antropologische onderzoeksprojecten in de Antwerpse joodsorthodoxe
gemeenschap die betrekking hebben op de ‘eigenheid’, ‘emancipatie’ en ‘integratie’
van vrouwen. Eerst wordt de betekenis van vrouwelijke religiositeit vanuit het
standpunt van strikt Orthodoxe, waaronder chassidische, vrouwen belicht. Terwijl in
het publieke en institutionele religieus domein mannen de paradigmatische ‘orthodoxe
jood’ zijn, is door de sacralisatie van het dagelijkse leven, de religieuze rol voor
vrouwen niet minder omvattend of belangrijk, maar vooral gesitueerd in de private en
huiselijke sfeer. Ik beargumenteer dat deze vorm van religieuze en gegenderde
eigenheid vanuit een antropologisch en gender-kritisch perspectief niet eenduidig
geïnterpreteerd kan worden in termen van ‘onderdrukking’ dan wel ‘emancipatie’. Het
tweede onderzoeksproject behandelt de problematiek van joodsorthodoxe vrouwen
(gaande van strikt tot modern orthodox) in Antwerpen die religieuze gendernormen
overschrijden door te studeren of werken in de omliggende seculiere maatschappij. De
levensverhalen onthullen zeer verschillende trajecten van vrouwen die de ontmoeting
met de ‘buitenwereld’ dikwijls verrijkend vonden maar ook wel interculturele
conflicten ervoeren. Er wordt besloten dat behoud van culturele eigenheid, naast
emancipatie en integratie van binnen uit de joodsorthodoxe gemeenschap niet
onmogelijk is, maar dat dit minimaal wederzijds dialoog en begrip vereist.
This study of ba’alat teshuvah in the Netherlands is a qualitative and exploratory investigation on how Dutch returnee woman and their mothers experienced, perceived and interpreted the return to Orthodox Judaism. In short: How do these returnees and their mothers feel about the religious intensification? In this context the research also pays attention to the ways in which the Dutch returnees became involved with Orthodox Judaism, how they found their religious niche and whether their becoming Orthodox impacted on intergenerational and multigenerational relationships.
(1) Loshon Hora ('evil talk') is the prime exemplar of bad talk.
(2) Loshon Hora is the hardest (one of the hardest) things to avoid, because it is so easy to do.
(3) The perceived consequences of Loshon Hora are very serious.
(4) Great caution/various strategies are employed in order to not speak Loshon Hora.
(5) Perceived gender differences exist in proneness to speak Loshon Hora.
(6) One is reponsible for monitoring others.
(7) Young children can be(come) aware of the issues.
Subjects appeared to take this aspect of religious observance very seriously, and were taking active steps to promote observance. Social desirability bias may be an inappropriate concept for explaining our participants' behaviour. It is also suggested that the perceived importance of Shmiras HaLoshon may be important in helping to maintain community cohesion and preventing conflicts, by improving respect for privacy and reputation in a community where gossip is attractive but divisive.
Lehrhaus für jüdische Frauen in Deutschland. In dem von der
Ronald S. Lauder Foundation finanzierten Internat lernen bis heute
mehrheitlich junge Frauen aus der ehemaligen Sowjetunion. Diese
zum Glauben „zurückgekehrten“ Studentinnen erleben im Verlauf
ihres Studiums einen enormen religiösen Transformationsprozess,
der nicht mit dem Auszug endet. Manche dieser Frauen haben
mittlerweile Familien gegründet und sind nach Israel gezogen. Der
Artikel erörtert die Entwicklungen zweier ehemaliger
Internatsstudentinnen in beiden Ländern und geht anhand
ethnografischer Untersuchungsmethoden der Frage nach,
inwiefern das von ihnen angeeignete religiöse Normen- und
Wertesystem ihr jüdisches Selbstverständnis und Alltagsleben bis
The author explains the situation of the Lithuanian Jewish community, situating it in its historical and geopolitical context. The tiny remaining community (5,500) constitutes 0.2% of the population of Lithuania, has a 41% rate of intermarriage, and 56% of their children are born into families of mixed-origin. Only 42% of them identify themselves as Jewish. To what extent Jews might disappear in Lithuania and how quickly that could occur depends on the current and future Jewish identity of children from mixed marriages, and the focus of the author's research is the role of Jewish women in the promotion of children's Jewish identity in the mixed family.
The author provides an overview of Jewish history in the former Yugoslavia, with an emphasis on the lives and activities of women. Until the Holocaust, the diverse Jewish community prospered and Jewish women's organizations multiplied and grew. Jewish women were active in organizing and providing aid, in supplies and medical work, in every Balkan war. After the decimation of the Holocaust, only a fraction of the community remained. Yugoslavia enjoyed relative freedom of movement and freedom of religion under communism, however, and eventually some women's organizations were rebuilt and were able to continue their benevolent work throughout the modern conflicts, even at the high point of violence in Sarajevo. Each of the new countries continues to have its own women's organizations, even in smaller communities like Split, where the Jewish population is only 120.
In giving an overview of Jewish women in Great Britain I intend to touch on three areas: Jewish organizations; participation in synagogue life; and the position of Jewish women's research in Britain. The main sources for the data I quote are the regular compilations of synagogue membership and estimates of population which the Board of Deputies Community Research Unit has conducted regularly the past thirty years; and two recent large scale-studies: The Review of Women in the Jewish Community in 1993 for the Chief Rabbi's Commission on Women; and The Survey of Social Attitudes of British Jews conducted by the Institute for Jewish Policy Research in 1995.
The author presents an outline of the history of Jewish women in Italy, going back to their involvement with Jewish and Christian courts in the late Middle Ages. Highlights include women's struggles against forced conversion, anti-Semitism, and the creation of the Italian ghetto; women's involvement in Garibaldi's Resorgimento; the early popularization of the Bat Mitzvah celebration; the first Italian Jewish woman to have a rabbinic education; women's role in the anti-Nazi resistance and later in Holocaust awareness; and finally women's active leadership in the modern Italian Jewish community.
I have been asked on numerous occasions, ‘What happened to your
report and its many recommendations?’.
In 2008 I approached the Board of Deputies of British Jews with a
view to re-visiting the work we had carried out a decade and a half
earlier. It soon became apparent that we had to broaden the scope
of our original project, reaching out not just to those women who
contributed to the ideas in our 1994 report and whose lives had
now moved on, but to a whole new generation of younger Jews.
The intervening fifteen years had seen many changes in family
structure and attitudes to personal relationships, in the economic
climate and above all in the ways in which we communicate through
new technologies. How had these changes impacted on women’s
lives, on their approaches to their Judaism and on their sense of
Jewish heritage? How had they influenced women’s perception
One of the most exciting elements of the 2009 Review was our
on-line survey facilitated by SurveyMonkey. Through this survey
along with our focus and discussion groups, Facebook site,
questionnaires and face to face meetings we elicited the views
and opinions of almost a thousand Jewish women.
We decided to let the women speak for themselves and this report
Connection, Continuity and Community: British Jewish Women
Speak Out is the result. We believe it represents the authentic
voice of female Jewry in Britain today. Women are very articulate
about their desire for a cohesive, dynamic, inclusive community.
We sincerely hope they will be listened to and that the leadership
of the community, across the religious spectrum, will heed their
concerns and their hopes.
existing organisation, which will monitor progress and ensure that we move forward on this vital issue. The focus is
on ‘tachlis’ (action/substance) not talk.
Leadership in the Jewish Community to try and address the gender imbalance
in communal leadership and to consult with the wider Jewish community before
recommending solutions to this problem.
Whilst leadership is a broad term, the remit of the Commission is specifically
focussed on senior voluntary (lay) and professional leadership roles in communal
organisations within the Jewish community. Clearly, the issues is broader (and
the investigation could be much wider) but with the aim of affecting change
the terms are tightly defined.
The Board of Deputies have played an active role in the research and the
development of this document and the consultation has been a process of
This report supports, and provides rationale for, the questions in the consultation
document. In essence these relate to the main issues;
1) The nature of Gender Imbalance: How great is the gender imbalance,
what causes it and is it improving?
2) Implications: What adverse consequences for the Jewish communal
environment ensue from this gender imbalance?
3) Interventions: what strategies can successfully address [the] gender
research to better understand several key factors influencing their work: general Jewish opinion
and knowledge about domestic violence; the ways in which current and former clients come to
JWA and how useful they find its services; and the position of JWA in the UK and in comparison to
other Jewish domestic violence charities in Israel, the USA and Canada.
The researchers determined that the best way of ascertaining information about these areas of
interest was to conduct a three- stage research project. Firstly, a literature review was undertaken
to contextualise the work JWA does in both a national and international context. This literature
review informs chapter two of this research report, which provides an overview of domestic
violence in the UK with references throughout to three countries of interest to Jewish Women’s Aid
(because of the presence of Jewish-specific domestic violence charities), namely Canada, the
United States, and Israel.
Secondly, the researchers conducted a domestic violence Jewish general opinion survey, which
yielded 842 complete responses. The survey was largely taken by women and this response rate
makes this survey, to the knowledge of the authors and JWA, the largest Jewish survey on a
women’s issue ever conducted.
This report discusses the findings from the survey; see chapter three for details, including a discussion of the methodology employed.
Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the researchers conducted face –to- face interviews with
twenty current or former JWA clients, who agreed to speak to them after communication from JWA
employees. Chapter four of this report gives voice to the personal suffering experienced by
women; it illuminates the ‘real life stories’ behind the statistics.
The report concludes with recommendations that JWA will be implementing to continue combating
domestic violence in all of its forms; these recommendations are based both on the findings arising
from the general survey and client interviews, and from examples of best practice from domestic
violence charities in the UK and abroad.