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Author(s): Zisere, Bella
Date: 2010
Abstract: La chute du régime communiste et l'indépendance de la Lettonie ont déclenché de nombreux changements politiques à l'intérieur de ce pays, qui ont concerné dans un large mesure la communauté juive. Cette période a en effet été marquée par une émigration massive de Juifs, en particulier en Israël et aux Etats-Unis, ainsi que par l'émergence d'une vie communautaire, interdite à l'époque soviétique, principalement grâce au soutien d'associations juives internationales comme Joint et l'Agence juive. La désoviétisation de la Lettonie a également contribué à un réexamen de son histoire, y compris de ses aspects les plus difficiles, comme le génocide juif, au cours duquel près de 90% de la communauté locale a été exterminée. Par conséquent, pour l'ensemble des Juifs lettons, le contexte a été radicalement transformé : ils sont passés du statut de Juifs soviétiques, victimes du régime, séparés du reste de la société et auxquels on refusait le droit de se souvenir - toute allusion au génocide juif étant interdite en URSS - et même de quitter les frontières du pays, à celui de citoyens bénéficiant d'une place assurée dans la société, avec un passé douloureux reconnu, voire mis en avant, par les institutions politiques. En Lettonie, la mise en place de la politique commémorative s'impose dans le cadre de la démocratisation et de l'intégration européenne, mais est compliquée par le croisement entre la mémoire traumatique des Lettons chrétiens, liée aux répressions soviétiques en 1940, et celle de Juifs lettons, refusant la mise en parallèle entre les Soviétiques et les Nazis. Les immigrés postsoviétiques, quant à eux, se retrouvent confrontés à leur société d'accueil, ce qui leur impose de s'adapter encore plus rapidement aux mêmes transformations sociales.
Date: 2007
Abstract: Настоящая книга представляет собой попытку обобщающего исследования
социально-демографического развития еврейского населения бывшего СССР
за истекшее столетие, включая динамику численности и расселения по
республикам и городам, этноязыковой состав, половозрастную и семейную
структуру, рождаемость и смертность, уровень образования,
профессиональную структуру, участие в советской политической системе и
эмиграцию в другие страны. В частности, рассматривается влияние
Катастрофы, как на общую численность еврейского населения, так и на его
социально-экономическую структуру. Большое внимание в книге уделяется
представительству евреев среди студентов, специалистов и научных
работников бывшего СССР.
Книга предназначена для демографов, социологов, историков и всех
интересующихся данной проблемой. Многие статистические материалы,
представленные в книге, публикуются впервые.
Author(s): Kosmin, Barry A.
Date: 2016
Abstract: Launched by the American Jewish Joint Distribution
Committee’s International Centre for Community
Development (JDC-ICCD), and conducted by a research
team at Trinity College (Hartford, Connecticut, USA)
between June and August 2015, the Third Survey of
European Jewish Leaders and Opinion Formers presents
the results of an online survey administered to 314
respondents in 29 countries. The survey was conducted
online in five languages: English, French, Spanish, German
and Hungarian. The Survey of European Jewish Leaders
and Opinion Formers is conducted every three or four
years using the same format, in order to identify trends
and their evolution. Findings of the 2015 edition were
assessed and evaluated based on the results of previous
surveys (2008 and 2011).
The survey posed Jewish leaders and opinion formers a
range of questions about major challenges and issues that
concern European Jewish communities in 2015, and about
their expectations of how communities will evolve over
the next 5-10 years. The 45 questions (see Appendix) dealt
with topics that relate to internal community structures
and their functions, as well as the external environment
affecting communities. The questionnaire also included
six open-ended questions in a choice of five languages.
These answers form the basis of the qualitative analysis
of the report. The questions were organized under the
following headings:
• Vision & Change (6 questions)
• Decision-Making & Control (1 question)
• Lay Leadership (1 question)
• Professional Leadership (2 questions)
• Status Issues & Intermarriage (5 questions)
• Organizational Frameworks (2 questions)
• Community Causes (2 questions)
• Jewish Education (1 question)
• Funding (3 questions)
• Communal Tensions (3 questions)
• Anti-Semitism/Security (5 questions)
• Europe (1 question)
• Israel (1 question)
• Future (2 questions)
• Personal Profile (9 questions)
Date: 2007
Abstract: Drs. Khanin and Chernin address basic questions regarding Jewish life in the FSU states at present and in the future. A major issue they focused on was this: under current socio-economic and political circumstances in Eastern Europe, many intermarried Jews together with their non-Jewish partners choose to maintain ties with Jewish communities and to take advantage of their educational, information, cultural and welfare services. Consequently, most local Jewish leaders regard this group as a target population for their communal activity. Accordingly, such activity is directed in fact at all those to whom the Israeli Law of Return applies, and sometimes even to those are not included in this category (4th generation members married to non-Jewish spouses, for example).

Some of the questions raised by the center’s researchers were:
1. How significant is the size of this group?
2. Can it be regarded as a human reservoir for Jewish activity?
3. Does this activity contribute to the formation of Jewish or semi-Jewish identity among offspring of mixed-married couples and among the non-Jewish members of their families, and to the evolution of behavioral models that can be interpreted as “post assimilatory” behavior?
In order to address these questions, a vast and diverse body of data was amassed. The authors did not relay only upon existing data but set out on an empirical exploration. They have conducted interviews in Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Samara, Sertov, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Khabarovsk, Birobidjan, Tomsk, Petrozavodsk, Chelyabinsk, Nizhni Novgorod, Kazan, Vladimir, Riazen, Tula, Rostov, Piatigorsk, Nalchik, Kiev, Daniepropetrovsk, Odessa, Zaporozhieh, and a number of towns in Belarus and Latvia.

The compelling findings of the research indicate an interesting variety of sub-populations in the vast group called “FSU Jewry”. Specific planning based on the distinctive characteristics and the features of each group can serve as the basis for well-tuned action plans aimed at the strengthening of the Jewish future of each specific sector.


ד"ר חנין וד"ר צ'רנין מעלים במחקרם שאלות יסוד אודות הקיום היהודי בארצות חבר העמים לשעבר, כיום ובעתיד. נושא מרכזי שבו התמקדו היה זה: בתנאים החברתיים-כלכליים והפוליטיים הקיימים במזרח אירופה בימינו, מעדיפים רבים מבני נישואי תערובת, הן בן הזוג היהודי הן בן הזוג הלא-יהודי, ועמם בני המשפחה המעורבים, להיות קשורים לקהילות יהודיות ולהסתייע בשירותיהן בתחומי החינוך, המידע, התרבות והרווחה. עקב כך, רוב המנהיגים היהודיים המקומיים רואים בקבוצה זו "קבוצות יעד" לפעילות הקהילתית. בהתאם לכך, פעילות זו מופנית בפועל לכל זכאי חוק השבות הישראלי, ולעתים אף לאוכלוסיה החורגת מגבולות המוגדר בחוק זה (כגון בני הדור הרביעי לנישואי תערובת).

במחקרם, שאלו החוקרים את השאלות הבאות:
א. עד כמה משמעותי הוא היקפה של קבוצה זו?
ב. האמנם ניתן לראות בה עתודה לפעילות יהודית?
ג. האם פעילות זו תורמת לעיצוב זהות יהודית או כעין-יהודית אצל צאצאי נישואי תערובת ובני משפחה לא-יהודיים של בתי אב מעורבים, ולבניית דגמי התנהגות חברתית שניתן לפרשם כ"בתר-התבוללות"?
כדי להשיב על שאלות אלו, נאספו נתונים מרובים ומגוונים. החוקרים לא הסתפקו בנתונים קיימים, אלא יצאו לשטח כדי לבדוק את הנתונים באופן ישיר. הם ערכו ראיונות במקומות אלו: מוסקבה, סנט פטרבורג, יקטרינבורג, סמרה, סרטוב, נובוסיבירסק, אירקוטסק, חברובסק, בירוביג'אן, טומסק, פטרוזבודסק, צ'ליאבינסק, ניז'ני נובגורוד, קאזן, ולדימיר, ריאזן, טולא, רוסטוב, פיאטיגורסק, נלצ'יק, קייב, דנייפרופטרובסק, אודסה, זאפורוז'יה, וכן כמה ערים בביילורוסיה ובלטביה.

ממצאי המחקר מצביעים על מגוון מעניין של אוכלוסיות-מִשנה בתוך הקבוצה הגדולה המכונה 'יהדות חבר העמים'. תכנון ממוקד, המתבסס על מאפיינים ייחודיים של כל קבוצה, עשוי להוות בסיס לתכניות פעולה ממוקדות, שתכליתן חיזוק עתידו היהודי של כל מגזר ספציפי.
Author(s): Sion, Brigitte
Date: 2016
Abstract: The goals of the Foundation in conducting this survey were manifold:
we aimed to generate a comprehensive picture of the Jewish museum
landscape across Europe, and to identify the most pressing issues,
challenges and needs faced by these institutions. We wanted to learn about
the mission, philosophy and methodology of Jewish museums, and better
understand their role and position in the cultural and educational realm at
large. We were also interested in the level of professionalization of Jewish
museums, both in staff training, collection preservation and cataloguing,
management, and the ways in which Jewish museums communicate and
arrange partnerships with one another. With a better understanding of
these issues, we want now to assess the resources needed and the funding
priorities for the next five to ten years.

The questionnaire was sent to 120 institutions in 34 countries and we
received 64 completed forms from 30 countries. The questions addressed
eleven broad topics: organisation, collections, permanent and temporary
exhibitions, facility, visitor services, public programmes, visitor
demographics, marketing and PR, finances, future plans and needs.

This diverse sample enabled us to get, for the first time, a quasicomprehensive
picture of the Jewish museum landscape in Europe, from
small community museums to landmarks of “starchitecture;” from
institutions boasting thousands of rare objects to others mostly text
panels- or technology-based; from museums employing scores of
professional staff and interns to synagogues-turned-exhibition halls run by
volunteers for a few hours a month. That was precisely the challenge: the
large and numerous discrepancies between institutions, depending on their
location, their financial and human resources, their political and economic
context, the type of visitors they receive, and other contextual
considerations.

The results point to four major findings:
1. Transition from museums to multi-purpose hubs;
2. Lack of collaboration and partnerships;
3. Tension between particularistic and universalistic missions;
4. Increasing need to serve a diverse audience.
Date: 2013
Abstract: In 2012, JPR conducted a major study of Jewish perceptions and experiences of antisemitism in Europe, after winning a competitive tender from the European Union. The survey, run in partnership with research agency Ipsos MORI and involving several members of JPR’s international team of Associate Fellows, took place in nine EU Member States: Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Romania, Sweden and the UK.

Conducted in eleven languages, it investigated Jewish populations’ experience of harassment, discrimination, vandalism and violence; whether or not they report these incidents to the police or another authority; how safe and secure they feel; and how aware they are of their rights under the law. In addition, the survey gathered a considerable amount about Jewish identity, communal affiliation, engagement and participation, and Jewish practice.

The findings demonstrate that three-quarters of respondents believe that antisemitism has become worse over the past five years in all countries investigated. Antisemitic verbal threats and harassment are remarkably common – close to a quarter of all respondents said they had personally experienced an incident of this type in the previous twelve months, rising to close to one-third in Hungary and Belgium. Approximately one in fifteen of all respondents said they had experienced at least one antisemitic physical attack – in the form of being hit, pushed or threatened – within the past five years, most commonly in Belgium, France, Germany and Hungary. As is the case with many criminal incidents, respondents recorded widespread under-reporting of these types of incidents to the police or other appropriate organisations. Close to half of all respondents are worried about becoming a victim of a verbal attack or harassment, and approximately a third is worried about becoming a victim of a physical attack.

Significant geographical variations can be discerned, rendering any singular or uniform description of the Jewish population in Europe, or antisemitism in Europe, imprecise at least. Most notably, there are significant distinctions to be drawn between the character of Jewish populations who experienced life under communism, and those who did not. Furthermore, antisemitism manifests itself rather differently: in Eastern Europe it tends to be associated with right-wing ultra-nationalist forces; in Western Europe it is more commonly linked to leftist politics and Islamic extremism.

On the other hand, it is critical to put these findings into context. The vast majority of Jews in the sample feel a strong sense of belonging to the country in which they reside, and are highly integrated into mainstream society. And, when asked to locate the problem of antisemitism in the larger perspective of other problems in society – unemployment, crime, the economy, etc. – it rarely features at the top of the list. Only in Germany does it hold this position; in Latvia and Italy it comes seventh out of nine issues, and in the UK, eighth.

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