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Date: 2017
Abstract: Одной из примет нашего времени стало по­явление так называемых «новых этнических диаспор», которые стали итогом массовых межгосударственных миграций – как прямых, так и возвратных – особенно интенсивных после Второй мировой войны. Члены этих диаспор, в отличие от мигрантов предыдущего поколения, не спешат растворять­ся в социокультурной среде принимающих сообществ, а достаточно долго, иногда на протяжении поколений, сохраняют многообразные социальные, культурные, идентификационные и даже политические связи со странами исхода. Еврейский мир также не остался в стороне от этих процессов. Важным со­бытием последних десятилетий стало появление двух новых транснациональ­ных еврейских диаспор: израильской и русско-еврейской. Обе эти группы, не­сомненно, стали заметным фактором современной еврейской жизни и важным элементом многокультурной мозаики внутри еврейских коллективов стран пребывания и их обществ в целом. При том, что еврейской эмиграции из Израиля и возникшей за его преде­лами «израильской диаспоре» (термин, который в научный оборот ввел Стивен Гольд) посвящена довольно обширная научная литература, а «всемирное рус­ско-еврейское сообщество» также стало объектом ряда фундаментальных работ3, общий компонент этих диаспор – эмигрантские сообщества русскоязычных израильтян – пока очень малоизучен. Речь идет как о тех уроженцах (бывшего) СССР, которые в составе изра­ильской миграции оказались в странах Запада, так и в особенности об участни­ках «возвратной миграции» на постсоветское пространство. В академической литературе существует некоторое количество информации о русскоязычных израильтянах в разных странах Запада, и крайне немного – об израильтя­нах в странах бывшего СССР. Что же касается украинского сегмента этой диаспоры, то его до недавнего времени исследователи почти вообще не изуча­ли. (Единственным известным нам исключением является исследование изра­ильтян в Одессе, которое провела украино-британский антрополог Марина Са­прицкая.) Исследование, которое легло в основу этой статьи, было призвано заполнить этот пробел. Его совместно провели Центр еврейского образования в диаспоре им. Лук­штейна (Университет Бар-Илан, Израиль) и Институт иудаики НаУКМА при поддержке Министерства алии и абсорбции Израиля и Евроазиатского еврей­ского конгресса. В ходе этого исследования в два «раунда» (в начале 2009 и в конце 2011 гг.) методом стандартизированного интервью было опрошено соо­тветственно 167 и 147 респондентов из числа израильтян, с разной степенью по­стоянства живущих в Украине6. При этом нам представлялось верным сравнить сообщества русскоязычных израильтян в Украине с сопоставимыми с ними по базовым параметрам контрольными группами, прежде всего – с израильтяна­ми, живущими и/или работающими в России. One of the distinctive features of our times is the appearance of the so-called “new ethnic diasporas” resulting from mass state migrations—both direct and reverse—which especially intensified after the Second World War. Unlike previous generations of migrants, the members of these diasporas are not in a hurry to assimilate into the socio-cultural environment of the receiving societies. Instead, they continue to maintain—sometimes for several generations—a multifarious social and cultural identity and even political ties with their countries of origin. The Jewish world did not remain on the sidelines of this process. An important development in recent decades is the appearance of two new transnational Jewish diasporas: Israeli and Russian-Jewish. Both these groups undoubtedly became a noticeable factor of contemporary Jewish life and an important element in the multicultural mosaic within Jewish communities of the host countries and within host societies at large. Although the Jewish emigration from Israel and the “Israeli diaspora” (a term introduced by Steven Gold) has received considerable attention in the scholarly literature and the “global Russian-Jewish community” has become the subject of a series of fundamental works, the common component of these diasporas—Russian-speaking Israelis—remains understudied. The reference points here are both natives of the former USSR who came to the West as part of the emigration from Israel and participants of the “reverse migration” to the post-Soviet states. The academic literature contains a certain amount of information about Israelis in the countries of the West and very little about Israelis in the countries of the former USSR. The Ukrainian segment of this diaspora was practically ignored by scholars until recently. The only exception we are aware of is the research project on Israelis in Odessa carried out by the Ukrainian-British anthropologist Marina Sapritsky. The research on which this article is based aimed to fill this important gap. The project was implemented by the Lukshtein Center of Jewish Education in the Diaspora (Bar-Ilan University, Israel) and the Judaica Institute of the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (Ukraine) with the support from the Ministry of Aliyah and Absorption and the Eurasian Jewish Congress. In the course of this study, researchers held two rounds of interviews in 2009 and 2011 with 167 and 147 respondents from among Israelis who reside in Ukraine more or less permanently. We wanted in this process to compare the communities of Russian-speaking Israelis in Ukraine with similar control groups, primarily with Israelis working and living in Russia.
Translated Title: Antisemitism Report 2016
Date: 2017
Abstract: Depending on the study, anti-Semitic attitudes are to be encountered in 10 to 25 percent of the
population. The Swiss Federation of Jewish Communities (SIG) and the Foundation against
Racism and Anti-Semitism (GRA) show in their Anti-Semitism report for 2016 what happens
when attitudes become actions.

In 2016, the year under report, serious incidents were recorded from the spectrum of the extreme
Right: In October 2016, in Toggenburg, a concert was held featuring some notorious neo-Nazi
bands. According to media reports, around 5000 people attended the event.

A number of the bands appearing included songs with anti-Semitic content in their repertoire;
photos of the event show concertgoers giving the Hitler salute. A serious event likewise came to
light in October 2016: In one of their songs, members of a neo-Nazi band made death threats
against the SIG President and members of the SIG management. They also warned of bomb
attacks on Jewish institutions in Zurich.

In July the SIG received an E-mail containing blackmail threats. Jews were held responsible for
all the world’s misfortunes. The unknown sender demanded a large amount of money from the
SIG. If the SIG failed to pay up, the blackmailer threatened that “Jewish people in Switzerland will
bear the consequences”. Two incidents of physical violence occurred in Zurich: At a football
ground two Jewish youngsters asked other footballers if they could join in. The answer was:
“You’re Jews. There’s nothing here for Jews. S**t Jews”. The two Jewish youngsters were then
spat on. As they left they were followed by jeers of “Heil Hitler”. Again in Zurich, in April a Jewish
boy was the victim of massive anti-Semitic invective in the street and was spat on as he rode his
bicycle past three young people.

As the focus of his contribution the historian Daniel Rickenbacher, under the title “When hatred of
Jews creates unity”, looks at the cross-front phenomenon in Switzerland. Cross-fronts is the term
coined to describe associations which are formed between groups who are at opposite ends of
the political spectrum. Rickenbacher shows that in Switzerland informal interaction exists
between groupings on the Left, the Right, and Islamists. According to Rickenbacher, the
embedding of anti-Semitism in a range of different political spectra provides the basis for groups
to find common ground who would otherwise be assumed to be in complete opposition.
Date: 2017
Date: 2017
Author(s): Wagner, Leslie
Date: 2017
Abstract: It is unusual to find the words “revival” and “British Jewry” in the same sentence. Several decades ago, the title of this paper would have come as a surprise to the many critics of British Jewry. For example, in 1989, Professor Daniel Elazar observed that “the powers that be in British Jewry are content with the status quo and do not seek change.” Author Steven Brook (1990) scathingly remarked that the leadership of British Jewry “revels in its mediocrity, shallowness and philistinism.” And, in 1996, in the conclusion of his study, entitled Vanishing Diaspora: The Jews of Europe Since 1945, Professor Bernard Wasserstein stated that the Jews of Britain are “slowly but surely … fading away. Soon nothing will be left but a disembodied memory.”

The current claim that a revival of British Jewry has taken place is supported mainly by the excellent work of the Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR) in London. The JPR has carried out an important analysis of the UK national census data of 2011 and supplemented it with its own more recent community studies, in particular, its 2013 National Jewish Community Survey (NJCS) and its 2016 Jewish Schools report. To be sure, as with all sociological studies, particularly concerning Jews, there are less encouraging data that emphasize the challenges, failures and threats that confront the British Jewish community.

This essay, however, argues that the vibrancy of a community should not be judged by the threats that it faces. While threats and danger form an existential part of Jewish life, they do not necessarily determine the strength or weakness of a particular community. It is important that a community understands the nature of such threats and can organize to overcome them successfully. In doing so, the Jewish community in the U.K. provides evidence that it is vibrant and undergoing a revival. This study focuses on four aspects that show the revival of British Jewish life: demography; religious identity; educational and cultural activity; and confronting antisemitism.

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