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Date: 2017
Abstract: How often do incidents of antisemitic violence occur in contemporary Europe, and what trends are
showing? How exposed are Jewish populations in different countries? Who commits these crimes? We
need to answer such questions as precisely as possible in order to effectively combat and prevent
antisemitism in general and violent antisemitism in particular, but we lack the knowledge to do so because
systematic studies of the subject are few and far between. As a step towards filling this research gap, the
current report presents some tentative findings about violent antisemitism in a sample of European
countries and proposes directions for further research.

Combining incident data based on police reporting with a 2012 survey on antisemitism carried out by
the European Union’s Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA), this report tentatively compares the levels of
antisemitic violence in different countries. The seven-country sample contains comparable data for France,
UK, Germany and Sweden only. Among these countries, Jews’ exposure to antisemitic violence appears to
have been highest in France, lower in Sweden and Germany, and lowest in the United Kingdom.
Figures for Norway, Denmark and Russia are not directly comparable because of differing data
sources. However, Russia clearly stands out with a very low number of incidents considering Russia’s
relatively large Jewish population. Russia is also the only case in which there is little to indicate that Jews
avoid displaying their identity in public.

Available data on perpetrators suggest that individuals of Muslim background stand out among
perpetrators of antisemitic violence in Western Europe, but not in Russia, where right-wing extremist
offenders dominate. Attitude surveys corroborate this picture in so far as antisemitic attitudes are far more
widespread among Muslims than among the general population in Western Europe.
The findings presented here are tentative. More and better data as well as more research are needed in
order to form a more accurate picture of the nature and causes of antisemitic violence, a prerequisite for
determining relevant countermeasures.
Date: 2017
Abstract: Hvor ofte forekommer antisemittiske voldshendelser i dagens Europa, og hvilken vei går utviklingen?
Hvor utsatt er de jødiske befolkningene i ulike land? Og hvem står bak ugjerningene? Effektiv forebygging
og bekjempelse er avhengig av at slike spørsmål besvares så presist som mulig, men vi mangler den
nødvendige kunnskapen ettersom svært lite forskning er gjort på feltet. Denne rapporten presenterer noen
tentative funn om voldelig antisemittisme i et utvalg europeiske land og foreslår retninger for videre
forskning.

Ved å bruke hendelsestall basert på anmeldelser i kombinasjon med EUs Fundamental Rights Agency
(FRA) sin spørreundersøkelse om antisemittisme fra 2012, er det mulig å foreta en begrenset og tentativ
sammenlikning av det antisemittiske voldsnivået på tvers av land. I denne rapportens utvalg foreligger
sammenliknbare data kun for Frankrike, Storbritannia, Tyskland og Sverige. Jøders utsatthet for
antisemittisk vold synes å være høyest i Frankrike, mindre i Sverige og Tyskland, og lavest i Storbritannia.
Tall for Norge, Danmark og Russland er ikke sammenliknbare på grunn av mangelfulle data. Vi har
telt 10 hendelser i Norge, 20 i Danmark og 33 i Russland for perioden 2005-2015. Nivået i Russland er
tilsynelatende svært lavt i forhold til vesteuropeiske land og gitt Russlands relativt store jødiske minoritet.
Russland er også det eneste landet der vi ikke har funnet indikasjoner på at jøder unngår å vise sin identitet
offentlig.

Tilgjengelige data tyder på at personer med bakgrunn fra muslimske land skiller seg ut blant dem som
begår antisemittiske voldshandlinger i Vest-Europa, men ikke i Russland, der høyreekstreme aktører
dominerer. Holdningsundersøkelser bygger opp under dette bildet for så vidt som antisemittiske
holdninger er betydelig mer utbredt blant muslimer enn befolkningen generelt i vesteuropeiske land.
Denne rapportens funn er tentative og ment som et oppspill til videre forskning. Bedre data og flere
systematiske studier er nødvendig for å danne et mer presist bilde av fenomenet og dets årsaker, hvilket
igjen er en forutsetning for å kunne bestemme relevante mottiltak.
Date: 2014
Abstract: Denne rapport beskriver og analyserer antallet
af registrerede antisemitiske hændelser i
Danmark i 2013. Rapporten er udarbejdet på
grundlag af anmeldelser til AKVAH, der udgør
en del af Det Jødiske Samfund i Danmarks
sikkerhedsorganisation.
AKVAH har i 2013 registreret op til 43 antisemitiske
hændelser i Danmark fordelt på følgende
kategorier: overfaldssituationer og fysisk
chikane, trusler, antisemitiske ytringer og hærværk.
Hændelserne fordeler sig på fire tilfælde,
der kan kategoriseres som overfaldssituationer
og fysisk chikane, tre tilfælde af trusler, 31 tilfælde
af antisemitiske ytringer og fem tilfælde
af hærværk.
Ud af de 43 registrerede antisemitiske hændelser
er der seks hændelser, hvor det er vurderet,
at de alene kan betegnes som potentielt antisemitiske.
Det registrerede antal af antisemitiske hændelser
i 2013 på 43 modsvarer omtrent antallet
af registrerede hændelser i 2012, der var på
41. Der er således ikke sket nogen forbedringer
trods øget politisk opmærksomhed ved eksempelvis
Københavns Kommunes høring om antisemitisme
i København i februar 2013. Høringen
har endda ledt til en række yderligere antisemitiske
hændelser særligt for en ung jødisk teenager,
der valgte at stå frem med sin historie.
En positiv udvikling er dog, at antallet af overfaldssituationer
og fysisk chikane er blevet
halveret fra otte hændelser i 2012 til fire i 2013,
og at hærværksepisoderne desuden er blevet
reduceret fra otte hændelser i 2012 til fem i
2013. Der er herudover ikke registreret tilfælde
af diskrimination mod jøder i 2013. Antallet af
trusler er imidlertid uændret med tre hændelser
i både 2012 og 2013, og antallet af antisemitiske
ytringer er steget fra 17 til 31 hændelser,
således at antisemitiske ytringer kendetegner
næsten 75% af det samlede antal registrerede
hændelser i 2013.
En sammenligning af antallet af registrerede
hændelser fordelt på årets 12 måneder viser,
at september adskiller sig særligt fra resten af
året, fordi omkring en tredjedel af hændelserne
i både 2012 og 2013 finder sted i denne må-
ned. Begge år lå der mange jødiske helligdage i
september, og der har derfor været en større
tilstedeværelse af jøder i det offentlige rum omkring
jødiske institutioner, herunder Københavns
Synagoge, hvor mange af hændelserne har
fundet sted. Det tyder på, at antallet af antisemitiske
hændelser øges, når jøders synlighed
i det offentlige rum stiger.
Det er uklart, hvorvidt de registrerede antisemitiske
hændelser afspejler det egentlige
niveau af antisemitisme i Danmark. For det
første er der en vis usikkerhed, om det registrerede
antal antisemitiske hændelser afspejler
det virkelige antal hændelser. Der er formentlig
et vist mørketal på området, da AKVAH som
hovedregel kun registrerer hændelser, hvor
folk selv henvender sig. For det andet er det en
mulighed, at antallet af antisemitiske hændelser
holdes kunstigt nede, fordi mange jøder undgår
synlighed af frygt for antisemitisme. Med andre
ord kunne man formentlig forvente, at antallet
af hændelser var højere, hvis danske jøder var
mere synlige i gadebilledet.
Author(s): Kosmin, Barry A.
Date: 2016
Abstract: Launched by the American Jewish Joint Distribution
Committee’s International Centre for Community
Development (JDC-ICCD), and conducted by a research
team at Trinity College (Hartford, Connecticut, USA)
between June and August 2015, the Third Survey of
European Jewish Leaders and Opinion Formers presents
the results of an online survey administered to 314
respondents in 29 countries. The survey was conducted
online in five languages: English, French, Spanish, German
and Hungarian. The Survey of European Jewish Leaders
and Opinion Formers is conducted every three or four
years using the same format, in order to identify trends
and their evolution. Findings of the 2015 edition were
assessed and evaluated based on the results of previous
surveys (2008 and 2011).
The survey posed Jewish leaders and opinion formers a
range of questions about major challenges and issues that
concern European Jewish communities in 2015, and about
their expectations of how communities will evolve over
the next 5-10 years. The 45 questions (see Appendix) dealt
with topics that relate to internal community structures
and their functions, as well as the external environment
affecting communities. The questionnaire also included
six open-ended questions in a choice of five languages.
These answers form the basis of the qualitative analysis
of the report. The questions were organized under the
following headings:
• Vision & Change (6 questions)
• Decision-Making & Control (1 question)
• Lay Leadership (1 question)
• Professional Leadership (2 questions)
• Status Issues & Intermarriage (5 questions)
• Organizational Frameworks (2 questions)
• Community Causes (2 questions)
• Jewish Education (1 question)
• Funding (3 questions)
• Communal Tensions (3 questions)
• Anti-Semitism/Security (5 questions)
• Europe (1 question)
• Israel (1 question)
• Future (2 questions)
• Personal Profile (9 questions)
Date: 2009
Abstract: The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights presents its 5th brief
update of its 2004 report “Manifestations of anti-Semitism in the EU”. The
overview contains the latest governmental and non-governmental
statistical data covering 2001 to 2008 for those EU Member States that
have official or unofficial data and statistics on anti-Semitic incidents. The
Agency collects regularly publicly available official and unofficial data and
information on racism and xenophobia in the EU Member States through
its Racism and Xenophobia Network (RAXEN) with a special focus on
anti-Semitism.

The Agency’s data collection work shows that most Member States do not
have official or even unofficial data and statistics on anti-Semitic incidents.
Even where data exist they are not comparable, since they are collected
following different methodologies. For some countries, RAXEN National
Focal Points provide the Agency with lists of cases collected either ad hoc
by civil society organisations or through the media with varying degrees of
validity and reliability. Detailed data and incidents lists are presented in the
FRA electronic database, Info_Portal at http://infoportal.fra.europa.eu.
The Agency’s regular review of data collection systems indicates that most
Member States have a serious problem of underreporting, particularly in
reference to official systems of data collection that are based on police
records and on crime and law statistics, because not all anti-Semitic
incidents registered officially are categorised under the label “antiSemitism”
and/or because not all anti-Semitic incidents are reported to the
official body by the victims or witnesses of an incident.

A complementary problem to underreporting is misreporting and overreporting:
This could be the case in unofficial data collection carried out by
organisations that do not provide information concerning their
methodologies.
Author(s): Sion, Brigitte
Date: 2016
Abstract: The goals of the Foundation in conducting this survey were manifold:
we aimed to generate a comprehensive picture of the Jewish museum
landscape across Europe, and to identify the most pressing issues,
challenges and needs faced by these institutions. We wanted to learn about
the mission, philosophy and methodology of Jewish museums, and better
understand their role and position in the cultural and educational realm at
large. We were also interested in the level of professionalization of Jewish
museums, both in staff training, collection preservation and cataloguing,
management, and the ways in which Jewish museums communicate and
arrange partnerships with one another. With a better understanding of
these issues, we want now to assess the resources needed and the funding
priorities for the next five to ten years.

The questionnaire was sent to 120 institutions in 34 countries and we
received 64 completed forms from 30 countries. The questions addressed
eleven broad topics: organisation, collections, permanent and temporary
exhibitions, facility, visitor services, public programmes, visitor
demographics, marketing and PR, finances, future plans and needs.

This diverse sample enabled us to get, for the first time, a quasicomprehensive
picture of the Jewish museum landscape in Europe, from
small community museums to landmarks of “starchitecture;” from
institutions boasting thousands of rare objects to others mostly text
panels- or technology-based; from museums employing scores of
professional staff and interns to synagogues-turned-exhibition halls run by
volunteers for a few hours a month. That was precisely the challenge: the
large and numerous discrepancies between institutions, depending on their
location, their financial and human resources, their political and economic
context, the type of visitors they receive, and other contextual
considerations.

The results point to four major findings:
1. Transition from museums to multi-purpose hubs;
2. Lack of collaboration and partnerships;
3. Tension between particularistic and universalistic missions;
4. Increasing need to serve a diverse audience.
Date: 2010
Abstract: In the context of both the incredible diversity of the societies in which we now
live and the volatile political situation of the last few years, there have been
renewed levels of tensions between religious communities and in particular
between Jews and Muslims. At the same time Jews and Muslims find themselves
not only as perceived enemies but also as possible partners because of
the threat of radical political views gaining strength in the broader community.
In 2005, CEJI – a Jewish contribution to an inclusive Europe - began an initiative
to foster and promote dialogue and understanding between our two communities,
seeing it not only essential for our own well-being but also to strengthen
the vision of a diverse world to which we aspire.

Much work has been going at the local level on the ground but ideas and practices
are rarely shared. The people involved at a local level often feel isolated,
and lacking in support, at times feeling that they are operating in a vacuum, as
they try to generate dialogue between the two communities. The production of
these Mapping Reports for the 5 partner countries involved in the project
(Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands and United Kingdom) intends to
begin to address these issues by publicising and promoting existing dialogue initiatives.
The Mapping Reports led to the First European Jewish Muslim Dialogue
Conference, which was held in April 2007. This event aimed to facilitate the
exchange of information and to gather positive experiences from the five partner
countries. Out of the conference came the recognition that dialogue is not
enough and that cooperation is also needed, and as a result the European
Platform for Jewish Muslim Cooperation was set up. The Platform is made up
of Jewish and Muslim organisations involved in local and national level dialogue
initiatives, and who are committed to developing cooperative actions between
their communities. 
Date: 2004
Abstract: Following concerns from many quarters over what seemed to be a serious
increase in acts of antisemitism in some parts of Europe, especially in
March/April 2002, the EUMC asked the 15 National Focal Points of its Racism
and Xenophobia Network (RAXEN) to direct a special focus on antisemitism in
its data collection activities. This comprehensive report is one of the outcomes
of that initiative. It represents the first time in the EU that data on antisemitism
has been collected systematically, using common guidelines for each Member
State.

The national reports delivered by the RAXEN network provide an overview of
incidents of antisemitism, the political, academic and media reactions to it,
information from public opinion polls and attitude surveys, and examples of
good practice to combat antisemitism, from information available in the years
2002 – 2003.

On receipt of these national reports, the EUMC then asked an independent
scholar, Dr Alexander Pollak, to make an evaluation of the quality and
availability of this data on antisemitism in each country, and identify problem
areas and gaps. The country-by-country information provided by the 15
National Focal Points, and the analysis by Dr Pollak, form Chapter 1 and
Chapter 2 of this report respectively.

Finally, in the light of the information and analysis provided by this exercise,
the report concludes with a number of proposals for action to the EU and its
Member States on concrete measures to combat antisemitism, including legal
and educational measures, and recommendations for improving the monitoring
and recording of antisemitic incidents.

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