53 Michal Firestone, The conservation ofJewish cultural heritage as a tool for the investigation of identity
63 Ruth Ellen Gruber, Beyond virtually Jewish... balancing the real, the surreal and real imaginary places
81 Sandra Lustig, Alternatives to "Jewish Disneyland." Some approaches to Jewish history in European cities and towns
99 Magdalena Waligorska, Spotlight on the unseen: the rediscovery of little Jerusalems
117 Agnieszka Sabor, In search of identity

Jewish heritage in Central European metropolises

123 Andreas Wilke, The Spandauer Vorstadt in Berlin.15 years of urban regeneration
139 Martha Keil, A clash of times. Jewish sites in Vienna (Judenplatz, Seitenstettengasse, Tempelgasse)
163 Krisztina Keresztely, Wasting memories -gentrification vs. urban values in the Jewish neighbourhood ofBudapest
181 Arno Pah'k, The struggle to protect the monuments of Prague's Jewish Town
215 Jaroslav Klenovsky, Jewish Brno
247 Sarunas Lields, The revitalisation of Jewish heritage in Vilnius

Approaches of Polish towns and cities to the problems of revitalising Jewish cultural heritage
263 Bogustaw Szmygin, Can a world which has ceased to exist be protected? The Jewish district in Lublin
287 Eleonora Bergman, The "Northern District" in Warsaw:a city within a city?
301 Jacek Wesoiowski, The Jewish heritage in the urban space of todz - a question ofpresence
325 Agnieszka Zabtocka-Kos, In search of new ideas. Wroclaw's "Jewish district" - yesterday and today
343 Adam Bartosz, This was the Tarnow shtetl
363 Monika Murzyn-Kupisz, Reclaiming memory or mass consumption? Dilemmas in rediscovering Jewish heritage ofKrakow's Kazimierz

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